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Showing 25 results for Geotechnical Engineering

S.n. Moghaddas Tafreshi, Gh. Tavakoli Mehrjardi, S.m. Moghaddas Tafreshi,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (6-2007)

The safety of buried pipes under repeated load has been a challenging task in geotechnical engineering. In this paper artificial neural network and regression model for predicting the vertical deformation of high-density polyethylene (HDPE), small diameter flexible pipes buried in reinforced trenches, which were subjected to repeated loadings to simulate the heavy vehicle loads, are proposed. The experimental data from tests show that the vertical diametric strain (VDS) of pipe embedded in reinforced sand depends on relative density of sand, number of reinforced layers and height of embedment depth of pipe significantly. Therefore in this investigation, the value of VDS is related to above pointed parameters. A database of 72 experiments from laboratory tests were utilized to train, validate and test the developed neural network and regression model. The results show that the predicted of the vertical diametric strain (VDS) using the trained neural network and regression model are in good agreement with the experimental results but the predictions obtained from the neural network are better than regression model as the maximum percentage of error for training data is less than 1.56% and 27.4%, for neural network and regression model, respectively. Also the additional set of 24 data was used for validation of the model as 90% of predicted results have less than 7% and 21.5% error for neural network and regression model, respectively. A parametric study has been conducted using the trained neural network to study the important parameters on the vertical diametric strain.
Habib Shahnazari, Hosein Salehzadeh, Amin Askarinejad,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (3-2008)

Classical soil mechanics involves the study of fully saturated soils. However, many problems encountered in geotechnical engineering practice involve unsaturated soil, in which behavior is significantly different from classical saturated soil. Negative pore pressure and capillary forces develop a virtual cohesion between the grains of semi saturated soils. This kind of cohesion is dependent on different factors such as grain size, saturation degree, soil-water characteristic curve and relative density of the soil. In this research the virtual cohesion of fine silty sand with 5% water content and a saturation degree of 17% is estimated. A vertical slope is constructed and is accelerated in the geotechnical centrifuge until failure. During the test, the model was monitored by a wireless video camera, attached to the strong box. The cohesionless tested sand was unsaturated. Based on the scaling laws and considering parameters such as sample unit weight, failure acceleration and the sample dimensions, a slope stability analysis was performed, and the virtual cohesion generated in the sample was calculated. The factor of safety of the prototype modeled in the centrifuge is calculated either by Finite Element Method and Finite Difference Method by using the resulted virtual cohesion from physical modeling. Results of this research show the validity of physical modeling for calculating the virtual cohesion in unsaturated silty sand.
J. Jalili, M. K. Jafari, A. Shafiee, J. Koseki, T. Sato,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (6-2012)

A series of tests and also numerical analyses were conducted to explore the mechanical behavior of a mixture of coarse gravelsize
particles floating in a matrix of silt, sand or clay. The research is a step forward in an ongoing investigation on behavior of
composite clay, which is used as the core material of some large embankment dams all over the world. After providing the reader
with an overall image about behavior of such materials through the literature, the paper focuses on a predominant feature of the
composite soil behavior: increase of non-deformable solid inclusions in a mixture leads to formation of heterogeneity of stress
field, excess pore water pressure and strain distribution along the specimens. This paper mainly probes formation of such
heterogeneity by the aid of special experiments and also numerical analyses. In addition to loading details, it is clarified through
the paper that position of inclusions relative to loading direction also affects heterogeneity of stress/strain and excess pore water
pressure distribution through the mixture. Despite the former, the latter redistributes with a rate proportional to material
hydraulic conductivity.

N. Shariatmadari, S. Saeidijam,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (6-2012)

Bentonite-sand mixture is one of the most important candidates for engineering buffer element in nuclear waste repositoriesso
the analysis of its thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior is important for design purposes.An innovative setup of classic oedometer
was used for swelling and compression study at high temperatures in this research. A fully calibration program was utilized to
include high temperature effects on measurements. This research shows that the elevation of temperature from 25 to 90◦C in
1:1bentonite-sand mixture in distilled water reduces free swelling potential and strain about 20 percent. The required time for
equalization of swelling is less in high temperature due to increasing in permeability. Also, the high temperature causes increasing
in compressibility rate and quantity for this buffer. For detection of this effect, XRD analysis showed that an increase in
temperature causes a decrease in basal spacing. So, the particles can come near to each other more than lower temperatures and
the amount of absorbed water in the microstructure of the clay is smaller.The effect of thermal history on behavior of bentonitesand
mixture has been showed and tried to clarify it. At similar stress-temperature states, thermal history causes different
deformation in samples. The highest temperature that bentonite has been experienced, controls its behavior in the next thermal

