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E. Lotfi, S. Delfan, A. Hamidi, H. Shahir, Gh. Fardi,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (1-2014)

In saturated soils, heating induces thermal expansion of both grains and the pore fluid. Lower thermal expansion coefficient of aggregates results in the increase of pore pressure and reduction of the effective stress besides subsequent volume changes due to the dissipation of pore pressure and heat transfer. Dissipation of thermally induced pore pressure with time is a coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) phenomenon, involving gradients of pore pressure and temperature, hydraulic and thermal flows within the mass of soil and changes in the mechanical properties with temperature. The objective of this paper is presentation of a numerical method to determine the effect of temperature on consolidation of clays. In this regard, the finite element code, PISA is used for one dimensional THM analysis of porous media. The analysis performed using both linear elastic and elastoplastic Cam clay models. Modified Cam clay model was applied in elastoplastic analysis. Variation of temperature, displacements and pore pressure determined with time and compared with numerical solutions of other researchers. Also it was indicated that implementation of coupled THM analysis yields better results for displacements compared to the hydro mechanical (HM) one. Application of elastoplastic constitutive model instead of linear elastic one indicated that preconsolidation pressure has an important effect on results of analysis.
S. Pagliara, T. Roshni, M. Palermo,
Volume 13, Issue 3 (9-2015)

Rock chutes are natural river training structures and are efficient energy dissipaters too. From the hydraulic and environmental point of view, rock chutes have become important structures in the natural river morphology. A physical study was conducted and flow properties were measured over rough bed materials of a rock chute, which was assembled at the PITLAB center of the University of Pisa, Italy. Experiments were performed for slopes varying between 0.18≤ S ≤0.38, 0.03 < dc/H < 0.54 and for ramp lengths Lr between 1.17 m ≤Lr≤3.6 m. This paper presents the energy dissipation characteristics of the two-phase flows in the presence of two different base materials. In addition, the dissipative process was also analyzed in the presence of reinforcing boulders located on the base material. The findings showed that energy dissipation rate slightly increases with the boulder concentrations for the tested slopes and materials. The experiments were conducted for different rock chute lengths in order to understand its effect on the energy dissipation. An empirical expression is developed for determining the energy dissipation characteristics over different base materials in different ramp length conditions in twophase flows. Results have been compared with the results obtained for stepped chutes and found a similar decreasing trend of dissipation rate for dc/Lr ≤0.1.

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