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Showing 25 results for Finite Element Analysis

Mahnoosh Biglari, Iman Ashayeri, Mohammad Bahirai,
Volume 14, Issue 6 (9-2016)

In this article, general procedures for vulnerability assessment and retrofitting of a generic seismically designed bridge are outlined and the bridge’s damage criteria for blast resistance are explained. The generic concrete bridge is modeled and analyzed with the finite element technique implemented in ANSYS LS-DYNA environment and explosion threats are categorized into three main levels. Uncoupled dynamic technique is adopted to apply the blast loads on the bridge structure, damage and performance levels are resulted based on quantitatively verified damage mechanisms for the bridge members. The results show that, amongst different loading scenarios, the explosions that happen under deck are more critical comparing to blasts initiating from over deck sources. Furthermore, two retrofitting methods 1) concrete filled steel tube (CFST) and 2) concrete jacket are applied on the bridge columns. The program AUTODYN is used with coupled dynamic analysis of a column to compare the effectiveness of each method. Afterward, more efficient method for a column is applied to the whole bridge and its efficiency is revaluated. It is shown that CFST can decrease concrete spall, scabbing, rotation, displacements and shear forces more than the concrete jacket. Considering the proposed damage and performance levels, the bridge retrofitted with CFST reacts with lower damage level and higher performance level to blast loads.

Mohsen Shahrouzi, Gholamreza Nouri, Nazaninsadat Salehi,
Volume 15, Issue 2 (3-2017)

Tuned mass dampers are common solutions for passive control of bridge responses against dynamic loads. The present work concerns non-uniform support excitation of earthquakes as the dynamic loading source and studies TMD performance in controlling consequent vertical response of simply supported steel bridges. Charged system search as a recent meta-heuristic is successfully utilized to optimize TMD parameters whereas the dynamic response is evaluated via rigorous step-by-step time-history finite element analysis. As another issue, superiority of multiple TMD’s over single TMD is investigated for the present problem after unifying their parameters via optimization. Treating a bridge model as the case study under a number of real-world recorded earthquakes, the error of uniform support excitation under such a non-uniform case is evaluated. Superior efficiency of the utilized charged system search over popular genetic algorithm is observed for this problem. The results also revealed that how advantageous is the application of optimally designed multiple TMD in controlling dynamic vibration modes of such a distributed mass structure

Jalal Akbari , Mohammad Sadegh Ayubirad ,
Volume 15, Issue 2 (3-2017)

From practical point of view, optimum design of structures under time variable loadings faces many challenges. Issues such as time-dependent behavior of constraints and the computational costs of the gradients could be mentioned. In order to prevent such difficulties, in this paper, response spectrum method has been utilized instead of applying direct time history method. Additionally, seismic design of structures is defined as a design for a specific response spectra not for an individual acceleration time history. Furthermore, here, in order to guarantee the global optimal designs, the obtained results from gradient-based method are compared with those from the discrete optimization technique (Genetic algorithm). As well, the P-Delta effects are considered in a seismic analysis. In addition, many practical constraints according to the Iranian national building code (NBC) are included in the optimization problem. The developed MATLAB based computer program is utilized to solve the numerical examples of low, intermediate and relatively high-rise braced and un-braced steel frames.

Hyun-Ki Choi,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (6-2017)

This study investigated the structural behaviors of reinforced concrete shear walls containing opening and slab. A series of three half-scale shear wall specimens were tested: a solid wall (WS-Solid), a wall with opening and slab (WS-023), and a wall with opening but no slab (WB-0.23). Using the experimental results, the reduction in the load-carrying capacity of the wall due to the loss of cross section was evaluated. Its contribution to the moment resisting capacity of the total system of coupling elements and its structural behavior was also examined. The results of experiments conducted on the WS-0.23 specimen with artificial damage due to installation of the opening, showed that the load-carrying capacity of the wall decreased as a result of the opening. It is apparent that the influence of cutting reinforcing bars and reduction of effective sectional area lead to early first yield of the reinforcing bars before the allowable limit of the drift ratio of the shear walls is reached. This decrease in the load-carrying capacity of the shear wall because of installation of openings is significantly different from the results of previous studies. This is because slabs and the remaining wall function as coupling elements for the shear wall. The contribution of slabs and residual wall to the lateral load resisting system was investigated via an empirical test and finite element analysis. During the experiment, a U-shaped critical section of coupling slab was observed and its effective width and the total length of the critical section examined. The critical section of coupling slab that functions as a coupling element for shear wall varied marginally from the results of previous studies. The results of the analysis conducted show that slabs and residual walls contribute approximately 30% to the lateral load resisting system.

Varol Koç, Yusuf Emiroğlu,
Volume 15, Issue 7 (10-2017)

Minimum reinforcement ratios provided in the standards are remaining at very low levels especially at large systems subject to the effects of earthquake. Thus, arranging the reinforcement ratios intended for preliminary design can provide significant ease and safety in project design phase, and speed and simplicity in the project control phase. Moreover, a more realistic limitation becomes ensured compared to general minimum reinforcement ratios given in the standards. System characteristics which may affect the reinforcement ratios can be specified by general and simple parameters. As the result of many extensive studies, expressions for reinforcement ratios intended for preliminary design which will cover systems having different parameters can be composed. Today, thanks to the development levels of finite elements programs which can perform reinforced concrete modeling, meeting this requirement is much more possible compared to the past. Structure of parameters should neither be very special nor very general. Otherwise, reinforcement ratios intended for preliminary design will either be valid for a single system or they will remain at very low limits such as the minimum reinforcement ratios given in the standards. For this reason, in this study it was tried to follow a route in between these two extreme conditions. Today, it is possible to perform many studies on the systems having different and comprehensive inclusive parameters and to determine practical ratios which will constitute a recommendation for the project designs. For this purpose, an eight storey reinforced concrete system with single spacing whose shear wall cross-section is 25x250cm, column cross-section is 25x30cm, and beam cross-section is 25x50cm was addressed, and its non-linear planary analyses under static earthquake loads were performed through the ANSYS finite elements program for 13 different reinforcement case. The reinforcement ratios to be recommended for the addresses system and similar systems were tried to be revealed. The examined system was arranged as to get the most critical and extreme values for many parameters which can be considered, but it was tried for the reinforcement ratios to be recommended to be valid not only for this system but also for the general system network having similar properties to this system. In the future researches, expressions of general and inclusive preliminary design reinforcement ratios can be obtained as per the results of many studies to be made on systems having different parameters.

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