H. Alielahi, M. Kamalian, J. Asgari Marnani, M. K. Jafari, M. Panji,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (5-2013)

In this paper, an advanced formulation of a time-domain two-dimensional boundary element method (BEM) is presented and

applied to calculate the response of a buried, unlined, and infinitely long cylindrical cavity with a circular cross-section subjected

to SV and P waves. The applicability and efficiency of the algorithm are verified with frequency-domain BEM examples of the

effect of cylindrical cavities on the site response analysis. The analysis results show that acceptable agreements exist between

results of this research and presented examples. For a shallow cavity, the numerical results demonstrate that vertically incident

SV wave reduces the horizontal components of the motion on the ground surface above the cavity, while it significantly increases

the vertical component for a dimensionless frequency (&eta) of 0.5 and h/a=1.5. The maximum values of normalized displacements

in vertical component of P waves are larger than horizontal component of SV waves for &eta=1.0. For a deeply embedded cavity,

the effect of the cavity on the surface ground motion is negligible for incident SV wave, but it increases the vertical component of

the displacement for incident P wave. Additionally, far and near distances from the center of the cavity show different amplitude

patterns of response due to the cavity effect. Increasing the distance from the center of the cavity, the amplitude of displacement

and the effect of the cavity attenuates significantly.

M. Fadaee, M.k. Jafari, M. Kamalian, M. Moosavi, A. Shafiee,
Volume 11, Issue 2 (11-2013)

During past earthquakes, many instances of building damage as a result of earthquake surface fault rupture have been observed.

The results of investigating a potential mitigation scheme are presented in this paper. Such plan provides a wall in the soil with

the aim of surface displacement localization in the narrow pre-determined location. This may reduce the risk of the future rupture

downstream the wall. To evaluate the efficiency of the method, this paper (i) provides validation through successful class “A”

predictions of 1g model tests for fault deviation by weak wall and (ii) conducts sensitivity analyses on fault position, fault offset

and wall shear strength. It is shown that wall can be designed to deviate rupture path even downstream of the wall can be


M. Afzalirad, M. Kamalian, M. K. Jafari, A. Sohrabi-Bidar,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (1-2014)

In this paper, an advanced formulation of time-domain, two-dimensional Boundary Element Method (BEM) with material damping is presented. Full space two-dimensional visco-elastodynamic time-convoluted kernels are proposed in order to incorporate proportional damping. This approach is applied to carry out site response analysis of viscoelastic topographic structures subjected to SV and P incident waves. Seismic responses of horizontally layered site, semi-circular canyons, slope topography and ridge sections subjected to these incident waves are analyzed in order to demonstrate the accuracy of the kernels and the applicability of the presented viscoelastic boundary element algorithm. The results show an excellent agreement with recent published results obtained in frequency domain. Also, the effects of different material damping ratios on site response are investigated.
J. Nazari Afshar, M. Ghazavi,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (1-2014)

The Stone-column is a useful method for increasing the bearing capacity and reducing settlement of foundation soil. The prediction of accurate ultimate bearing capacity of stone columns is very important in soil improvement techniques. Bulging failure mechanism usually controls the failure mechanism. In this paper, an imaginary retaining wall is used such that it stretches vertically from the stone column edge. A simple analytical method is introduced for estimation of the ultimate bearing capacity of the stone column using Coulomb lateral earth pressure theory. Presented method needs conventional Mohr-coloumb shear strength parameters of the stone column material and the native soil for estimation the ultimate bearing capacity of stone column. The validity of the developed method has been verified using finite element method and test data. Parametric studies have been carried out and effects of contributing parameters such as stone column diameter, column spacing, and the internal friction angle of the stone column material on the ultimate bearing capacity have been investigated.
E. Lotfi, S. Delfan, A. Hamidi, H. Shahir, Gh. Fardi,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (1-2014)

