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Showing 90 results for Modeling

Asghari K.,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (12-2003)
Abstract

The solution of shallow-water equation for a two-dimensional .simulation of overland /low for an actual watershed, is presented. The Petorv-Galerkin weighted residual method is used to overcome spurious oscillations inflow depth. For modeling overland flow over complex topography and variable surface, ct pre and postprocessor was developed to utilize the Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN) model and to generate finite element mesh. Close agreement of the model with measured data is obtained. This model can be used to better analyze the influence of varying surface roughness and topography on overland flow characteristics, including distribution of flow depth and velocity (is well as resulting hydrographs. Detailed spatial and temporal output parameters provide a basis fur further study of the patterns of soil erosion and evaluation of runoff natural slopes.
Asghari K.,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (12-2003)
Abstract

The solution of shallow-water equation for a two-dimensional .simulation of overland /low for an actual watershed, is presented. The Petorv-Galerkin weighted residual method is used to overcome spurious oscillations inflow depth. For modeling overland flow over complex topography and variable surface, ct pre and postprocessor was developed to utilize the Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN) model and to generate finite element mesh. Close agreement of the model with measured data is obtained. This model can be used to better analyze the influence of varying surface roughness and topography on overland flow characteristics, including distribution of flow depth and velocity (is well as resulting hydrographs. Detailed spatial and temporal output parameters provide a basis fur further study of the patterns of soil erosion and evaluation of runoff natural slopes.
Kheyr Aldin A., Mortezaei A.r.,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (3-2004)
Abstract

Structural walls are used extensively in moderate- and high-rise buildings to resist lateral loads induced by earthquakes. The seismic performance of many buildings is, therefore, closely linked to the behavior of the reinforced concrete walls. The analytical models used in this paper are developed to study the push-over response of T-shaped reinforced concrete walls andinvestigate the influence of the flange walls on laterally loaded walls and nonlinear behavior of shear walls, namely strength, ductility and failure mechanisms. A layered nonlinear finite element method is used to study the behavior of T-shaped and rectangular (barbell) shear walls. This paper introduces a computer program to practically study three-dimensional characteristics of reinforced concrete wall response by utilizing layered modeling. The program is first verified bysimulated and reported experimental response of 3-D reinforced concrete shear walls. Subsequently, a study considering eighteen analytical test specimens of T-shaped and barbell shear walls is carried out. Finally, based on analytical results, a new equation for minimum ratio of shear wall area to floor-plan area is proposed.
Jalali M.r., Afshar A., Mokhtare A.r.,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2004)
Abstract

It is indispensable to explore simulation techniques that not only represent complexdynamic systems in a realistic way but also allow the involvement of end users in modeldevelopment to increase their confidence in the modeling process. System dynamics as a feedbackbasedand object-oriented simulation approach is presented for reservoir operation modeling. Thequick modeling process, the trust developed in the model due to user contribution, group modelsdevelopment possibility and the effective relations of model results are the most significant strongpoints of this approach. The simple modification of model in response to changes in system andcapability to accomplish sensitivity analysis make this approach more attractive and useful ratherthan traditional reservoir operation models. In this paper system dynamics is applied to simulateoperation of a free reservoir with an Ogee spillway, a reservoir with a gated spillway and finally amulti-reservoir system with simple and gated spillways. The multi-reservoir system on Karun riverin south of Iran is modeled under flood condition as a case study in order to demonstrate thecapabilities of the developed model.
Khalou A.r., Ghara Chour Lou A.,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (3-2005)
Abstract

This paper presents the results of analytical studies concerning the flexuralstrengthening of reinforced concrete beams by external bonding of high-strength lightweightcarbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) plates to tension face of the beam. Three groups of beamswere tested analytically and compared with existing experimental results. Results of the numericalanalyses showed that, although addition of CFRP plates to the tension face of the beam increasesthe strength, it decreases the beam ductility. Finite element modeling of fifteen different beams in aparametric study indicates that steel area ratio, CFRP thickness, CFRP ultimate strength andelastic modulus considerably influence the level of strengthening and ductility.
M.h. Bagheripour, S.m. Marandi,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (6-2005)
Abstract

