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Showing 12 results for Durability

H.r. Ashrafi, A.a. Ramezanianpour,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (9-2007)

Deterioration of concrete structures in the Gulf region is a serious problem. Penetration of Chloride ion into concrete is responsible for such early deterioration. Determination of chloride diffusion coefficient is an effective way to predict the service life of concrete structures. In order to investigate the performance of concrete mixtures in such environments, ordinary and silica fume concrete mixtures containing various water to cementitious materials ratios were used. Rapid chloride permeability test and determination of diffusion coefficient of chloride ion penetration in accordance with bulk diffusion test under laboratory conditons simulated to Persian Gulf climate, and site investigation were performed. Concentration of chloride ions in various depths of concrete specimens was measured using acid soluble chloride test method. Test results show that silica fume reduces the chloride penetration and the diffusion coefficient in concrete mixtures. Different models were made for rapid chloride test results, and diffusion coefficient, of concretes maintained in the hot and corrosive environments of the Persian Gulf. The models which were calibrated with real data obtained from the concrete structures are capable to predict the penetration and service life of concrete structures in such corrosive environments.
A.a. Ramezanianpour, M. Mahdi Khani, Gh. Ahmadibeni,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (6-2009)

Rice Husk Ash (RHA) is a by-product of the agricultural industry which contains high amount of silicon dioxide (SiO2). In this research, for the first time in the Middle East, in order to supply typical RHA, a special furnace was designed and constructed in Amirkabir University of Technology. Afterwards, XRD and XRF techniques were used to determine the amorphous silica content of the burnt rice husk. Attempts were made to determine the optimum temperature and duration of burning. Results show that temperature of 650 degrees centigrade and 60 minutes burning time are the best combination. Then various experiments were carried out to determine properties of concretes incorporating optimum RHA. Tests include compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, modules of elasticity, water permeability and rapid chloride permeability test. Results show that concrete incorporating RHA had higher compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity at various ages compared with that of the control concrete. In addition, results show that RHA as an artificial pozzolanic material has enhanced the durability of RHA concretes and reduced the chloride diffusion.
D. P. Chen, C. X. Qian, C. L. Liu,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2010)

 Concrete deformation due to temperature and moisture condition will always develop simultaneously and interactively. The environmentally (hygral and thermally) induced stress and deformation are essential to concrete durability. To simulate the deformation of concrete caused by the coupling effect of temperature and moisture, a numerical simulation approach is proposed comprising analytical process and finite element analysis is proposed based on the mechanism of heat and moisture transfer in porous medium. In analytical method, Laplace transformation and transfer function were used to simplify and solve the coupled partial differential equations of heat and moisture transfer. The hygro-thermal deformation of concrete is numerically simulated by finite element method (FEM) based on the obtained temperature and moisture stress transformed from the solved moisture distribution. This numerical simulation approach avoids the complex eigenvalues, coupling difficulty and low accuracy in other solving method, and also effectively calculates the moisture induced shrinkage which is almost impossible using familiar FEM software. Furthermore, a software named Combined Temperature and Moisture Simulation System for concrete (CTMSoft) was represented and developed by a mix programming of Visual Basic, Matlab and ANSYS. CTMSoft provided a simple and more intuitive interface between user and computer by providing a graphical user interface (GUI). The validity of the numerical simulation approach was verified by two cases analysis.

A. Gharachorlou, Dr. A.a. Ramezanianpour ,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2010)

The use of epoxy-bonded FRPcomposite for structural repair is emerging as an efficient and cost-effective technique for restoring and upgrading the capacity of concrete structures. Considerable researches have been reported in the last decades on the mechanical behavior and failure modes of the FRPstrengthened RC elements but actual data on its durability are scarce. This study intends to examine the durability of concrete specimens strengthened with FRP laminates under accelerated laboratory conditions and mimic harsh environmental situation which is the penetration of chloride ions. In this study three groups of specimens were examined. Each of these groups includes several concrete cylindrical specimens full confined with FRP laminates for investigating different types of fiber (Glass and Carbon), number of fiber layers and temperature influences. Furthermore, an apparatus was fabricated to simulate wetting and drying cycles for the second group of specimens. Moreover group III specimens were placed in a marine environment for 3 years to monitor their performance. Test results show that addition of FRP laminates reduces chloride ions penetration up to 70 percent. Results also indicate that although chloride ions penetration decreased the ultimate strength of cylindrical specimens up to 11 percent but FRP strengthened specimens achieved their initial strengths. Moreover wetting and drying cycles reduced the strength of cylinder specimens up to about ten percent especially in the high temperature laboratory condition.

