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Showing 2 results for Heterogeneity

J. Jalili, M. K. Jafari, A. Shafiee, J. Koseki, T. Sato,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (6-2012)

A series of tests and also numerical analyses were conducted to explore the mechanical behavior of a mixture of coarse gravelsize
particles floating in a matrix of silt, sand or clay. The research is a step forward in an ongoing investigation on behavior of
composite clay, which is used as the core material of some large embankment dams all over the world. After providing the reader
with an overall image about behavior of such materials through the literature, the paper focuses on a predominant feature of the
composite soil behavior: increase of non-deformable solid inclusions in a mixture leads to formation of heterogeneity of stress
field, excess pore water pressure and strain distribution along the specimens. This paper mainly probes formation of such
heterogeneity by the aid of special experiments and also numerical analyses. In addition to loading details, it is clarified through
the paper that position of inclusions relative to loading direction also affects heterogeneity of stress/strain and excess pore water
pressure distribution through the mixture. Despite the former, the latter redistributes with a rate proportional to material
hydraulic conductivity.

Abdullah Ahmad, Rajat Rastogi,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (6-2017)

Sufficient literature is available on approaches to deal with heterogeneous traffic on mid-blocks in developing countries, but not much work is done on roundabouts. The estimation of passenger car unit (PCU) for different vehicles to convert heterogeneous traffic into homogeneous traffic is a well-accepted procedure. But the parameters used for mid-blocks may not be helpful on roundabouts as traffic flow characteristics on the two locations are different. Suggested PCU values on roundabouts from developing countries are not recent, and needs a relook. It is also not clear whether to use static or dynamic PCU values on account of possible temporal and spatial variations across locations. This paper presents an estimation approach for PCUs on roundabouts, as well as, suggests using static value instead of dynamic. The problem to deal with re-estimation of PCU values at different locations, due to possible traffic flow variations, is dealt with by proposing a Heterogeneity Equivalency Factor (H-Factor). The factor is multiplicative and converts heterogeneous traffic (veh/h) into homogeneous traffic (pcu/h).

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