Arational approach is introduced for numerical modeling of unbounded soil foundations based on coupled dynamic periodic infinite and conventional finite elements (IFE-FE). The model can be applied for analysis of various dynamic problems in geomechanics, especially in Soil Structure Interaction (SSI), where determination of stiffness properties and response of unbounded soil domains are of prime importance. In numerical SSI analysis, there exists important problems a) the discretization of natural soil foundation, especially defining the boundaries to prevent reflecting body waves and avoiding spurious results, b) the definition of the matrices related to the soils impedance functions which are essentially dependant on the excitation frequency, c) the evaluation of free field motion of the natural foundation, especially those of irregular geometry and material diversity. An efficient way and integrated solution to these important problems is found to be the use of periodic infinite elements. The wave equation of motion is derived numerically for discretization of the soil domain. Shape functions and mapping coordinates for dynamic periodic infinite elements are presented in this paper. The accuracy of the IFE is examined for the evaluation of free field motion of a visco-elastic soil foundation. Derivation of impedance function is shown and leads to the determination of dynamic stiffness characteristics of the unbounded soil medium including spring and dashpot coefficients. Application of the approach introduced here is shown by analysis of SSI for a semi-tall building subjected to earthquake loading. Other advantages of the approach are the substantial reduction in degrees of freedom involved in numerical SSI analysis, the computational time and costs without sacrificing the accuracy of the results.
Nassiri H., Khayat Khoie A.,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (9-2005)
Abstract

This paper studies the effects of queue formation in the bottlenecks at off-ramps on the capacity of the freeways. Six expressway exit-ramps throughout the city of Tehran, Iran were selected and their traffic flows were observed in thirty-minute intervals during which the queue formation and queue elimination occurred. Assuming that in the absence of the queue, the traffic flow is in its normal state, the changes in the volume of through vehicles has been modeled as an average estimator of the change in the expressway capacity.The developed models prove that the changes in freeway capacity are due to queue formation at the off-ramp sections. However, the estimated figures are different from those obtained from the theory of freeway capacity. The conclusion is that lane blockage is only one of many factors that affect the freeway capacity while the queue forms. Since it is not possible to quantify all those factors individually, the resulting models are macroscopic estimates of the phenomenon.
S.a. Sadrnejad,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (6-2006)
Abstract

An important concern in rock mechanics is non-homogeneity as joints or fault. Adopting the joints as fractures, fractures are well known for their effects on the mechanical and transport properties of rock. It has been postulated that through fractured/jointed rock, mainly, the polygons turned to the shear vector (ti) are involved in the mobilization of shear resistance. Consequently, in order to locate the contact areas implicated into the shear-test it was firstly necessary to fix the shear direction. Moreover, since laboratory observations clearly show that only the steepest polygon surfaces touch the other sample, the identification of the potential sliding areas only requires the determination of the polygons which are faced to the shear direction and which, among them, are steep enough to be involved. The methodology to be discussed here is modeling of slip on the local and global levels due to the distribution of deformation procedure of the rock joint. Upon the presented methodology, more attention has been given to slip initiation and propagation through rock joint. In particular, softening in non-linear behaviour of joint in going from the peak to residual strengths imparts a behaviour often associated with progressive failure. A multi-plane based model is developed and used to compute plastic strain distribution and failure mechanism of rock joints. Validity of the presented model was examined by comparing numerical and test results showing the behavior of both homogeneous and jointed rock samples under general stress conditions.
A.r. Khoei, S. Yadegari, M. Anahid,
Volume 4, Issue 3 (9-2006)
Abstract

In this paper, a higher order continuum model is presented based on the Cosserat continuum theory in 3D numerical simulation of shear band localization. As the classical continuum models suffer from the pathological mesh-dependence in strain softening models, the governing equations are regularized by adding the rotational degrees-of-freedom to conventional degrees-of-freedom. The fundamental relations in three-dimensional Cosserat continuum are presented and the internal length parameters are introduced in the elasto-plastic constitutive matrix to control the shear bandwidth. Finally, the efficiency of proposed model and computational algorithm is demonstrated by a 3D strip in tensile. A comparison is performed between the classical and Cosserat theories and the effect of internal length parameter is demonstrated. Clearly, a finite shear bandwidth is achieved and the load-displacement curves are uniformly converged upon different mesh sizes.
M.h. Sebt, H. Rajaei, M.m. Pakseresht,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (9-2007)
Abstract

