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Showing 9 results for Highways

Mahmoud Saffarzadeh, Maghsoud Pooryari,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (6-2005)

This paper specifies the relationship among various factors contributing to road accidents including geometrical design characteristics, environmental and traffic specifications, by multiple regression analysis. The main objective of this paper is identification of problems associated with the safety issue of road networks by application of accident prediction models. Data from previous accidents were used to develop the models. Results of this study showed that the rate of road accidents is to a large extent dependent on the rate of traffic volume. Type of road and land-use are other important factors influencing the number and intensity of accidents. The mountainous roads in this respect require special attention regarding their safety factors. The quantitative rate of road safety upgrading has also been specified by adding traffic lanes in road networks.
H. Behbahani, S.m. Elahi,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (3-2006)

To properly plan for construction, repair, maintenance, and reconstruction of highways the minimum acceptable roadway condition is needed information. This, along with other pavement management tools, will help select the most desirable roadway alternatives. In this research the minimum acceptable conditions are developed based on an opinion survey of non-technical but high-level decision makers. Roadway roughness, expressed as international roughness index (IRI), is used as the measurement criteria. Because IRI is a widely known, acceptable, and a uniformly measurable index, it is used for the purpose of this research. The minimum IRI values developed here will help managers, planners, and engineers in prioritizing their plans and projects. Iran has a central planning system, hence having a minimum acceptable IRI will help in producing homogeneity in decision making. A questionnaire is sent to top level and influential managementlevel officials who have a decisive input in highway matters. The officials are asked to choose the minimum acceptable service level of different types of roadways and classifications. Naturally, roadways with higher levels of importance would require higher service levels. The answers to the survey questionnaires are investigated to determine a preferred minimum acceptable roadway condition. The IRI is computed using a mechanical device enabling a more uniform data collection. The IRI was first proposed by The World Bank as a standard roughness statistic. Extensive research has proven that the IRI can be related to pavement condition. The result of the opinion survey is investigated to determine the minimum levels acceptable for each category. The responses show distinct preference patterns for most of the roadway types. Survey results are investigated by plotting and analyzing them. Based on road user’s perception of roadway condition using guidelines from AASHTO, the Corp of Engineers, and related research work. The appropriate IRI limits and ranges are determined for Iran’s highways. These values are adjusted to obtain final values for Iran. The result, shown in a table, gives upper and lower IRI values accepted and recommended for Iran’s highways. The result of this research work is specifically useful in developing specifications for new pavement design, accepting new pavement from contractors, pavement management, highway planning, and in roadway life cycle cost analysis decision making. The results are subject to refinement over time.
M.a. Khan, A. Usmani, S.s. Shah, H. Abbas,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (6-2008)

In the present investigation, the cyclic load deformation behaviour of soil-fly ash layered system is

studied using different intensities of failure load (I = 25%, 50% and 75%) with varying number of cycles (N =

10, 50 and 100). An attempt has been made to establish the use of fly ash as a fill material for embankments of

Highways and Railways and to examine the effect of cyclic loading on the layered samples of soil and fly ash.

The number of cycles, confining pressures and the intensity of loads at which loading unloading has been

performed were varied. The resilient modulus, permanent strain and cyclic strength factor are evaluated from

the test results and compared to show their variation with varying stress levels. The nature of stress-strain

relationship is initially linear for low stress levels and then turns non-linear for high stress levels. The test

results reveal two types of failure mechanisms that demonstrate the dependency of consolidated undrained

shear strength tests of soil-fly ash matrix on the interface characteristics of the layered soils under cyclic

loading conditions. Data trends indicate greater stability of layered samples of soil-fly ash matrix in terms of

failure load (i) at higher number of loading-unloading cycles, performed at lower intensity of deviatoric stress,

and (ii) at lower number of cycles but at higher intensity of deviatoric stress.

Malik Shoeb Ahmad, S. Salahuddin Shah,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2010)

 Roadways have a high potential for utilization of large volume of the fly ash stabilized mixes. In this study, an attempt has been made to investigate the use of Class F fly ash mixed with lime precipitated electroplating waste sludge–cement as a base material in highways. A series of tests were performed on specimens prepared with fly ash, cement and lime precipitated waste sludge. California bearing ratio (CBR) tests were conducted for 70%-55%fly ash, 8%cement, and 30%-45%waste sludge combinations. Results show that the load bearing strength of the mix is highly dependent on the waste sludge content, cement as well as curing period. The CBR value of fly ash mixed with electroplating waste sludge and cement has been increased to manifold and results the reduction in the construction cost of the pavement. The study also encourages the use of two potentially hazardous wastes for mass scale utilization without causing danger to the environment, vegetation, human and animal lives. 

