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Showing 76 results for Sand

X. Liu, K. Sheng, J.h. Hua, B.n. Hong, J.j. Zhu,
Volume 13, Issue 3 (12-2015)
Abstract

In order to improve the utilization of high liquid limit soil, the fundamental properties of high liquid limit soil and its direct utilization method are studied in this paper. This work involves both laboratory and fieldwork experiments. The results show that clay and sandy clay both with high liquid limit can be directly used for the road embankment, and the degree of compaction can be controlled at 88 %. The pack-and-cover method in accordance with Chinese technical specifications is recommended to be operated in the engineering practice. The packed height should be less than 8 meters and the total height of embankment no more than 12 meters in the interests of settlement. From the view of stability, the optimal thickness value of top sealing soil layer and edge sealing soil layer is about 1.5 meter respectively, and the geogrid reinforcement spacing should be about 2.0 meters. In addition, based on Yun-Luo expressway in China filled with high liquid limit soil, the construction techniques and key points of quality control in subgrade with pack-and-cover method are compared and discussed in detail, and the feasibility of these schemes are verified by the experimental results.


M.a. Rahgozar,
Volume 13, Issue 3 (12-2015)
Abstract

The interactive effects of adjacent buildings on their seismic performance are not frequently considered in seismic design. The adjacent buildings, however, are interrelated through the soil during seismic ground motions. The seismic energy is redistributed in the neighboring buildings through multiple structure-soil-structure interactions (SSSI). For example, in an area congested with many nearby tall and/or heavy buildings, accounting for the proximity effects of the adjacent buildings is very important. To solve the problem of SSSI successfully, researchers indicate two main research areas where need the most attention: 1) accounting for soil nonlinearity in an efficient way, and 2) spatial analysis of full 3D soil-structure models. In the present study, three-dimensional finite element models of tall buildings on different flexible foundation soils are used to evaluate the extent of cross interaction of adjacent buildings. Soil nonlinearity under cyclic loading is accounted for by Equivalent Linear Method (ELM) as to conduct large parametric studies in the field of seismic soil-structure interaction, the application of ELM is preferred over other alternatives (such as application of complicated constitutive soil models) due to the efficiency and reliability of its results. 15 and 30 story steel structures with pile foundations on two sandy and clayey sites are designed according to modern codes and then subjected to several actual earthquake records scaled to represent the seismicity of the building sites. Results show the cross interaction of adjacent buildings on flexible soils, depending on their proximity, increases dynamic displacements of buildings and reduces their base shears. 


M. Alibolandi, Dr. R. Ziaie Moayed,
Volume 13, Issue 3 (12-2015)
Abstract

In this study a series of cyclic triaxial tests were performed to examine the undrained dynamic resistance of silty sand reinforced with various arrangements of geotextile layers. The silt content of samples varies in percentage from 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%. A total of 32 laboratory cyclic triaxial tests have been performed on silty sand samples reinforced with geotextile layers in different depths. All tests were performed with 100 kPa confining pressure, subjected to an isotropic consolidated undrained (CIU) condition. The tests were conducted at a frequency of 2 Hz. Results indicate that both the geotextile arrangement and the silt content were most essential in the liquefaction potential of reinforced sands. An increase in the number of geotextile layers enhanced the cyclic resistance of reinforced samples against the liquefaction potential. It was also found that when the geotextile layer was posited near the top of the specimen (load application part) the liquefaction resistance would increase (e.g. for clean sands, the improvement of liquefaction resistance caused by the geotextile layer had a 0.2 depth, and the sample height was 5.5 times greater than the geotextile layer inserted in mid height of sample H). Based on the obtained results, effects of geotextile on liquefaction resistance decreased as fines content increased to about 33%. Further increase in the fines content however, would lead to higher in reinforcement advantages. The liquefaction improvement is more effective with a higher number of geotextile layers. The results also revealed that the reinforcement effect in FC≈33 % is at its lowest amount. 