Project participants are becoming more aware of the high costs and risks associated with delay claims and their litigation. Among delays, weather delay has an important role in projects performed in severe environmental conditions. This research is the extension of delay analysis techniques by approving analysis of weather delays using fuzzy logic. At the presented technique, first using a fuzzy logic model calculated the delay that occurred during the activity execution after weather event then by the selected delay analysis method (Time impact analysis) and using the risk of the contractor during the contract approval together with the effect of previous delay in changing the duration of activities, analyzed weather delays in construction project. A local general contractor and governmental firms involved in a highway construction project practiced by offering their experienced and knowledge in delay analysis procedures to provide data for development and testing of the model specified for rain events. The results indicated that the presented model is in accordance with practical experiences in weather delay duration except in some circumstances that can be divided into the separated parts. It also advances the use of fuzzy logic in delay analysis procedures and becomes it more systematic special for weather delays.
M. Heidarzadeh, M. Dolatshahi Pirooz, N. Hadjizadeh Zaker, M. Mokhtari,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (12-2007)
Abstract

Makran Subduction Zone (MSZ) offshore of Iran and Pakistan is one of the most tsunamigenic sources in the Indian Ocean. Historically, the MSZ has generated some tsunamigenic earthquakes like that of 28 November 1945 with the death tool of more than 4000 people along the coasts of Iran, Pakistan, India, and Oman. In this study, the tsunami hazard associated with the MSZ is investigated. At first, a review of historical tsunamis in the Indian Ocean basin was performed which reveals the Makran region has experienced al least 4 tsunamis including events of 326 BC, 1897, 1008, and 1945. Consequently, since the pattern and extent of vertical ground deformation from an earthquake determines whether or not a tsunami is formed, a computer program is developed to predict the seafloor deformation due to the earthquake occurrence in the MSZ. The model was verified through run of it on some actual tsunamis so far occurred. Then, using the data of the 1945 Makran tsunami, the seismic parameters of the MSZ were calibrated. Finally, we used the developed computer program to calculate seafloor deformation at the location of Makran subduction zone for several earthquake scenarios with moment magnitudes ranging between 6.5 and 8.5. The results of this research show that the risk of tsunami generation from MSZ can be classified into three main categories, as follows: (1) very little risk for tsunami generation in the case of the occurrence of an earthquake having magnitude up to 7 (2) little to medium risk for moment magnitudes ranging between 7 and 7.5 and (3) high risk for moment magnitude greater than 7.5. At the end of the paper, modeling of tsunami propagation is performed for an earthquake scenario with magnitude of 8 offshore Chabahar, in order to give preliminary information about tsunami behavior in this region.
Habib Shahnazari, Hosein Salehzadeh, Amin Askarinejad,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (3-2008)
Abstract

Classical soil mechanics involves the study of fully saturated soils. However, many problems encountered in geotechnical engineering practice involve unsaturated soil, in which behavior is significantly different from classical saturated soil. Negative pore pressure and capillary forces develop a virtual cohesion between the grains of semi saturated soils. This kind of cohesion is dependent on different factors such as grain size, saturation degree, soil-water characteristic curve and relative density of the soil. In this research the virtual cohesion of fine silty sand with 5% water content and a saturation degree of 17% is estimated. A vertical slope is constructed and is accelerated in the geotechnical centrifuge until failure. During the test, the model was monitored by a wireless video camera, attached to the strong box. The cohesionless tested sand was unsaturated. Based on the scaling laws and considering parameters such as sample unit weight, failure acceleration and the sample dimensions, a slope stability analysis was performed, and the virtual cohesion generated in the sample was calculated. The factor of safety of the prototype modeled in the centrifuge is calculated either by Finite Element Method and Finite Difference Method by using the resulted virtual cohesion from physical modeling. Results of this research show the validity of physical modeling for calculating the virtual cohesion in unsaturated silty sand.
Farnad Nasirzadeh, Abbas Afshar, Mostafa Khanzadi,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (6-2008)
Abstract

