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Showing 19 results for Nonlinear Analysis

Kheyr Aldin A., Mortezaei A.r.,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (3-2004)

Structural walls are used extensively in moderate- and high-rise buildings to resist lateral loads induced by earthquakes. The seismic performance of many buildings is, therefore, closely linked to the behavior of the reinforced concrete walls. The analytical models used in this paper are developed to study the push-over response of T-shaped reinforced concrete walls andinvestigate the influence of the flange walls on laterally loaded walls and nonlinear behavior of shear walls, namely strength, ductility and failure mechanisms. A layered nonlinear finite element method is used to study the behavior of T-shaped and rectangular (barbell) shear walls. This paper introduces a computer program to practically study three-dimensional characteristics of reinforced concrete wall response by utilizing layered modeling. The program is first verified bysimulated and reported experimental response of 3-D reinforced concrete shear walls. Subsequently, a study considering eighteen analytical test specimens of T-shaped and barbell shear walls is carried out. Finally, based on analytical results, a new equation for minimum ratio of shear wall area to floor-plan area is proposed.
F. R. Rofooei, N. K. Attari, A. Rasekh, A.h. Shodja,
Volume 4, Issue 3 (9-2006)

Pushover analysis is a simplified nonlinear analysis technique that can be used to estimate the dynamic demands imposed on a structure under earthquake excitations. One of the first steps taken in this approximate solution is to assess the maximum roof displacement, known as target displacement, using the base shear versus roof displacement diagram. That could be done by the so-called dynamic pushover analysis, i.e. a dynamic time history analysis of an equivalent single degree of freedom model of the original system, as well as other available approximate static methods. In this paper, a number of load patterns, including a new approach, are considered to construct the related pushover curves. In a so-called dynamic pushover analysis, the bi-linear and tri-linear approximations of these pushover curves were used to assess the target displacements by performing dynamic nonlinear time history analyses. The results obtained for five different special moment resisting steel frames, using five earthquake records were compared with those resulted from the time history analysis of the original system. It is shown that the dynamic pushover analysis approach, specially, with the tri-linear approximation of the pushover curves, proves to have a better accuracy in assessing the target displacements. On the other hand, when nonlinear static procedure seems adequate, no specific preference is observed in using more complicated static procedures (proposed by codes) compared to the simple first mode target displacement assessment.
Ali Kheyroddin, Hosein Naderpour,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (3-2007)

A parametric study is performed to assess the influence of the tension reinforcement index, ( ω = ρ fy /f Bc), and the bending moment distribution (loading type) on the ultimate deformation characteristics of reinforced concrete (RC) beams. The analytical results for 15 simply supported beams with different amounts of tension reinforcement ratio under three different loading conditions are presented and compared with the predictions of the various formulations and the experimental data, where available. The plastic hinge rotation capacity increases as the loading is changed from the concentrated load at the middle to the third-point loading, and it is a maximum for the case of the uniformly distributed load. The effect of the loading type on the plastic rotation capacity of the heavily reinforced beams is not as significant as that for the lightly reinforced beams. Based on the analytical results obtained using the nonlinear finite element method, new simple equations as a function of the tension reinforcement index, ω, and the loading type are proposed. The analytical results indicate that the proposed equations can be used for analysis of ultimate capacity and the associated deformations of RC beams with sufficient accuracy.
Alireza Mortezaei, Ali Kheyroddin,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (3-2009)

The work presented in this paper investigates the causes of size effects in structural-concrete members. It is

based on the use of a finite-element model found to yield realistic predictions of structural-concrete behavior in all

cases investigated to date. In fact, the previous use of this model in investigations of size effects in reinforced-concrete

beams indicated that such effects reflect the dependence of load-carrying capacity on small unintended eccentricities

of the applied load and/or load-induced anisotropy, rather than, as widely considered, on fracture-mechanics

characteristics. The present work extends the scope of the above investigation so as to include the case of reinforced

concrete flanged shear walls, the behavior of which is already established experimentally. It is found that, unlike the

flanged shear walls with a height-to-length ratio larger than 2, the shear walls investigated in the present work, in

contrast with the interpretation given to recently published experimental findings, are size-effect independent.

