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Showing 22 results for Permeability

Soroush A., Koohi Sh.,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2004)

Lateral spreading of liquefied saturated sandy deposits happens during and shortly afterearthquakes. This paper first reviews this phenomenon by means of reviewing and comparingobservations on case histories and experimental works. Based on the results from the review andcomparison, a mechanism for describing lateral spreading will be suggested. The Finn model,adopted in the Computer code FLAC is employed to carry out numerical analyses of lateralspreading of the Wildlife Site, happened during the 1987 Superstition Hills earthquake. First themodel is calibrated by means of numerical analysis of the first centrifuge model test of theVELACS Project. For the Wildlife site, three types of analysis are carried out: a) coupledliquefaction-consolidation analysis using the coefficient of permeability (K1) of the liquefiedlayers, as reported in the literature b) analysis type (a), but with K equal to 0.1K1, and c) a fullyundrained liquefaction analysis. The analyses results, in forms of excess pore water pressures andsurface displacements, indicated that the fully undrained behavior of the liquefied layers betterrepresents the behavior and response of the site during the earthquake.
M. Naderi,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (3-2005)

Having observed the costly failures of different cutoff walls, that had been constructed according to the mix design specified by reputable consultants in Iran, a research programme was conducted to study the effects of constituent materials on the properties of plastic concrete. The main properties, such as compressive strength, biaxial and triaxial strains, permeability, and modulus of elasticity have been investigated using different mixes, obtained from prototype production line plant, situated on site, because it was realized that the site production line and the systems employed have major effects on the properties of plastic concrete. Statistical analysis of the results, revealed the coefficients of influence of main constituent materials of plastic concrete namely cement, bentonite, aggregate and water on its compressive strength and modulus of elasticity. Having realized the cancelling effects of bentonite and aggregates on the measured properties, some equations relating the quantities of cement and water to the compressive strength and modulus of elasticity are introduced. Effects of clay and hydrated lime powder, as fillers were also investigated leading to the proposal of limits for their safe and economic use. Since most of the cutoff walls are buried structures, failure strains under both uniaxial and triaxial tests, with values of cohesion and internal friction, are also presented in this paper.
Mohammad C. Pakbaz, M. Lorestani,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (6-2005)

The main purpose of this research is evaluation of effect of chemicals on permeability of sand- bentonite mixtures. The coefficients of permeability of sand- bentonite mixtures in water, solutions of sodium and calcium chlorides, sodium hydroxide, acetic acid, methanol and carbon tetrachloride were calculated using parameters obtained in 1- D consolidation test and Terzaghi’s theory. At each void ratio permeability of samples in water is the lowest and that for carbon tetrachloride is the highest. For all fluids the permeability index Ck is decreased as the percentage of sand is increased. The largest Ck belongs to the samples tested in water and the smallest Ck belongs to the samples tested in carbon tetrachloride.
M.h. Baziar, Sh. Salemi, T. Heidari,
Volume 4, Issue 3 (9-2006)

Seismic behavior of a rockfill dam with asphalt-concrete core has been studied utilizing numerical models with material parameters determined by laboratory tests. The case study selected for these analyses, is the Meyjaran asphalt core dam, recently constructed in Northern Iran, with 60 m height and 180 m crest length. The numerical analyses have been performed using a nonlinear three dimensional finite difference software and various hazard levels of earthquakes. This study shows that due to the elasto-plastic characteristics of the asphalt concrete, rockfill dams with asphalt concrete core behave satisfactorily during earthquake loading. The induced shear strains in the asphalt core, for the case presented in this research, are less than 1% during an earthquake with amax=0.25g and the asphalt core remains watertight. Due to large shear deformations caused by a more severe earthquake with amax=0.60g, some cracking may occur towards the top of the core (down to 5-6 m), and the core permeability may increase in the top part, but the dam is safe.
M. Heidarzadeh, A.a. Mirghasemi, S. Etemadzadeh,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (3-2007)

A new chemical grouting method has been developed for conglomerate formations based on the experimental studies. Due to the lack of chemical grouting experience of conglomerate formations, the testing programs were performed to evaluate the performance of chemical grouting in the water sealing of part of conglomerate foundation of Karkheh earth dam using a combination of field and laboratory tests. First, the chemical grouts alone were examined with regard to viscosity-time behavior, gelation time, temperature-influence, stability, and deformability. These laboratory tests, led to the selection of the final chemical grout which was a solution of sodium silicate, water, and ethyl acetate as reactant. The second step tested grout-soil interaction: The injectability and permeability reduction of the selected chemical grout was examined in field injection tests. In this step two field tests were performed including shallow test holes without hydrostatic pressure and full scale tests under dam real hydrostatic pressure head. Based on these two field injection tests, performed in the conglomerate foundation of Karkheh dam, a new chemical grouting method for conglomerate formations is proposed and satisfactory results led to the recommendation of this method for eventually successful application.
H.r. Ashrafi, A.a. Ramezanianpour,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (9-2007)