Presence of risks and uncertainties inherent in project development and implementation plays

significant role in poor project performance. Thus, there is a considerable need to have an effective risk

analysis approach in order to assess the impact of different risks on the project objectives. A powerful risk

analysis approach may consider dynamic nature of risks throughout the life cycle of the project, as well as

accounting for feedback loops affecting the overall risk impacts. This paper presents a new approach to

construction risk analysis in which these major influences are considered and quantified explicitly. The

proposed methodology is a system dynamics based approach in which different risks may efficiently be

modeled, simulated and quantified in terms of time, cost and quality by the use of the implemented object

oriented simulation methodology. To evaluate the performance of the proposed methodology it has been

employed in a bridge construction project. Due to the space limitations, the modeling and quantification

process for one of the identified risks namely “pressure to crash project duration” is explained in detail.


S.h. Ebrahimi, S. Mohammadi, A. Asadpoure,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (9-2008)
Abstract

A new approach is proposed to model a crack in orthotropic composite media using the extended finite element method (XFEM). The XFEM uses the concept of partition of unity in addition to meshless basic idea of approximating a field variable by its values at a set of surrounding nodes. As a result, higher order approximations can be designed with the same total number of degrees of freedom. In this procedure, by using meshless based ideas, elements containing a crack are not required to conform to crack edges. Therefore mesh generating is performed without any consideration of crack conformations for elements and the method has the ability of extending the crack without any remeshing. Furthermore, the type of elements around the cracktip is the same as other parts of the finite element model and the number of nodes and consequently degrees of freedom are reduced considerably in comparison to the classical finite element method. Developed orthotropic enrichment functions are further modified to enable modeling isotropic problems.
S. N. Moghaddas Tafreshi,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (12-2008)
Abstract

This paper presents the numerical analysis of seismic soil-pile-superstructure interaction in soft clay using free-field soil analysis and beam on Winkler foundation approach. This model is developed to compute the nonlinear response of single piles under seismic loads, based on one-dimensional finite element formulation. The parameters of the proposed model are calibrated by fitting the experimental data of largescale seismic soil-pile-structure tests which were conducted on shaking table in UC Berkeley. A comparative evaluation of single piles shows that the results obtained from the proposed procedure are in good agreement with the experimental results.
Sassan Eshghi, Khashaiar Pourazin,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (3-2009)
Abstract

Confined masonry buildings are used in rural and urban areas of Iran. They performed almost satisfactory

during past moderate earthquakes of Iran. There is not a methodology in Iranian Seismic Code (Standard 2800-3rd

edition) to estimate their capacities quantitatively. In line with removing this constraint, an attempt is made to study

in-plane behavior of two squared confined masonry walls with and without opening by using a numerical approach.

These walls are considered based on Iranian Seismic Code requirements. Finite element 2D models of the walls are

developed and a pushover analysis is carried out. To model the non-linear behavior of the confined masonry walls, the

following criteria are used: (1) The Rankine-Hill yield criterion with low orthotropic factor to model the masonry

panel (2) The Rankine yield criterion to model reinforced concrete bond-beams and tie-columns (3) The Coulomb

friction criterion with tension cutoff mode to model the interface zone between the masonry panel and reinforced

concrete members. For this purpose, the unknown parameters are determined by testing of masonry and concrete

samples and by finite element analysis. Comparing the results show that the initial stiffness, the maximum lateral

strength and the ductility factor of walls with and without opening are different. Also, the severe compressed zones of

the masonry panels within the confining elements are found different from what are reported for the masonry panels

of infilled frames by other researchers. This study shows that a further investigation is needed for estimating capacity

of confined masonry walls with and without opening analytically and experimentally. Also where openings, with

medium size are existed, the confining elements should be added around them. These issues can be considered in the

next revisions of Iranian Seismic Code.