In saturated soils, heating induces thermal expansion of both grains and the pore fluid. Lower thermal expansion coefficient of aggregates results in the increase of pore pressure and reduction of the effective stress besides subsequent volume changes due to the dissipation of pore pressure and heat transfer. Dissipation of thermally induced pore pressure with time is a coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) phenomenon, involving gradients of pore pressure and temperature, hydraulic and thermal flows within the mass of soil and changes in the mechanical properties with temperature. The objective of this paper is presentation of a numerical method to determine the effect of temperature on consolidation of clays. In this regard, the finite element code, PISA is used for one dimensional THM analysis of porous media. The analysis performed using both linear elastic and elastoplastic Cam clay models. Modified Cam clay model was applied in elastoplastic analysis. Variation of temperature, displacements and pore pressure determined with time and compared with numerical solutions of other researchers. Also it was indicated that implementation of coupled THM analysis yields better results for displacements compared to the hydro mechanical (HM) one. Application of elastoplastic constitutive model instead of linear elastic one indicated that preconsolidation pressure has an important effect on results of analysis.
A. Eslami, I. Tajvidi, M. Karimpour-Fard,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (1-2014)

Three common approaches to determine the axial pile capacity based on static analysis and in-situ tests are presented, compared and evaluated. The Unified Pile Design (UPD), American Petroleum Institute (API) and a SPT based methods were chosen to be validated. The API is a common method to estimate the axial bearing capacity of piles in marine environments, where as the others are currently used by geotechnical engineers. Seventy pile load test records performed in the northern bank of Persian Gulf with SPT profile have been compiled for methods evaluation. In all cases, pile capacities were measured using full scale static compression and/or pull out loading tests. As the loading tests in some cases were in the format of proof test without reaching the plunging or ultimate bearing capacity, for interpretation the results, offset limit load criteria was employed. Three statistical and probability based approaches in the form of a systematic ranking, called Rank Index, RI, were utilized to evaluate the performance of predictive methods. Wasted Capacity Index (WCI) concept was also applied to validate the efficiency of current methods. The evaluations revealed that among these three predictive methods, the UPD is more accurate and cost effective than the others.
C. Vieira,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (1-2014)

This paper presents a simplified approach to estimate the resultant force, which should be provided by a retention system, for the equilibrium of unstable slopes. The results were obtained with a developed algorithm, based on limit equilibrium analyses, that assumes a two-part wedge failure mechanism. Design charts to obtain equivalent earth pressure coefficients are presented. Based on the results achieved with the developed computer code, an approximate equation to estimate the equivalent earth pressure coefficients is proposed. Given the slope angle, the backslope, the design friction angle, the height of the slope and the unit weight of the backfill, one can determine the resultant force for slope equilibrium. This simplified approach intends to provide an extension of the Coulomb earth pressure theory to the stability analyses of steep slopes and to broaden the available design charts for steep reinforced slopes with non-horizontal backslopes
H. Shahnazari, M. A. Shahin, M. A. Tutunchian,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (1-2014)

Due to the heterogeneous nature of granular soils and the involvement of many effective parameters in the geotechnical behavior of soil-foundation systems, the accurate prediction of shallow foundation settlements on cohesionless soils is a complex engineering problem. In this study, three new evolutionary-based techniques, including evolutionary polynomial regression (EPR), classical genetic programming (GP), and gene expression programming (GEP), are utilized to obtain more accurate predictive settlement models. The models are developed using a large databank of standard penetration test (SPT)-based case histories. The values obtained from the new models are compared with those of the most precise models that have been previously proposed by researchers. The results show that the new EPR and GP-based models are able to predict the foundation settlement on cohesionless soils under the described conditions with R2 values higher than 87%. The artificial neural networks (ANNs) and genetic programming (GP)-based models obtained from the literature, have R2 values of about 85% and 83%, respectively which are higher than 80% for the GEP-based model. A subsequent comprehensive parametric study is further carried out to evaluate the sensitivity of the foundation settlement to the effective input parameters. The comparison results prove that the new EPR and GP-based models are the most accurate models. In this study, the feasibility of the EPR, GP and GEP approaches in finding solutions for highly nonlinear problems such as settlement of shallow foundations on granular soils is also clearly illustrated. The developed models are quite simple and straightforward and can be used reliably for routine design practice.
Me. Panji, M. Kamalian, J. Asgari Marnani, M. K. Jafari,
Volume 12, Issue 2 (4-2014)

