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Showing 9 results for Excavation

A. H. Eghbali, K. Fakharian,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (1-2014)
Abstract

Portland cement can be mixed with sand to improve its mechanical characteristics. Many studies are reported in literature on this topic, but the effect of principal stress rotation has not been investigated yet. Considering the inherent anisotropy of most sands, it is not clear whether the added cement shall contribute to equal increase in strength and stiffness at vertical and horizontal directions or not. Furthermore, it is not well understood how the cement as an additive in non-compacted (loose) sand compared to compacted (dense) sand without cement, contribute to improving the material behavior in undrained condition such as limiting the deformations and the liquefaction potential. In this research, undrained triaxial and simple shear tests under different stress paths are carried out on different mixtures of Portland cement (by adding 1.5, 3 and 5 percent) with clean sand to investigate the effect of principal stress rotations. The triaxial test results revealed that the cement mixture reduces the anisotropy, while it improves the mixture mechanical properties compared to compacted sand without cement. The results of the simple shear tests validated the triaxial test results and further clarified the effect of the  parameter or rotation of principal stresses on the behavior of cemented sand mixtures.
M. Afzalirad, M. Kamalian, M. K. Jafari, A. Sohrabi-Bidar,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (1-2014)
Abstract

In this paper, an advanced formulation of time-domain, two-dimensional Boundary Element Method (BEM) with material damping is presented. Full space two-dimensional visco-elastodynamic time-convoluted kernels are proposed in order to incorporate proportional damping. This approach is applied to carry out site response analysis of viscoelastic topographic structures subjected to SV and P incident waves. Seismic responses of horizontally layered site, semi-circular canyons, slope topography and ridge sections subjected to these incident waves are analyzed in order to demonstrate the accuracy of the kernels and the applicability of the presented viscoelastic boundary element algorithm. The results show an excellent agreement with recent published results obtained in frequency domain. Also, the effects of different material damping ratios on site response are investigated.
J. Nazari Afshar, M. Ghazavi,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (1-2014)
Abstract

The Stone-column is a useful method for increasing the bearing capacity and reducing settlement of foundation soil. The prediction of accurate ultimate bearing capacity of stone columns is very important in soil improvement techniques. Bulging failure mechanism usually controls the failure mechanism. In this paper, an imaginary retaining wall is used such that it stretches vertically from the stone column edge. A simple analytical method is introduced for estimation of the ultimate bearing capacity of the stone column using Coulomb lateral earth pressure theory. Presented method needs conventional Mohr-coloumb shear strength parameters of the stone column material and the native soil for estimation the ultimate bearing capacity of stone column. The validity of the developed method has been verified using finite element method and test data. Parametric studies have been carried out and effects of contributing parameters such as stone column diameter, column spacing, and the internal friction angle of the stone column material on the ultimate bearing capacity have been investigated.
H. Shahnazari, M. A. Shahin, M. A. Tutunchian,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (1-2014)
Abstract

Due to the heterogeneous nature of granular soils and the involvement of many effective parameters in the geotechnical behavior of soil-foundation systems, the accurate prediction of shallow foundation settlements on cohesionless soils is a complex engineering problem. In this study, three new evolutionary-based techniques, including evolutionary polynomial regression (EPR), classical genetic programming (GP), and gene expression programming (GEP), are utilized to obtain more accurate predictive settlement models. The models are developed using a large databank of standard penetration test (SPT)-based case histories. The values obtained from the new models are compared with those of the most precise models that have been previously proposed by researchers. The results show that the new EPR and GP-based models are able to predict the foundation settlement on cohesionless soils under the described conditions with R2 values higher than 87%. The artificial neural networks (ANNs) and genetic programming (GP)-based models obtained from the literature, have R2 values of about 85% and 83%, respectively which are higher than 80% for the GEP-based model. A subsequent comprehensive parametric study is further carried out to evaluate the sensitivity of the foundation settlement to the effective input parameters. The comparison results prove that the new EPR and GP-based models are the most accurate models. In this study, the feasibility of the EPR, GP and GEP approaches in finding solutions for highly nonlinear problems such as settlement of shallow foundations on granular soils is also clearly illustrated. The developed models are quite simple and straightforward and can be used reliably for routine design practice.
R. Eskrootchi, M. H. Sebt, F. Jazebi,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (9-2014)
Abstract

In different projects the speed of different machinery can be estimated using manufacturer's handbooks and a number of modification factors to consider the environmental effects, type of the project and status of site management. Since the statuses of different factors of the domestic projects are totally different from those of the international projects, there is a wide discrepancy between the determined speed by handbooks and the actual values in the domestic projects. This paper is aimed to develop a fuzzy system to estimate soil excavation rates at earthmoving jobsites. The proposed fuzzy system is based on IF-THEN rules a genetic algorithm improves the overall accuracy. The obtained results clearly revealed the capability and applicability of the proposed system to properly estimate soil excavation speed. The average error of fuzzy system, handbook method and nearest neighbor interpolation are 10 , 92 and 32 percent, respectively.
Z. Sabzi, A. Fakher,
Volume 13, Issue 1 (3-2015)
Abstract

