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Showing 5 results for Numerical Simulations

O. Omidi, V. Lotfi,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (9-2010)

 Neither damage mechanics model nor elastoplastic constitutive law can solely describe the behavior of concrete satisfactorily. In fact, they both fail to represent proper unloading slopes during cyclic loading. To overcome the disadvantages of pure plastic models and pure damage approaches, the combined effects need to be considered. In this regard, various classes of plastic-damage models have been recently proposed. Here, the theoretical basics of the plastic-damage model originally proposed by Lubliner et al. and later on modified by Lee and Fenves is initially presented and its numerical aspects in three-dimensional space are subsequently emphasized. It should be mentioned that a part of the implementation in 3-D space needs to be reformulated due to employing a hyperbolic potential function to treat the singularity of the original linear form of plastic flow proposed by Lee and Fenves. The consistent algorithmic tangent stiffness, which is utilized to accelerate the convergence rate in solving the nonlinear global equations, is also derived. The validation and evaluation of the model to capture the desired behavior under monotonic and cyclic loadings are shown with several simple one-element tests. These basic simulations confirm the robustness, accuracy, and efficiency of the algorithm at the local and global levels. At the end, a four-point bending test is examined to demonstrate the capabilities of the model in real 3-D applications.

Y.y. Chang, C.j. Lee, W.c. Huang, W.j. Huang, M.l. Lin, W.y. Hung, Y. H. Lin,
Volume 11, Issue 2 (11-2013)

This study presents a series of physical model tests and numerical simulations using PFC2D (both with a dip slip angle=60° and

a soil bed thickness of 0.2 m in model scale)at the acceleration conditions of 1g, 40g, and 80 g to model reverse faulting. The soil

deposits in prototype scale have thicknesses of 0.2 m, 8 m, and 16 m, respectively. This study also investigates the evolution of a

surface deformation profile and the propagation of subsurface rupture traces through overlying sand. This study proposes a

methodology for calibrating the micromechanical material parameters used in the numerical simulation based on the measured

surface settlements of the tested sand bed in the self-weight consolidation stage. The test results show that steeper surface slope

on the surface deformation profile, a wider shear band on the major faulting-induced distortion zone, and more faulting appeared

in the shallower depths in the 1-g reverse faulting model test than in the tests involving higher-g levels. The surface deformation

profile measured from the higher-g physical modeling and that calculated from numerical modeling show good agreement. The

width of the shear band obtained from the numerical simulation was slightly wider than that from the physical modeling at the

same g-levels and the position of the shear band moved an offset of 15 mm in model scale to the footwall compared with the results

of physical modeling.

M. Heidarzadeh, A. A. Mirghasemi, H. Niroomand,
Volume 13, Issue 1 (3-2015)

We report engineering experiences from the critical task of relief well installation under high artesian flow conditions at the downstream toe of the Karkheh earth dam, Iran. Due to the establishment of excessive uplift pressure at the downstream toe of the Karkheh dam, installation of a series of new relief wells was considered to permanently relieve part of these pressures. The mentioned uplift pressure, as high as around 30 m above the ground level, was produced in a confined conglomerate aquifer bounded above and below by relatively impervious mudstone layers which reduced the safety factor of the dam toe to below 1.0. Investigations on the shortcomings of the old relief wells installed at the dam site showed that the main problems were: insufficient well numbers, insufficient well diameters, irregular well screens causing their blockage by time passing, and insufficient total opening area. Despite engineering difficulties and associated risk of downstream toe instability, installation of new relief wells was successfully completed under high artesian flow conditions” was successfully completed. The employed technique for the construction of the new relief wells under flowing artesian conditions was based on: 1) cement grouting and casing of the well, 2) telescopic drilling, 3) application of appropriate drilling fluid, and 4) controlling the artesian flow by adding a long vertical pipe to the top of the relief wells. Numerical modeling of seepage for the Karkheh dam foundation showed that, as a result of the installation of the new relief wells, the safety factor of the downstream toe increased to the safe value of 1.3 for the normal reservoir water level.
Abdulazim Yildiz, Firdevs Uysal,
Volume 14, Issue 2 (3-2016)

This paper investigates the time dependent behaviour of Sunshine embankment on soft clay deposit with and without prefabricated vertical drains. An elasto visco-plastic model was used to investigate the influence of anisotropy and creep effect on the settlement behaviour of the embankment. The constitutive model, namely ACM accounts for combined effects of plastic anisotropy and creep. For comparison, the problem is also analysed with isotropic Modified Cam Clay model which does not consider creep effect. To analyse the PVD-improved subsoil, axisymmetric vertical drains were converted into equivalent plane strain conditions using two different mapping approaches. The results of the numerical analyses are compared with the field measurements. The numerical simulations suggest that the anisotropic creep model is able to give a better representation of soft clay response under an embankment loading. The isotropic model which neglects effects of anisotropy and creep may lead to inaccurate predictions of soft clay response. Additionally, the numerical results show that the mapping method used for PVD improved soft clays can accurately predict the consolidation behaviour of the embankment and provide a useful tool for engineering practice.

Akbar Safarzadeh, Behzad Noroozi,
Volume 15, Issue 1 (1-2017)

This paper compares the hydraulics and 3D flow features of the ordinary rectangular and trapezoidal plan view piano key weirs (PKW) using two phase RANS numerical simulations. The main aim is to investigate effects of the inlet key area and side walls angle on discharge capacity of the PKW, while keeping the developing length of the crest intact. The numerical model has been used to carry out a sensitivity analysis for geometrical parameters and hydrodynamics of the rectangular and trapezoidal weirs have been compared for wide range of water head on the weir. Results show that the trapezoidal weir has higher efficiency than the ordinary rectangular PKW. This is partly related to the inlet key flow conditions. The trapezoidal geometry increases the inlet flow area resulting in reduction of the velocity along the key axis. Consequently, flow is distributed more uniformly over the side weirs. The gradual transition of the inlet key limits the development of the recirculation zones along the side walls and it also limits the formation of the critical section along the inlet key. These phenomena result in increase of the effective weir length and thus discharge capacity increases in trapezoidal weir compared with rectangular one. Discretization of the discharge along the crest of the tested weirs clearly confirms these findings.

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