R. Attarnejad, F. Kalateh,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (3-2012)

This paper describes a numerical model and its finite element implementation that used to compute the cavitation effects on

seismic behavior of concrete dam and reservoir systems. The system is composed of two sub-systems, namely, the reservoir and

the dam. The water is considered as bilinear compressible and inviscid and the equation of motion of fluid domain is expressed

in terms of the pressure variable alone. A bilinear state equation is used to model the pressure–density relationship of a cavitated

fluid. A standard displacement finite element formulation is used for the structure. The Structural damping of the dam material

and the radiation damping of the water and damping from foundation soil and banks have been incorporated in the analysis. The

solution of the coupled system is accomplished by solving the two sub-systems separately with the interaction effects at the damreservoir

interface enforced by a developed iterative scheme. The developed method is validated by testing it against problem for

which, there is existing solution and the effects of cavitation on dynamic response of Konya gravity dam and Morrow Point arch

dam subjected to the first 6 s of the May 1940 El-Centro, California earthquake, is considered. Obtained results show that impact

forces caused by cavitation have a small effect on the dynamic response of dam-reservoir system.

Seyed B. Beheshti-Aval,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (12-2012)

A comparison between design codes i.e. ACI and AISC-LRFD in evaluation of flexural strength of concrete filled steel tubular

columns (CFTs) is examined. For this purpose an analytical study on the response of CFTs under axial-flexural loading is carried

using three-dimensional finite elements with elasto-plastic model for concrete with cracking and crushing capability and elastoplastic

kinematic hardening model for steel. The accuracy of the model is verified against previous test results. The nonlinear

modeling of CFT columns shows that the minimum thickness that recommended by ACI and AISC-LRFD to prevent local buckling

before the steel shell yielding for CFT columns could be decreased. The comparison of analytical results and codes indicates that

the accuracy of ACI method in estimation of axial-flexural strength of CFT columns is more appropriate than AISC-LRFD. The

ACI lateral strength of CFTs is located on upper bond of the AISC-LRFD’s provisions. AISC-LRFD estimates the lateral strength

conservatively but ACI in some ranges such as in short columns or under high axial load levels computes lateral strength in nonconservative

manner. Supplementary provisions for post local buckling strength of CFT columns should be incorporated in high

seismic region. This effect would be pronounced for column with high aspect ratio and short columns.

H. Shakib, Gh. R. Atefatdoost,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (3-2014)

An approach was formulated for the nonlinear analysis of three-dimensional dynamic soil-structure interaction (SSI) of asymmetric buildings in time domain in order to evaluate the seismic response behavior of torsionally coupled wall-type buildings. The asymmetric building was idealized as a single-storey three-dimensional system resting on different soil conditions. The soil beneath the superstructure was modeled as nonlinear solid element. As the stiffness of the reinforced concrete flexural wall is a strength dependent parameter, a method for strength distribution among the lateral force resisting elements was considered. The response of soil-structure interaction of the system under the lateral component of El Centro 1940 earthquake record was evaluated and the effect of base flexibility on the response behavior of the system was verified. The results indicated that the base flexibility decreased the torsional response of asymmetric building so that this effect for soft soil was maximum. On the other hand, the torsional effects can be minimized by using a strength distribution, when the centre of both strength CV and rigidity CR is located on the opposite side of the centre of mass CM, and SSI has no effect on this criterion.
A. Gholizad, P. Kamrani Moghaddam,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (3-2014)

High performance and reliability of refurbish able knee braced steel frames has been confirmed in previous researches trying to get an optimal design for its configuration. Buckling of diagonal member which affects the hysteretic behavior of KBF under cyclic loadings has not been foreseen in previous evaluations of this system. This deficiency can be improved by utilization of adjustable rotary friction damper device (FDD) as knee element. Diagonal element buckling can be prevented considering a suitable value for FDD sliding threshold moment Mf. Lower values of Mf Lower energy dissipation rate in FDD and this leads to an optimization problem. Nonlinear time history analyses have been performed in addition to lateral cyclic loading analyses to evaluate the response of single story KBF subjected to seismic excitation. Optimal Mf in FDD has been chosen according to these analyses results. Roof displacement and acceleration, base shear and diagonal element’s buckling status have been compared in optimally designed KBF and FDD utilized KBF (FKBF) with different configurations. Nonlinear dynamic analyses have been performed for one, four, eight and twelve story frames under different seismic records with several PGAs. More than 60% displacement response reduction has been earned for the FKBF without considerable increase in base shear.
A. R. Habibi, Keyvan Asadi,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (3-2014)