Mahmoud Reza Abdi,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (6-2011)

The use of various slags as by-products of steel industry is well established in civil engineering applications. However, the use

of BOS slag in the area of soil stabilization has not been fully researched and developed despite having similar chemical

composition and mineralogy to that of Portland cement. This paper reports on efforts to extend the use of BOS slag to soil

stabilization by determining possible beneficial effects it may have on compressive strength and durability. Results of laboratory

tests conducted on kaolinite samples stabilized with lime and treated with various percentages of BOS slag are presented. Tests

determined strength development of compacted cylinders, moist cured in a humid environment at 35° C and durability by freezing

and thawing method. Results showed that additions of BOS slag to kaolinite samples singularly or in combination with lime

increased unconfined compressive strength and durability. These characteristics were significantly enhanced by the concurrent

use of lime and BOS slag for stabilization of kaolinite.

A.a. Maghsoudi, Sh. Amohamadpour, M. Maghsoudi,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (9-2011)

Considering normal concrete (NC) the type of concrete need to be vibrated after placing in the formwork, Lightweight

concretes have been successfully applied in the building constructions for decades because of their low specific weight in

connection with a high strength, a high capacity of thermal insulation and a high durability. The development leading to a self

compacting light weight concrete (SCLWC) represents an important innovative step in the recent years. This concrete combines

the favorable properties of a lightweight concrete with those of a self compacting concrete (i.e., the type of concrete need no

vibration after placing in the formwork). Research work is aimed on development of (SCLWC) with the use of light weight

aggregates " Light expand clay aggregate (Leca)". In this investigation, by trial and error procedure, different mix design of

SCLWC were caste and tested to reach a so called standard self compacting concrete in fresh matrix phase such as values of

slump flow, L-box, V-funnel and in hardened phase, the 28 day compressive strength. Based on the results obtained, for two best

so-called standard mix design of SCLWC the stress-strain diagrams are drawn and discussed. Also by three different methods,

the modulus of elasticity of SCLWC are obtained and discussed here. It was found that a brittle mode of failure is governed in


M. Khorami, J. Sobhani,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (12-2013)

Worldwide, asbestos fibers utilized in fiber cement boards, have been recognized as harmful materials regarding the public health and environmental pollutions. These concerns motivate the researchers to find the appropriate alternatives to substitute the asbestos material towards the sustainability policies. In this paper, the applicability of asbestos replacement with three types of agricultural waste fibers, including bagasse, wheat and eucalyptus fibers were experimentally investigated. To this end, the flexural behaviour and microstructure of cement composite boards made by addition of 2 % and 4 % of waste agricultural fibers in combination with and without 5 % replacement of silica fume by mass of cement were evaluated. The results of this study attested the applicability of utilized waste agricultural fibers in production of cement composite boards by improving the flexural and energy absorption characteristics, more or less, depending on the type of fibers. Moreover, it is found that application of silica fume in production of cement composite boards led to an increase in flexural strength.
M. Zargaran, N. K. A. Attari, P. Teymouri,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (3-2014)

Polymeric yarns for reinforcing cement composites have got great interest in all over the world. In this research the performance of bonding between Nylon tire cord grad yarns, and one kind of cement composite called fine grained concrete was studied. Two kinds of Nylon cord yarns, nylon 6 and 66, with different finesse were selected. The durability of yarns with time in alkaline media was investigated. Meanwhile the effect of usual tire cord coating on bonding performance and alkaline durability of yarns were studied by mechanical testing and SEM images. Then the bonding of these yarns to cement paste and the effects of finesse on bonding performance were investigated by pull out tests. The results show that coating could enhance alkaline durability. Results also show that yarns with higher finesse are more sensitive to alkaline media and their mechanical properties reduced more. SEM images show that in general, alkali damage of Nylon tire cord yarns was not deep and no significant changes were observed on the surface of filaments after exposed to alkali. The bonding of Nylon tire cord to cement composite was suitable and no slippage was observed. The pull out behavior of finer yarns is better than coarse yarns. Meanwhile tire cord coating could enhance bonding of yarns to cement paste.
M. B. Esfandiari Sowmehsaraei, R. Jamshidi Chenari,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (1-2014)