Omar Al Hattamleh,
Volume 14, Issue 2 (3-2016)
Abstract

ABSTRACT The influence of the sand placement method above geotextile layer on interface shear strength behavior was investigated. Seven different types of woven and non woven geotextile were used with only poorly graded sand. The investigation involved placement of sand layer through inclined horizontal plane with different angles. This step constitutes a fundamental step for assessing soil to be deposited in different plane and therefore with different internal soil fabric. The interface shear strength was evaluated by using direct shear test. Although the investigated soil is uniform poorly graded sand, the influence of the deposit plane was significant especially for nonwoven geotextile. Differences in soil interface shear strength associated with the tested geotextiles samples shows that samples with higher mass per unit area and same opening sizes had the higher interface friction angle regardless the bedding plane. Influence of bedding plane on interface modulus of elasticity which used in most of interface modeling was investigated using Janbu’s formula. It is noted that the use of secant interface modulus of elasticity at 1% strain and at 50% of peak stresses gave a consistent prediction of n and Ku constant appear in Janbu’s formula for all types of geotextile. The above results were reflected in the prediction for interface molded such as Chen and Juran as shown. Therefore, the existing interface modeled is needed to be modified to account for the method that the sand is being placed above the geotextile layer.


Mohammad Reza Lotfizadeh, Mohsen Kamalian,
Volume 14, Issue 2 (3-2016)
Abstract

A study has been conducted on the bearing capacity of strip footings over sandy layered soils using the stress characteristic lines method. Traditional bearing capacity theories for specifying the ultimate bearing capacity of shallow foundations are based on the idea that the bearing layer is homogenous and infinite. However layered soils are mainly happening in practice. The stress characteristic lines method is a powerful numerical tool in order to solve stability problems in geotechnical engineering. In the present paper, an appropriate algorithm is derived for estimating the static bearing capacity of strip footing located on two layered soils using the stress characteristic lines method. Some numerical and experimental examples are presented in order to validate the proposed algorithm. Some graphs and equation are presented for initial estimating the effective depth of strip footings located on two layered soils.


Behrooz Mehrzad, Abdolhosein Haddad, Yaser Jafarian,
Volume 14, Issue 2 (3-2016)
Abstract

Currently, there is no reliable design procedure which considers all aspects of liquefaction effects on shallow foundations. There are many light and heavy structures resting on saturated sand with high liquefaction potential in seismic areas. The aim of this experimental and numerical study is to evaluate the performance of two shallow foundations with different contact pressures in liquefaction. The results of the centrifuge experiment of shallow foundations with surcharges of three-story and nine-story buildings on liquefiable sand are presented in detail. Although entire soil profile liquefied, no liquefaction observed under the foundations. There was a clear difference in settlement mechanisms observed beneath the shallow foundation and in the free-field. The heavy foundation fluctuated more strongly compared with the lighter one. The effect of soil permeability and contact pressure on foundation response was investigated during numerical study. The experiment was simulated two dimensionally using a fully coupled nonlinear constitutive model (UBCSAND) implemented in a finite difference program, FLAC-2D. The results show that settlement of foundations increased with the increase of soil permeability. Trends of excess pore water pressure were captured reasonably by the soil model, but the settlement mechanisms were different. The soil model underestimated total liquefaction-induced settlement of shallow foundation, especially for light foundation.


Kazem Fakharian, Ali Borhani,
Volume 14, Issue 4 (6-2016)
Abstract

The behavior of Chamkhaleh sand and three other recognized sands namely, Babolsar, Firouzkuh and Standard (Ottawa) sands are compared using triaxial apparatus under undrained monotonic loading conditions. Chamkhaleh and Babolsar sands are supplied naturally from southern Caspian Sea shorelines, whereas artificial Firouzkuh and Standard sands were supplied commercially. Samples were prepared using wet tamping with regard to the reduced compaction effect at relative density of 15% under isotropic consolidation pressures of 100, 300 and 500 kPa. The results of triaxial tests have indicated that Chamkhaleh sand has much more dilation tendency than the other sands. In order to evaluate the reasons behind this behavior, the spherecity and roundness of all the four sand particles were measured using an image processing method. It was revealed that the spherecity of the four sands is not much different, but Chamkhaleh sand is more angular than the other sands. For comparison of the dilative response of the sands in undrained triaxial tests, a “dilation tendency index” is introduced. This index may be used as a criterion for measuring the dilation of sands in undrained tests. Results have shown that the internal friction angle under the steady state condition is more dependent on the shape of particles than the maximum strength condition. For spherecities greater than 0.5, the dependency rate of sand behavior on the roundness is decreased.