Setback in elevation of a structure is a special irregularity with considerable effect on its seismic performance. This paper addresses multistory Reinforced Concrete (RC) frame buildings, regular and irregular in elevation. Several multistory Reinforced Concrete Moment Resisting Frames (RCMRFs) with different types of setbacks, as well as the regular frames in elevation, are designed according to the provisions of the Iranian national building code and Iranian seismic code for the high ductility class. Inelastic dynamic time-history analysis is performed on all frames subjected to ten input motions. The assessment of the seismic performance is done based on both global and local criteria. Results show that when setback occurs in elevation, the requirements of the life safety level are not satisfied. It is also shown that the elements near the setback experience the maximum damage. Therefore it is necessary to strengthen these elements by appropriate method to satisfy the life safety level of the frames.
Q. Q. Zhang, Sh. C. Li, F. Y. Liang, M. Yang, Q. Zhang,
Volume 12, Issue 2 (4-2014)

A simplified approach for nonlinear analysis of the load-displacement response of a single pile and a pile group is presented using the load-transfer approach. A hyperbolic model is used to capture the relationship between unit skin friction and pile-soil relative displacement developed at the pile-soil interface and the load-displacement relationship developed at the pile end. As to the nonlinear analysis of the single pile response, a highly effective iterative computer program is developed using the proposed hyperbolic model. Furthermore, determinations of the parameters related to the hyperbolic model of an individual pile in a pile group are obtained considering interactions between piles. Based on the determinations of the parameters presented in the hyperbolic model of an individual pile in a pile group and the proposed iterative computer program developed for the analysis of the single pile response, the conventional load-transfer approach can then be extended to the analysis of the load-settlement response of an arbitrary pile in a pile group. Comparisons of the load-settlement response demonstrate that the proposed method is generally in good agreement with the field-observed behavior and the calculated results derived from other approaches.
L. Kalani Sarokolayi, B. Navayi Neya, Javad Vaseghi Amiri,
Volume 13, Issue 1 (3-2015)

This study focuses on non-linear seismic response of a concrete gravity dam subjected to translational and rotational correlated components of ground motions including dam-reservoir interaction. For this purpose rotational components of ground motion is generated using Hong Non Lee improved method based on corresponding available translational components. The 2D seismic behavior of the dam concrete is taken into account using nonlinear fracture mechanics based on the smeared- crack concepts and the dam-reservoir system are modeled using Lagrangian-Lagrangian approach in finite element method. Based on presented formulation, Pine Flat concrete gravity dam is analyzed for different cases and results show that the rotational component of ground motion can increase or decrease the maximum horizontal and vertical displacements of dam crest. These results are dependent on the frequency of dam-reservoir system and predominant frequencies of translational and rotational components of ground motion.
A. Fooladi, Mo.r. Banan,
Volume 13, Issue 2 (6-2015)

Latticed columns are frequently used in industrial steel structures. In some countries these built-up columns might be even used in other types of steel structures such as residential and commercial buildings. Besides, latticed columns are parts of skeletons of many historic buildings all around the world. To analyze a steel structure with latticed columns a more accurate numerical model for such a column seems to be essential. The lay-out and connectivity of constructing main profiles of a latticed column leads to formation of many shear zones along the length of a column. Therefore, considering shear effects on the behavior of a lattice column is inevitable. This paper proposed a new super-element with twelve degrees of freedom to be used in finite element modeling of latticed columns. The cross sectional area, moments of inertia, shear coefficient and torsional rigidity of the developed new element are derived. To compute these parameters with less complexity a model using only beam elements is also introduced. A general purpose finite element program named LaCE is developed. This FE program is capable of performing linear and nonlinear analysis of 3D-frames with latticed columns, considering shear deformation. To show the accuracy of the proposed element, several cases are studied. The outcome of these investigations revealed that the current-in-practice model for latticed columns suffers from some major shortcomings which to some extends are resolved by the proposed super-element. The developed element showed the capability of modeling a lattice column with good accuracy and less computational cost.
Mohsen Gerami, Ali Kheyroddin, Abbas Sivandi-Pour,
Volume 14, Issue 1 (1-2016)