In this paper, normalized displacement amplitude of the ground surface was presented in the presence of the semi-sine shaped valley above the truncated circular cavity embedded in a homogenous isotopic linear elastic half-plane, subjected to obliquely propagating incident SH waves as Ricker wavelet type. The proposed direct time-domain half-plane boundary element formulation was used and extended to analyze the combined multi-boundary topographic problems. While using it, only boundary of the valley and the surrounding cavity should be discretized. The effect of four geometric parameters including shape ratio of the valley, depth ratio, horizontal location ratio and truncation thickness of the cavity and incident wave angle was investigated on the responses at a single dimensionless frequency. The studies showed that surface behavior was completely different due to complex topographic features, compared with the presence of either valley or cavity alone. In addition, the cavity existence below the surface could play a seismic isolation role in the case of vertical incident waves and vice versa for oblique waves.
Ali Kavand, S.mohsen Haeri, Arian Asefzadeh, Iraj Rahmani, Abbas Ghalandarzadeh, Ali Bakhshi,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (7-2014)

In this paper, different aspects of the behavior of 2×2 pile groups under liquefaction-induced lateral spreading in a 3-layer soil profile is investigated using large scale 1-g shake table test. Different parameters of the response of soil and piles including time-histories of accelerations, pore water pressures, displacements and bending moments are presented and discussed in the paper. In addition, distribution of lateral forces due to lateral spreading on individual piles of the groups is investigated in detail. The results show that total lateral forces on the piles are influenced by the shadow effect as well as the superstructure mass attached to the pile cap. It was also found that lateral forces exerted on the piles in the lower half of the liquefied layer are significantly larger than those recommended by the design code. Based on the numerical analyses performed, it is shown that the displacement based method is more capable of predicting the pile group behavior in this experiment comparing to the force based method provided that the model parameters are tuned.
Sandro Machado, Mehran Karimpour-Fard, Miriam Carvalho, Orencio Villar, Atila Caldas,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (7-2014)

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) materials are among the most complicated materials for geotechnical engineering as their composition includes an organic fraction, which suffers loss of mass over time, and a fibrous part, which acts as reinforcement, governing the MSW shear behavior. Because of these characteristics MSW can be described as a viscous material which shows time dependent behavior. Since the decomposition of MSW leads to gas and leachate generation, the changes in the MSW’s mechanical behavior could be linked to gas emission and leachate production from landfills. This paper deals with the characteristics of MSW materials to provide the necessary data for efficient and safe landfill design, construction and operation. The MSW physical characteristics such as composition, water content and organic content at varying ages, field and laboratory measurements of methane generation and leachate production, MSW compressibility behavior and its shear strength are covered. By presenting these data the authors hope to promote a better understanding of the mechanical behavior of MSW and provide useful data for use in landfill management tasks.
O. Farzaneh, F. Askari, J. Fatemi,
Volume 12, Issue 4 (12-2014)

AWT IMAGEPresented is a method of two-dimensional analysis of the active earth pressure due to simultaneous effect of both soil weight and surcharge of strip foundation. The study’s aim is to provide a rigorous solution to the problem in the framework of upper-bound theorem of limit analysis method in order to produce some design charts for calculating the lateral active earth pressure of backfill when loaded by a strip foundation. A kinematically admissible collapse mechanism consisting of several rigid blocks with translational movement is considered in which energy dissipation takes place along planar velocity discontinuities. Comparing the lateral earth forces given by the present analysis with those of other researchers, it is shown that the results of present analysis are higher (better) than other researchers’ results. It was found that with the increase in AWT IMAGE, the proportion of the strip load (q) which is transmitted to the wall decreases. Moreover, Increasing the friction between soil and wall ( AWT IMAGE) will result in the increase of effective distance ( AWT IMAGE). Finally, these results are presented in the form of dimensionless design charts relating the mechanical characteristics of the soil, strip load conditions and active earth pressure.