F. Rezaie Moghaddam, Sh. Afandizadeh, M. Ziyadi,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (3-2011)

In spite of significant advances in highways safety, a lot of crashes in high severities still occur in highways. Investigation of influential factors on crashes enables engineers to carry out calculations in order to reduce crash severity. Therefore, this paper deals with the models to illustrate the simultaneous influence of human factors, road, vehicle, weather conditions and traffic features including traffic volume and flow speed on the crash severity in urban highways. This study uses a series of artificial neural networks to model and estimate crash severity and to identify significant crash-related factors in urban highways. Applying artificial neural networks in engineering science has been proved in recent years. It is capable to predict and present desired results in spite of limited data sets, which is the remarkable feature of the artificial neural networks models. Obtained results illustrate that the variables such as highway width, head-on collision, type of vehicle at fault, ignoring lateral clearance, following distance, inability to control the vehicle, violating the permissible velocity and deviation to left by drivers are most significant factors that increase crash severity in urban highways.

R. A. Memon, G. B. Khaskheli, M. H. Dahani,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (3-2012)

Present study is an extension of earlier work carried out on two-lane two way roads in the two provinces of Pakistan i.e. N-25,

N-55 and N-5 regarding the measure of operating speed and development of operating speed prediction models. Curved sections

of two-lane rural highways are the main location of run-off road accidents. In addition to that the road alignment having

combination of geometric elements may be more harmful to the drivers than the successive features with adequate separation.

This study is carried out on two-lane two- way road along N-65 (from Sibi to Quetta). Three sections are selected for study with

thirty three horizontal curves. Continuous speed profile data was recorded with the help of VBox (GPS based device) which was

attached with a vehicle to detect vehicle position through satellite signals. VBox is new equipment with modern technology in this

field and it helps in recording continuous speed profile and saving of this information on the computer as a permanent record.

Through the regression analysis, models were developed for estimation of operating speed on horizontal curves and on tangent,

and estimation of maximum speed reduction from tangent to curve. The validation of developed model shows compatibility with

the experimental data.

C. Gümüşer, A. Şenol,
Volume 12, Issue 2 (4-2014)

The total coal and lignite consumption of the thermic power plants in Turkey is approximately 55 million tons and nearly 15 million tons of fly ash is produced. The remarkable increase in the production of fly ash and its disposal in an environmentally friendly manner is increasingly becoming a matter of global concern. Studies for the utilization of fly ash in Turkey are necessary to reduce environmental problems and avoid economical loss caused by the disposal of fly ash. Efforts are underway to improve the use of fly ash in several ways, with the geotechnical utilization also forming an important aspect of these efforts. An experimental program was undertaken to investigate the effects of Multifilament (MF19average) and Fibrillated (F19average) polypropylene fiber on the compaction and strength behavior of CH class soil with fly ash in different proportions. The soil samples were prepared at three different percentages of fiber content (i.e. 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% by weight of soil) and two different percentages of fly ash (i.e. 10% and 15% by weight of soil). A series of tests were prepared in optimum moisture content and laboratory unconfined compression strength tests, compaction tests and Atterberg limits test were carried out. The fiber inclusions increased the strength of the fly ash specimens and changed their brittle behavior into ductile behavior.
S. F. Eftekharzadeh, A. Khodabakhshi,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (9-2014)

The previous studies show that a high percentage of traffic accidents take place in two-lane rural highways and most of which happen at horizontal curves. Meanwhile the horizontal alignment is often subject to hard topographic conditions where because of economic aspects designers are forced to design horizontal curves at grades. Vertical angle of longitudinal slope reduces the normal force of vehicle on road and friction force in tire-pavement surface will decrease. This leads to a lack of sufficient driver control over the vehicle especially if the curve with small radius is located at downgrade. In this paper, the suitability of operating speed and lateral friction coefficient as geometric design criteria for horizontal curves in downgrades are studied with regard to traffic safety and vehicle stability. The investigation of speed reduction of the vehicles running on a horizontal curve at downgrade as a response of driver behavior and the use of friction ellipse theory give the available friction coefficient. Whereas the dynamic analysis of forces applied on the vehicle in curve which is located at downgrade if combined with operating speed results in the required coefficient of lateral friction. Finally, a comparison of these two parameters based on safety evaluation criteria gives an estimation of actual safety level in designing horizontal curve at downgrades with regard to AASHTO’s data in horizontal curve design.
Edgar Tapia-Hernández, Tiziano Perea, Marco Islas-Mendoza,
Volume 15, Issue 2 (3-2017)

In this paper, the assessment of four short-span steel bridges from 24 to 42 m under local overloaded trucks and ground motion records are presented and discussed. Bridges were virtually located in Mexico, and so the vehicular live loads, earthquake loads due to local seismicity, and other local loads were adapted in the design. A realistic condition of the local design truck for Mexico was selected from survey traffic flows reported for local highways. Nonlinear dynamic analyses were carried out using seven historical records associated with the largest vertical intensities from subduction earthquakes in Mexico. Results are intended to evaluate the local practice, which frequently adopts the current AASHTO LRFD Specifications in the absence of an official local design code for bridge structures. Thus, this research pretends to provide design recommendations for short-span steel bridges in Mexico.

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