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A. Hamidi, M. Alizadeh, S.m. Soleimani,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (March 2009)

There are limitations in experimental studies on sand-gravel mixtures due to the small size of testing

specimens. Due to this problem, many researchers have worked on prediction of the shear strength of mixture by testing

the sandy fraction of soil alone and developed empirical relationships. Most of the previous relationships have been

determined for low surcharge pressures in which particle breakage does not affect the shear strength parameters.

However, the particle breakage affects the relationships in higher confinements. At the present study, the results of

large scale direct shear tests on sand and sand-gravel mixtures was used to investigate the shear behavior and

dilatancy characteristics in a wider range of surcharge pressures. The gravel content, relative density, surcharge

pressure and gravel grain size were considered as variables in testing program. The relationships between shear

strength characteristics of sand and sand-gravel mixtures were determined considering dilation characteristics of the

soil. In this regard, the minimum void ratio was found as a useful indirect index that relates uniquely to the critical

state friction angle independent of soil gradation. The relations between critical state or peak friction angles of the

mixture with minimum void ratio were determined as a function of surcharge pressure. The correlations could be useful

for determination of the strength parameters of sand-gravel composites by testing sandy fraction of mixture.

R. Mahin Roosta, A. Alizadeh,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (June 2012)

In the first impounding of rockfill dams, additional settlements occur in upstream side in saturated rockfills due to collapse
phenomenon even high rainy seasons can cause additional deformation in the dumped rockfills. Unfortunately these
displacements are not taken into account in the conventional numerical models which are currently used to predict embankment
dam behavior during impounding. In this paper to estimate these displacements, strain hardening-strain softening model in Flac
is modified based on the laboratory tests, in which same impounding process in such dams is considered. Main feature of the
model is reproduction of nonlinear behavior of rockfill material via mobilized shear strength parameters and using collapse
coefficient to display induced settlement due to inundation. This mobilization of shear strength parameters associated with some
functions for dilatancy behavior of rockfill are used in a finite difference code for both dry and wet condition of material. Collapse
coefficient is defined as a stress dependent function to show stress release in the material owing to saturation. To demonstrate
how the model works, simulation of some large scale triaxial tests of rockfill material in Gotvand embankment dam is presented
and results are compared with those from laboratory tests, which are in good agreement. The technique could be used with any
suitable constitutive law in other coarse-grained material to identify collapse settlements due to saturation

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