Steel-concrete hybrid systems are used in buildings, in which a steel structure has been placed on a concrete structure to make a lighter structure and have a faster construction. Dynamic analysis of hybrid structures is usually a complex procedure due to various dynamic characteristics of each part, i.e. stiffness, mass and especially damping. Dynamic response of hybrid structures has some complications. One of the reasons is the different stiffness of the two parts of structure and another reason is non-uniform distribution of materials and their different features such as damping in main modes of vibration. The available software is not able to calculate damping matrices and analyze these structures because the damping matrix of these irregular structures is non-classical. Also an equivalent damping should be devoted to the whole structure and using the available software. In the hybrid structures, one or more transitional stories are used for better transition of lateral and gravity forces. In this study, an equation has been proposed to determining the equivalent uniform damping ratio for hybrid steel-concrete buildings with transitional storey(s). In the proposed method, hybrid buildings are considered to have three structural systems, reinforced concrete, transitional storey and steel. Equivalent uniform damping ratio is derived by means of a semi-empirical error minimization procedure.

Guray Arslan, Muzaffer Borekci, Muzaffer Balci, Melih Hacisalihoglu,
Volume 14, Issue 3 (4-2016)

The contribution of concrete to inelastic deformation capacity and shear strength of reinforced concrete (RC) columns failing in shear has been investigated extensively by various researchers. Although RC members are designed to have shear strengths much greater than their flexural strengths to ensure flexural failure according to the current codes, shear degradation of RC columns failing in flexure has not been studied widely. The aim of this study is to investigate the shear degradation of RC columns using finite element analyses (FEA). The results of FEA are compared with the results of experimental studies selected from literature, and it is observed that the lateral load-deflection curves of analysed columns are compatible with the experimental results. Twenty-six RC columns were analysed under monotonically increasing loads to determine the concrete contribution to shear strength. The results of analyses indicate that increasing the ratio of shear to flexural strength reduces the concrete contribution to shear strength of the columns.

Vahid Broujerdian, Mohammad T. Kazemi,
Volume 14, Issue 8 (12-2016)

Complex nature of diagonal tension accompanied by formation of new cracks as well as closing and propagating preexisting cracks has deterred researchers to achieve an analytical and mathematical procedure for accurate predicting shear behavior of reinforced concrete, and there is the lack of a unique theory accepted universally. Shear behavior of reinforced concrete is studied in this paper based on recently developed constitutive laws for normal strength concrete and mild steel bars using nonlinear finite element method. The salient feature of these stress-strain relations is to account the interactive effects of concrete and embedded bars on each other in a smeared rotating crack approach. Implementing the considered constitutive laws into an efficient secant-stiffness based finite element algorithm, a procedure for nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete is achieved. The resulted procedure is capable of predicting load-deformation behavior, cracking pattern, and failure mode of reinforced concrete. Corroboration with data from shear-critical beam test specimens with a wide range of properties showed the model to predict responses with a good accuracy. The results were also compared with those from the well-known theory of modified compression field and its extension called disturbed stress field model which revealed the present study to provide more accurate predictions. 