R. Abbasnia, M. Kanzadi, M. Shekarchi Zadeh, J. Ahmadi,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (6-2009)
Abstract

Drying shrinkage in concrete, which is caused by drying and the associated decrease in moisture content, is one of the most important parameters which affects the performance of concrete structures. Therefore, it is necessary to develop experimental and mathematical models that describe the mechanisms of drying shrinkage and damage build up in concrete. The main objective of this research is the development of a computational model and an experimental method for evaluation of concrete free shrinkage strain based on the internal moisture changes. For this purpose and for modeling of moisture losses in concrete members a computational program based on finite element approach and the modified version of Fick's second law in which the process of diffusion and convection due to water movement are taken into account, is developed. Also the modified SDB moisture meter was used to measure the internal moisture changes in concrete. Based on the obtained results, calculated humidity is in good agreement with measured data when modified Fick's second law with diffusion coefficient from Bazant method were used, and are very reasonable for determining the moisture gradient. Also, the predicted value of shrinkage strain from the proposed method is in good agreement with measured data and also the established relationship can be used for determine the distribution of shrinkage strains in concrete members.
I. Rasoolan, S.a. Sadrnejad, A.r. Bagheri,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (6-2009)
Abstract

Concrete is a heterogeneous material with a highly non linear behavior, which is mainly caused by the

initiation and propagation of micro cracks within the several components of the material. The damage behavior of

concrete is usually simulated on the macro scale using complex constitutive models. The direct determination of the

homogenized material parameters is often difficult and sometimes impossible. Furthermore these materials models do

not explicitly represent effects and bond behaviors of interfaces between the several components. So in order to predict

of concrete behaviors and characteristics, it should be modeled as a three phase composite material consisting of

aggregate, interfacial transition zone (ITZ) and cement paste. The size and distribution of aggregate affects concrete

characteristics. Because of the random distribution and size variation of aggregate in concrete, the modeling of

concrete behavior based on component in meso structure is difficult and so we must use simple assumption. In this

paper with mixing design and grading curve we developed a simple method to replace real aggregate with equivalent

sphere aggregate with effective diameter. So we can use simple methods instead of complex numeral and randomness

or x ray methods to find effective diameter and use it to determine two arrangements with maximum and minimum

aggregate volume as a repeatable basical element .As a result we can use this element to modeling the behavior of

sample concrete in meso scale and three phases.


M.h. Baziar, A. Ghorbani, R. Katzenbach,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (9-2009)
Abstract

The pile-raft foundation is a combination of a raft foundation with piles. Pile-raft foundation has been widely designed, assuming all structure loads to be transferred to piles without considering contribution of the load taken by contact surface between raft and soil. Methods of analysis currently used in practice are based upon relatively conservative assumptions of soil behavior or on the less realistic soil-structure interaction. In this study the bearing -settlement behavior of combined pile-raft foundations on medium dense sand was investigated. 1g physical model test was performed on a circular rigid raft underpinned with four model piles. Numerical simulation was also carried out on the model test, using FLAC-3D, to show compatibility of the numerical analysis with the test. The obtained results showed very good accuracy of the numerical method used in this study as long as the applied load does not exceed the working load, while the performance of numerical model was relatively good for the loads beyond working load.
M.a. Goudarzi, S.r. Sabbagh-Yazdi,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (9-2009)
Abstract

The main objective of this article is evaluation of the simplified models which have been developed for analysis and design of liquid storage tanks. The empirical formulas of these models for predicting Maximum Sloshing Wave Height (MSWH) are obtained from Mass Spring Models (MSM). A Finite Element Modeling (FEM) tool is used for investigating the behavior the some selected liquid storage tanks under available earthquake excitations. First, the results of FEM tool are verified by analyzing a liquid storage tank for which theoretical solution and experimental measurements are readily available. Then, numerical investigations are performed on three vertical, cylindrical tanks with different ratios of Height to Radius (H/R=2.6, 1.0 and 0.3). The behaviors of the tanks are initially evaluated using modal under some available earthquake excitations with various vibration frequency characteristics. The FEM results of modal analysis, in terms of natural periods of sloshing and impulsive modes period, are compared with those obtained from the simplified MSM formulas. Using the time history of utilized earthquake excitations, the results of response-history FEM analysis (including base shear force, global overturning moment and maximum wave height) are compared with those calculated using simplified MSM formulations. For most of the cases, the MSWH results computed from the time history FEM analysis demonstrate good agreements with the simplified MSM. However, the simplified MSM doesn’t always provide accurate results for conventionally constructed tanks. In some cases, up to 30%, 35% and 70% average differences between the results of FEM and corresponding MSM are calculated for the base shear force, overturning moment and MSWH, respectively.

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