Limitations in the design method used for the support systems of urban buildings make them vulnerable to damage by adjacent excavations. This paper examines a traditional system used to support excavation sites and adjacent buildings in which inclined struts are connected to the wall or foundation of the adjacent building. This method can be considered to be a type of shoring or underpinning. The performance of buildings and the criteria for deformation control during excavation are introduced. Next, a 2D finite element analysis is presented in which an excavation is modeled considering the parameters from the adjacent building and the inclined struts. The numerical model is capable of simulating the overall excavation and installation of the support system. The soil is modeled using an elastic perfectly-plastic constitutive relation based on the Mohr-Coulomb criterion. The finite element model is validated using Rankine earth pressure and in situ data was measured during an excavation. The effect of different variables on performance and acceptable limits for the inclined strut are discussed. The model used for the parametric study shows the influence of the characteristics of the adjacent building, soil parameters, geometry of excavation, type of excavation and effect of strut installation. It was found that one type of strut arrangement produced the best possible result. The results can be used as a primary approximation of small-to-medium depth excavations in which struts are used to reduce the deflections.
Changjie Xu, Yuanlei Xu, Honglei Sun,
Volume 13, Issue 2 (6-2015)
Abstract

In soft soil areas, equal-length piles are often adopted in the retaining system. A decrease in the bending moment value borne by the retaining structure along the pile depth (below the excavation bottom), leads to an inadequate use of the pile bending capacity near the pile bottom. This paper presents retaining systems with long and short pile combinations, in which the long piles ensure integral stability of the excavation while the short piles give full play to bearing the bending moment. For further analysis on pile and bottom heaves deformations and inner-force characteristics, three-dimensional models were built in order to simulate the stage construction of the excavation. The ratio between long and short pile numbers, and the effects on short pile length pile horizontal deformation, pile bending moment and bottom heave are investigated in detail. In the end, a feasible long-short pile combination is established. Obtained results from the simulation data and the field data prove that the long-short pile retaining system is feasible.
Yang Wang, Kai Su, Hegao Wu, Zhongdong Qian,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (6-2017)
Abstract

The reinforced concrete bifurcation in hydropower station is consistently under high internal water pressure, and its diameter is usually larger than common duct junctions. In order to diminish or to decrease the heavy plastic zone and stress concentration, structure rounding is commonly used on bifurcation. This will bring some changes to the flow characteristic of bifurcation, and it is an interesting attempt to figure out the influence of structure rounding optimization. The Realizable k-ε model was employed in Computational Fluid Dynamics numerical simulation. The water pressure distribution was compared quantitatively at several certain sections. Furthermore, uneven pressure is analyzed by relative standard deviation. Hydraulic characteristics are discussed as well, including flow pattern, excavation volume and head loss in different working conditions. The results indicate that the pressure of pipe wall is uneven, and the maximum and minimum pressure value has a differential of 0.3% - 1.2% compared to relative static water pressure. The pressure unevenness will increase after structure rounding, and it has a positive correlation with structure rounding radius. At the same time, it is more reasonable for structure rounding in obtuse angle region than that in acute angle region, on account of well-distributed flow conditions and better economic benefit.



Volume 15, Issue 6 (9-2017)
Abstract

To reveal the deformation mechanism during tunneling in deep soft ground, triaxial unloading confining pressure tests and triaxial unloading creep tests were carried out on sandy mudstone specimens to study the dilatancy and fracturing behavior of soft rock. In the triaxial unloading confining pressure tests, the stress path and different unloading rates were considered to reflect the unloading characteristics of the excavation methods. The unloading rate effects and the rock damage evolution law are studied. The following conclusions are obtained from the results. Firstly, when the unloading rate is smooth, the peak strengths and deviatoric stress–strain curves under the unloading condition are close to those under the conventional loading condition. Secondly, the post-peak brittle characteristics are more apparent with the increasing unloading rates. Thirdly, the soft rock undergoes five deformation and failure regimes of elasticity, pre-peak unloading damage–dilatancy, post-peak brittle drop, linear strain softening and residual perfect plasticity under quasi-static smooth unloading of mechanized excavation which is mainly focused on in this study. Fourthly, the damage evolution law at the pre-peak damage–dilatancy stage follows an exponential function. Fifthly, during the post-peak stages, multistage microfractures are initiated, propagated and finally coalesced forming a shear-fragmentation band with a certain thickness, accompanied by significant volumetric dilatancy. In the triaxial unloading creep tests, multistep unloading of the confining pressure was applied, while the axial pressure was kept constant. The results show that when the deviatoric stress is larger and the experienced creep time is longer, the unloading effect and creep characteristics become more apparent accompanied with obvious lateral dilatancy, eventually leading to significant creep–dilatancy. The progressive failure with time is caused by the damage accumulating with time-dependent crack expansion, which can be called as ‘time-dependent damage and fracturing’. The reasons for the above evolution process are presented, then the deformation mechanism of soft rock is revealed. The soft rock deformation mainly consists of two parts. One part is the pre-peak damage–dilatancy and post-peak fracture–bulking produced at the excavation unloading instant. The other part is creep–dilatancy caused by time-dependent damage and fracturing in a period of time after excavation. The above-mentioned results of damage, dilatancy and fractures evolution process are in good agreement with the in situ monitoring results and previous studies about the surrounding rock convergence, fracturing and EDZ (excavation damaged zone) development.



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