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D. Galan, M. Marchamalo, R. Martinez-Marin, J. A. Sanchez-Sobrino,
Volume 11, Issue 2 (Transaction A: Civil Engineering, June 2013)

New advances in geomatics and communications technologies are enabling the development of Automated Auscultation System for structure monitoring. In particular, Differential GPS (DGPS) technique allows real-time monitoring of structures with millimetre accuracy after an appropriate mathematical treatment. The results of real-time DGPS monitoring of a pilot dam over 15 months are presented and compared with the results of pendulums and angular collimation. DGPS monitoring was established to control two points at the top of the dam with reference to an external and stable station. Communications were critical, evolving from initial GPRS connections to more reliable ASDL line in the last months. Real-time DGPS positions were filtered to reach millimetric accuracy through Kalman filter. Two configurations of the filter were tested, one more adapted to predictable and uniform velocity deformations (low frequency) and another more suitable for sudden and large movements (high frequency). Root mean square errors were calculated taking pendulums as a reference. Results show that both DGPS and angular collimation allow monitoring with millimetric accuracy. In the last period, where communications with processing server were stable, a global accuracy of 1.44 and 1.86 mm was reached for real-time DGPS monitoring. RINEX post-processing yielded millimetric results, validating real-time observations. We can affirm that the DGPS system is very useful for dam auscultation and safety as it detects adequately absolute deformations, being a complement to existing methods which should be considered in new safety plans.
Ramos-Alcazar Luis, Marchamalo-Sacristan Miguel, Martinez-Marin Ruben,
Volume 15, Issue 2 (Transaction A: Civil Engineering 2017)

This article presents a new approach to obtain a complete map-type plot of the precisions of TLS equipment based on the direct measurement of time of flight method at midrange distances. Tests were developed in field-like conditions, similar to dam monitoring and other civil engineering works. Taking advantage of graphic semiological techniques, a map in “distance - angle of incidence” coordinates was designed and evaluated for field-like conditions. A map-type plot was designed combining isolines and sized and colored points, proportional to precision values. Precisions under different field conditions were compared with specifications. For this purpose, processed point clouds were evaluated under two approaches: classical "plane-of-best-fit" and proposed "simulated deformation”, that showed improved performance. These results lead to a discussion and recommendations about optimal TLS operation in civil engineering works.

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