Soil reinforced with fiber shows characteristics of a composite material, in which fiber inclusion has a significant effect on soil permeability. Concerning to the higher void ratio of carpet fibers, at first stages it may be expected that an increase in fiber content of the reinforced soil would result in an increase in permeability of the mixture. However, the present article demonstrates that fiber inclusion will decrease the permeability of sand-fiber composite.A series of constant head permeability tests have been carried out to show the effects and consequently, a new system of phase relationships was introduced to calculate the dry mass for the sand portion of the composite. Monte Carlo simulation technique adopted with finite element theory was employed to back calculate the hydraulic conductivity of individual porous fibers from the laboratory test results. It was observed that the permeability coefficient of the porous fibers are orders of magnitude less than the skeletal sand portion due to the fine sand particle entrapment and also the fiber volume change characteristics.
D.p. Chen, C.w. Miao, J.p. Liu, M.s. Tang,
Volume 13, Issue 3 (9-2015)

This paper presents theoretical and numerical state-of-the-art information in the field of hygro-thermo-mechanical deformation simulation in structural concrete. The aspects discussed include coupled hygro-thermo-mechanical performance of porous materials including concrete, multi-scale simulation of concrete properties especially the volumetric and structural deformation performance, and the multi-scale simulation of concrete under the coupling effect of multi-physics fields. The multi-scale simulation section includes the multi-scale simulation of composition and structure in concrete, the multi-scale simulation of concrete’s mechanical performance, and the multi-scale simulation of durability concerned performance of concrete. This paper presents an overview of the work, of which data from early 80 recent studies, carried out on the multiscale simulation of hygro-thermo-mechanical deformation performance of structural concrete. The relating previous studies and analysis showed that sufficient data have been obtained to give confidence in simulating hygro-thermo-mechanical performance of concrete based on the theory of heat and mass transfer in porous media, and the clear relationships have been obtained between moisture-heat transfer and hygro-thermal distribution at different scale. It is necessary to make further systematic multi-scale research on the relationship between micro-structure and property parameters of cement paste, threephase basic properties at meso level of concrete and the performance of concrete structures, which makes important practical significance to solve the crack of large-area and mass concrete structure and improve the durability of concrete structures
A. Allahvedi, H. Hashemi,
Volume 13, Issue 4 (12-2015)

This paper presents an investigation on durability of alkali-activated slag mortar against magnesium sulfate attack. To do so, the immersion tests in 5% magnesium sulfate solution under room temperature and wetting-drying cycles were applied. Mortar specimens from Portland cements type 2 and 5 in accordance to ASTM standard were also prepared and used as reference. The changes in compressive strength and length of specimens were measured at different time intervals and considered for evaluating the extent of degradation. After 360 days of exposure to the magnesium sulfate solution, type 2 and 5 Portland cements and alkali-activated slag cement have shown 61, 41 and 34% reduction in compressive strength and 0.093, 0.057 and 0.021% increase in length, respectively. The specimens were also studied by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy for characterizing the chemical products of the degradation process. Main degradation products were ettringite and gypsum for Portland cements and gypsum for alkali-activated slag cement. According to the obtained results, alkali-activated slag cement exhibits a higher sulfate resistance compared to type 2 and even type 5 Portland cements

Hassan Ziari, Parham Hayati, Jafar Sobhani,
Volume 15, Issue 1 (1-2017)

In this paper, self-consolidating concrete (SCC) mixtures are considered for airfield concrete pavements. A series of rheological, mechanical, transport and frost action durability tests were conducted on the prepared SCC mixtures with and without chemical air entraining agents (AEA). Mineral admixtures including slag, fly ash, silica fume and metakaolin were included in SCC mixtures. The results showed that application of mineral admixture led to significant improvements on the performance of airfield concrete pavement mixtures. Moreover, the performance of mixtures against frost action upgraded when AEA included in companion with the mineral admixtures.

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