Volume 14, Issue 4 (6-2016)
Abstract

Complete recognition of calcareous sediments engineering behavior considering their local expansion and wide variety of engineering properties is very important. In south parts of Iran, there are some carbonate hydrocarbon reservoirs which are covered by calcareous deposits. Hormuz Island in is one of the most strategic areas in Hormuz Strait between Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. In this study, a series of undrained monotonic and cyclic simple shear tests was performed on saturated Hormuz calcareous sand specimens using hollow cylinder torsional apparatus. The tests were carried out on specimens with various relative densities under different effective consolidation stresses. Based on the results, pore pressure generation, shear strain development, stress-strain characteristics of the specimens are presented and compared with the technical literature. In addition, dissipation of strain-based energy during the cyclic loading and its relation to excess pore water pressure is described. The cyclic resistance curves of specimens with different initial conditions are plotted. Also the results of monotonic and cyclic tests are compared together for better interpretation of Hormuz calcareous sand under undrained torsional loading.


Yones Sojodi,
Volume 14, Issue 4 (6-2016)
Abstract

The paper present the results of various experimental and numerical studies on slopes, small scale physical modeling of slope under surcharge load were performed in loose sand environment. Digital images were captured during the incremental loading from side of model simultaneously. The Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and 3D numerical model was applied to investigate the slope under surcharge loading and some of the other important factors that control the performance of piles are investigated. The factors of safety and location of critical failure surfaces of reinforced and unreinforced slopes obtained and compared for various slopes. For homogenous slope, it is found for stabilized slope with piles, the 3D failure surface shape in front of piles is triangle, unlike its conical shape in laterally loaded piles. The paper also studies numerically the effect of soft bound effect, soil properties, pile spacing, pile position and surcharge distance effects on stabilized and none stabilized slopes. The results indicate that the depth of soft soil layer from ground surface and its angles with horizontal direction has importance effect on optimum location of stabilized pile. Studies on pile space effects shows with increasing pile space, arching phenomenon didn’t developed and partial pressure of supported portion transferred to un supported soil portion and the potential failure volume of the slope becomes large.


Hanane Dob , Salah Messast, Abdelhamid Mendjel, Marc Boulon, Etienne Flavigny,
Volume 14, Issue 7 (10-2016)
Abstract

Considerable strains appear in the structures during accumulation of the irreversible strains of the subgrade under the effect of the cyclic loads. If the number of cycles is very large, even a small strain after accumulation becomes significant and sometimes harmful. In this study, a simple numerical modeling of the behavior of sand under cyclic loading is proposed. The suggested approach consists, in drained condition, in determining the parameters characterizing the average cyclic path of the soil under the effect of the number of cycles duly characterized and translating the cyclic effect by a volumetric strain cumulated by a variation of the module of the soil. In this study, we are interested in cyclic triaxial compression tests simulated by a finite element calculation. While proposing an analogy between the cyclic pseudo creep and the soft soil creep model (SSCM), on the first hand we propose an equivalence between the cyclic parameters and the parameters of SSCM, and on the other an equivalence time number of cycles will be established. The application of the formulation suggested on a shallow foundation under cyclic loading confirms the good adaptation of the model suggested to this type of problem.