M. Heidarzadeh, A. A. Mirghasemi, H. Niroomand,
Volume 13, Issue 1 (3-2015)

We report engineering experiences from the critical task of relief well installation under high artesian flow conditions at the downstream toe of the Karkheh earth dam, Iran. Due to the establishment of excessive uplift pressure at the downstream toe of the Karkheh dam, installation of a series of new relief wells was considered to permanently relieve part of these pressures. The mentioned uplift pressure, as high as around 30 m above the ground level, was produced in a confined conglomerate aquifer bounded above and below by relatively impervious mudstone layers which reduced the safety factor of the dam toe to below 1.0. Investigations on the shortcomings of the old relief wells installed at the dam site showed that the main problems were: insufficient well numbers, insufficient well diameters, irregular well screens causing their blockage by time passing, and insufficient total opening area. Despite engineering difficulties and associated risk of downstream toe instability, installation of new relief wells was successfully completed under high artesian flow conditions” was successfully completed. The employed technique for the construction of the new relief wells under flowing artesian conditions was based on: 1) cement grouting and casing of the well, 2) telescopic drilling, 3) application of appropriate drilling fluid, and 4) controlling the artesian flow by adding a long vertical pipe to the top of the relief wells. Numerical modeling of seepage for the Karkheh dam foundation showed that, as a result of the installation of the new relief wells, the safety factor of the downstream toe increased to the safe value of 1.3 for the normal reservoir water level.
A.a. Heshmati, A.r. Tabibnejad, H. Salehzadeh, S. Hashemi Tabatabaei,
Volume 13, Issue 1 (3-2015)

To investigate the saturation induced collapse deformation behavior of rockfill material, a set of large-scale triaxial tests were conducted in saturated and dry-saturated conditions. Specimens were tested under various confining pressures. For dry-saturated tests, specimens were sheared in various stress levels. Results of all dry saturated tests indicate a sudden reduction in the specimen volume during the submerging process. The ratio of the minimum axial strength of a submerged specimen (at the end of the saturation process) to the shear strength of the specimen before saturation is defined as the coefficient of stress recovery, Csr. Results show that this ratio increases as the confining pressure increases, and decreases as the shear stress level increases. According to the results of dry-saturated tests, reduction values of the internal friction angle caused by saturation (c), the ratio of the elasticity modulus of the material after saturation to its elasticity modulus in dry condition, i.e., Ewet/Edry, and the saturation induced sudden volumetric strain (vc) decrease as the confining pressures increase. However the shear stress level does not have any meaningful effect on the variation of c, Ewet/Edry and (vc).
M. Hajiazizi, Eng. A. R. Mazaheri,
Volume 13, Issue 1 (3-2015)

Stabilization of earth slopes with various proposed methods is one of the important concerns of geotechnical engineering. In this practice, despite numerous developments, design conservativeness and high costs of stabilization are the issues yet to be addressed. This paper not only deals with pile location optimization but also studies the effects of the pile length by using line segments slip surface (non-circular). Taking into account the line segments slip surface in stabilization of earth slopes is a new topic which has been addressed in this paper. The line segments slip surface is actual slip surface and for determining the pile location it can lead to the actual length of the pile. The line segments critical slip surface is obtained by using the Alternating Variable Local Gradient (AVLG) optimization method. AVLG is an approach in optimization process and it is based on the Univariate method. The line segments form the initial and critical slip surface. Pile improper installation and inadequate length not only fails to increase the factor of safety, but also reduces it. The analyses are performed using the limit equilibrium (LE) method. Results of these analyses are acceptable and are properly consistent with the results obtained by other researchers.
Mr. Mehdi Goorani, Dr. Amir Hamidi,
Volume 13, Issue 2 (6-2015)

This paper presents a model for prediction of the mechanical behavior of sand-gravel mixtures using generalized plasticity and critical state concepts. Proposed model is based on the difference between critical state lines of sand and sand-gravel mixture in e-Lnp' plane. A generalized plasticity model is considered as the base model for sandy soil. Its state parameter, dilation rate and hardening function are modified to involve the effects of gravel particles on the behavior of mixture. Gravel content is considered as a physical parameter for determination of four new added parameters of the model. Verification of the proposed model performed considering four sets of experiments conducted by different researchers on poorly graded sand-gravel mixtures. According to the results, proposed model provides satisfactory qualitative and quantitative predictions of the behavior of sand-gravel mixture. Stress- strain behavior besides volumetric strains in drained condition and induced pore pressure during undrained loading are satisfactory predicted which indicates the possibility of its application in boundary value problems of geotechnical engineering.

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