Alireza Habibi, Ehsan Jami,
Volume 15, Issue 2 (3-2017)

The seismic performance levels are discrete damage states selected from among the infinite spectrum of possible damage states that buildings could experience as a result of earthquake response. The observation of building damage during strong motion earthquakes showed that correlation of structural damage with a single parameter such as peak ground acceleration or the total seismic duration is low while peak ground acceleration is often used as a main seismic parameter to evaluate seismic performance of structures. Main objective of this study is to determine the relationship between several seismic acceleration parameters and the Target Displacement (TD) of steel frame structures, which is an important parameter to identify performance levels. For this purpose, first, nonlinear analysis is performed on the SAC 3- and 9-story frames subjected to several far-field earthquakes and then target displacements and seismic parameters are calculated for each structure.The relationship between the target displacement and seismic parameters is evaluated in the form of correlation coefficient. It is shown that PGA has poor correlation with the target displacement. On the other hand, HOUSNER intensity, spectral pseudo-acceleration, spectral pseudo-velocity and peak ground velocity exhibit strong correlation with TD.

Muhammad Yousaf, Zahid Ahmed Siddiqi, Muhammad Burhan Sharif, Asad Ullah Qazi,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (6-2017)

In this study, a comparison is made between force and displacement controlled non-linear FE analyses for an RC beam in flexure with partially developed steel bars. An FE model with slightly unsymmetrical reinforcement was analyzed by applying two-point loading using both force and displacement controlled methods. The responses obtained using ANSYS-13 were validated against available experimental data. Combined comparative display of flexural response of the beam using force and displacement controlled analysis, that has least been addressed in the literature, is given here. Study choses large-deformation-nonlinear plastic analysis scheme, discrete modeling approach for material modeling and program-chosen incremental scheme following Newton-Raphson method. The results show that displacement controlled approach is efficient in terms of time saving and less disk space requirement along with the ability to give falling branch of load-deflection response, if element displacement capacity still exists. Moreover, it gives an early estimate of the load carrying capacity of the structural element along with suitable values of convergence and non-linear solution parameters. However, for a beam with unsymmetrical detailing, force controlled analysis method seems to yield more realistic and practical results in terms of mid span deflection and beam cracking behavior compared with assumed symmetric displacement controlled technique. It also gives true fracture prediction at ultimate load level, which is not true for the displacement controlled method as the computer code forces the model to maintain equal displacements at two load points, falsely increasing the capacity of the beam.

Xiaolei Chen, Jianping Fu, Feng Xue, Xiaofeng Wang,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (6-2017)

This paper presents a comparative numerical research on the overall seismic behavior of RC frames with different types of rebars (normal versus high strength rebar). A nonlinear numerical model is developed and is validated using experimental results. Comparing the numerical and experimental behaviors shows that the developed model is capable of describing the hysteretic behavior and plastic hinges development of the experimental RC frames with various strength longitudinal steel bars. The validated model is then used, considering the influences of axial load ratios and volumetric ratios of longitudinal rebars of column, to investigate the effects of reinforcement strength on the overall seismic behavior of RC frames. The simulation results indicate that utilizing high strength reinforcement can improve the structural resilience, reduce residual deformation and achieve favorable distribution pattern of plastic hinges on beams and columns. The frames reinforced with normal and high strength steel bars have comparable overall deformation capacity. The effect of axial load ratio on the energy dissipation, hysteretic curves and ultimate lateral load of frames with different strength rebars is similar. In addition, increasing the volumetric ratios of longitudinal rebars can increase the ultimate lateral load of frame and improve the plastic hinge distribution of frame.

Volume 15, Issue 6 (9-2017)

This paper proposes a modified strain wedge (MSW) model for nonlinear analysis of laterally loaded single piles in clays. The MSW model is used to calculate the soil resistance under increasing pile deflection. The stress–strain behavior of clays in the MSW, which is needed to calculate the soil resistance, is described in terms of both hyperbolic and bilinear stress–strain relationships. The subgrade reaction modulus of soil below the MSW is assumed to equal the conventional subgrade reaction modulus and to remain constant under the lateral loading of the pile. The applicability of the proposed model was verified by eight case histories. The results indicate that (1) the predicted results are consistent with the measurements for all eight full-scale tested piles; (2) the bilinear stress–strain relationship is not recommended for clays because the clays usually have a large ε50 and, thus, they exhibit a linear behavior in the MSW during loading; (3) the predicted pile response is less sensitive to the effective friction angle than to the undrained shear strength; and (4) the proposed MSW model applies to normally consolidated clays and to overconsolidated clays until they reach their peak strength.

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