Mahdi Karkush, Dhurgham Al-Hamdani,
Volume 15, Issue 3 (5-2017)
Abstract

The present study focuses on measuring the effects of industrial wastewater disposed from thermal electricity power plant as by-product on the geotechnical properties of sandy soil and applying washing process to remediate the contaminated soil samples and measure the efficiency of washing technique. The disturbed sandy soil samples were obtained from Al-Kufa City located to the southwest of Iraq and the industrial wastewater obtained from Al-Musayib thermal electricity power plant. The intact sandy soil was contaminated in the laboratory with four percentages of industrial wastewater (10, 20, 40 and 100%) calculated according to the weight of dry soil. The industrial wastewater is mixed with distilled water to constitute the solution used in the contamination process of soil through soaking the soil by this solution for 30 days. The study results showed that with increasing the percentages of the contaminant, there was a slight increase in both the liquid limit and particle size, while there was a significant increase in the optimum water content. Nevertheless, a slight decrease was observed in the specific gravity, maximum dry unit weight, and void ratio, while, a considerable decrease was noticed in the angle of the internal friction and coefficient of permeability of soil. The proposed remediation technique “soil washing” is efficient, economical, and time saving when used to remediate sandy soils. After remediation, the results showed an increase in the cohesion, angle of internal friction and maximum dry unit weight. Also, a slight increase was observed in the specific gravity, void ratio and permeability coefficient of remediated soil samples when compared with that of contaminated samples. The removal efficiencies of contaminant from soil were (97.63, 96.79, 96.58, and 93.87%) for the soil samples contaminated with industrial wastewater by (10, 20, 40 and 100%), respectively.


G. P. Ganapathy, R. Gobinath, I. I. Akinwumi, S. Kovendiran, M. Thangaraj, N. Lokesh, S. Muhamed Anas, R. Arul Murugan, P. Yogeswaran, S. Hema,
Volume 15, Issue 3 (5-2017)
Abstract

Soils with poor engineering properties have been a concern to construction engineers because of the need to strike a balance between safety and economy during earthworks construction. This research work investigates the effects of treating a soil having poor geotechnical properties with a bio-enzyme to determine its suitability for use as road pavement layer material. The elemental composition and microstructure of the soil was determined using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The specific gravity, Atterberg limits, compaction, strength and permeability characteristics of the soil was determined for various dosages of the bio-enzyme. The mountain soil is classified as clayey sand and A-2–4, according to unified soil classification and AASHTO classification systems, respectively. With increasing dosage of the bio-enzyme, the plasticity index, maximum dry unit weight and permeability of the soil decreased, while its 28-day California bearing ratio value, unconfined compressive strength and shear strength increased. Consequently, the application of bio-enzyme to the soil improved its plasticity and strength, and reduced its permeability. It, therefore, became more workable and its subgrade quality was improved for use as a road pavement layer material. The stabilized soil can be suitably used for constructing pavement layers of light-trafficked rural (earth) roads, pedestrian walkways and bicycle tracks.


Zhechao Wang, Ron C. K. Wong, Liping Qiao, Wenge Qiu,
Volume 15, Issue 3 (5-2017)
Abstract

The effects of effective stress and void ratio on the secondary compressibility of the sandy and clayey soils were investigated in this study. The coefficient of secondary compression of Ottawa sand in single stage and stepwise loading tests increases with effective vertical stress while that of saturated kaolinite decreases with effective vertical stress. Multi-staged loading tests showed that at a given effective stress, the higher the void ratios of the soils, the higher the coefficients of secondary compression of the soils are. It was concluded that the secondary compressibility of a soil depends on not only the effective stress, but also the void ratio of the soil. A general relationship between the coefficient of secondary compression, and effective stress and void ratio was proposed for soil. The discrepancy of the dependency of secondary compressibility on effective stress for different soils was well explained using this relationship, moreover, the quasi-overconsolidated state of clayed soil induced by time effect and the effect of surcharge preloading on the secondary compressibility of soft ground were discussed in light of the general relationship.



Volume 15, Issue 6 (9-2017)
Abstract

In this study, an assessment to excess pore water pressure generated around a single pile and pile group excited by two opposite rotary machines embedded in saturated sandy soil was considered experimentally. A small-scale physical model was manufactured to accomplish the experimental work in the laboratory. The physical model consists of: two small motors supplied with eccentric mass of 0.012 kg and eccentric distance (20 mm) representing the two opposite rotary machines, an aluminum shaft 20 mm in diameter as the pile, and a steel plate with dimensions of (160 × 160 × 20 mm) as a pile cap. The experimental work was achieved taking the following parameters into considerations: pile embedment depth ratio (L/d), spacing between piles (S) and operating frequency of the rotary machines. Twelve tests were conducted in medium dense fine sandy soil with 60 % relative density. In all these tests, the change in excess pore water pressure was measured around the pile at two spots: at the middle of the pile and at its tip. The results revealed that the generation of excess pore water pressure was affected by the following parameters: slenderness ratio of the pile, operating frequency of the machines, and the soil permeability. However, for all cases, it was found that the pore water pressure generated during operation was not greater than 20 % of the initial hydrostatic pressure. Using pile foundation reduced the amplitude of vertical vibration by about (300 %) for all operating frequencies, lengths of piles, pile spacings and number of piles. In addition, the presence of piles reduced the disturbance (fluctuation) in this amplitude by about (400 %). For single pile, and under the same operating frequency, a small decrease in the amplitude of vertical vibration resulted from increasing the length of the pile.



Volume 15, Issue 6 (9-2017)
Abstract

To reveal the deformation mechanism during tunneling in deep soft ground, triaxial unloading confining pressure tests and triaxial unloading creep tests were carried out on sandy mudstone specimens to study the dilatancy and fracturing behavior of soft rock. In the triaxial unloading confining pressure tests, the stress path and different unloading rates were considered to reflect the unloading characteristics of the excavation methods. The unloading rate effects and the rock damage evolution law are studied. The following conclusions are obtained from the results. Firstly, when the unloading rate is smooth, the peak strengths and deviatoric stress–strain curves under the unloading condition are close to those under the conventional loading condition. Secondly, the post-peak brittle characteristics are more apparent with the increasing unloading rates. Thirdly, the soft rock undergoes five deformation and failure regimes of elasticity, pre-peak unloading damage–dilatancy, post-peak brittle drop, linear strain softening and residual perfect plasticity under quasi-static smooth unloading of mechanized excavation which is mainly focused on in this study. Fourthly, the damage evolution law at the pre-peak damage–dilatancy stage follows an exponential function. Fifthly, during the post-peak stages, multistage microfractures are initiated, propagated and finally coalesced forming a shear-fragmentation band with a certain thickness, accompanied by significant volumetric dilatancy. In the triaxial unloading creep tests, multistep unloading of the confining pressure was applied, while the axial pressure was kept constant. The results show that when the deviatoric stress is larger and the experienced creep time is longer, the unloading effect and creep characteristics become more apparent accompanied with obvious lateral dilatancy, eventually leading to significant creep–dilatancy. The progressive failure with time is caused by the damage accumulating with time-dependent crack expansion, which can be called as ‘time-dependent damage and fracturing’. The reasons for the above evolution process are presented, then the deformation mechanism of soft rock is revealed. The soft rock deformation mainly consists of two parts. One part is the pre-peak damage–dilatancy and post-peak fracture–bulking produced at the excavation unloading instant. The other part is creep–dilatancy caused by time-dependent damage and fracturing in a period of time after excavation. The above-mentioned results of damage, dilatancy and fractures evolution process are in good agreement with the in situ monitoring results and previous studies about the surrounding rock convergence, fracturing and EDZ (excavation damaged zone) development.


Dr. Mohammad Khasawneh,
Volume 15, Issue 7 (10-2017)
Abstract

During the entire life cycle of a pavement, highway agencies are expected to maintain adequate surface frictional properties to facilitate traction between car tires and pavement surface. Traditionally the repair method for a friction-deficient pavement surface is the application of a new surfacing layer. The monitoring and remedying practice is important however, it is a passive approach toward the problem. A more proactive approach would be to test the hot mix asphalt in the laboratory during its initial mix design stage to ensure that aggregate combinations used in the asphalt pavement will provide adequate friction over the life of the pavement. Toward this objective the polishing behavior of laboratory-prepared HMA specimens made of eight different job mix formulas has been studied in terms of friction values. In addition, a robust statistical analysis of the obtained surface friction values has also been carried out in an attempt to verify the success in developing this new asphalt polisher that is used to simulate the tire-pavement interaction. Furthermore, polishing behavior (i.e., polishing trend, rate of friction loss and absolute and percent values of decrease) were all fully investigated to capture surface frictional deterioration of HMA specimens. In conclusion, the new asphalt polisher showed a good degree of repeatability. Additionally, it has been concluded that the decrease in polish number is maximum during the first hour of polishing. With the passage of time the drop in friction decreases and stabilizes.



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