Deterioration of concrete structures in the Gulf region is a serious problem. Penetration of Chloride ion into concrete is responsible for such early deterioration. Determination of chloride diffusion coefficient is an effective way to predict the service life of concrete structures. In order to investigate the performance of concrete mixtures in such environments, ordinary and silica fume concrete mixtures containing various water to cementitious materials ratios were used. Rapid chloride permeability test and determination of diffusion coefficient of chloride ion penetration in accordance with bulk diffusion test under laboratory conditons simulated to Persian Gulf climate, and site investigation were performed. Concentration of chloride ions in various depths of concrete specimens was measured using acid soluble chloride test method. Test results show that silica fume reduces the chloride penetration and the diffusion coefficient in concrete mixtures. Different models were made for rapid chloride test results, and diffusion coefficient, of concretes maintained in the hot and corrosive environments of the Persian Gulf. The models which were calibrated with real data obtained from the concrete structures are capable to predict the penetration and service life of concrete structures in such corrosive environments.
A.a. Ramezanianpour, M. Mahdi Khani, Gh. Ahmadibeni,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (6-2009)

Rice Husk Ash (RHA) is a by-product of the agricultural industry which contains high amount of silicon dioxide (SiO2). In this research, for the first time in the Middle East, in order to supply typical RHA, a special furnace was designed and constructed in Amirkabir University of Technology. Afterwards, XRD and XRF techniques were used to determine the amorphous silica content of the burnt rice husk. Attempts were made to determine the optimum temperature and duration of burning. Results show that temperature of 650 degrees centigrade and 60 minutes burning time are the best combination. Then various experiments were carried out to determine properties of concretes incorporating optimum RHA. Tests include compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, modules of elasticity, water permeability and rapid chloride permeability test. Results show that concrete incorporating RHA had higher compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity at various ages compared with that of the control concrete. In addition, results show that RHA as an artificial pozzolanic material has enhanced the durability of RHA concretes and reduced the chloride diffusion.
Ali Pak, Zahra Zahmatkesh,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (6-2011)

Geotextiles are one of the most widely used synthetic materials in filtration and drainage applications. Since in real

applications, geotextiles are subjected to various hydraulic gradients and confining stresses, hydraulic behavior of geotextiles

under different circumstances is of great practical importance. In this study filtration and drainage properties of several

nonwoven needle-punched geotextiles with different properties and unit mass per area of 200g/m2, 400g/m2, 500g/m2 and

800g/m2, under various confining stresses and hydraulic gradients, were studied using standard permittivity

and transmissivity equipments. Prepared samples were subjected to hydraulic heads in the range of 10cm to 60cm and

confining stresses up to 1000kPa and their hydraulic behavior was investigated accordingly. In this study the flow regime

through the geotextile fibers and also the anisotropic behavior of geotextile permeability were investigated. The results show

that transmissivity will decrease exponentially with increasing the normal stress until a residual value is reached, and

permittivity and transmissivity coefficients were seen to decrease with increasing the hydraulic gradient. The flow regime has

found to be non-turbulent in all cases.The Geotextile hydraulic behavior is of great usage in the design of landfill covers,

design of embankments and irrigation structures drainage systems, and in the design of protection systems in river


N. Shariatmadari, S. Saeidijam,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (6-2012)

Bentonite-sand mixture is one of the most important candidates for engineering buffer element in nuclear waste repositoriesso
the analysis of its thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior is important for design purposes.An innovative setup of classic oedometer
was used for swelling and compression study at high temperatures in this research. A fully calibration program was utilized to
include high temperature effects on measurements. This research shows that the elevation of temperature from 25 to 90◦C in
1:1bentonite-sand mixture in distilled water reduces free swelling potential and strain about 20 percent. The required time for
equalization of swelling is less in high temperature due to increasing in permeability. Also, the high temperature causes increasing
in compressibility rate and quantity for this buffer. For detection of this effect, XRD analysis showed that an increase in
temperature causes a decrease in basal spacing. So, the particles can come near to each other more than lower temperatures and
the amount of absorbed water in the microstructure of the clay is smaller.The effect of thermal history on behavior of bentonitesand
mixture has been showed and tried to clarify it. At similar stress-temperature states, thermal history causes different
deformation in samples. The highest temperature that bentonite has been experienced, controls its behavior in the next thermal

Y. L. Luo,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (5-2013)

The occurrence of piping failures in earth structures demonstrates the urgency and importance of studying piping. With this

intention, a new piping model was developed in the framework of continuum mixture theory. Assuming that porous media are

comprised of solid skeleton phase, fluid phase and fluidized fine particles phase, the fluidized fine particles phase is considered

to be a special solute migrating with the fluid phase. The three phases interact while being constrained by the mass conservation

equations of the three phases, and a sink term was introduced into the mass conservation equation of the solid skeleton phase to

describe the erosion of fluidized fine particles, then a new continuum fluid-particle coupled piping model was established and

validated. The validation indicates that the proposed model can predict the piping development of complicated structures under

complex boundary and flow conditions, and reflect the dynamic changes of porosity, permeability and pore pressure in the

evolution of piping.

M. Heidarzadeh, A.a. Mirghasemi, S. M. Sadr Lahijani, F. Eslamian,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (5-2013)

In a rare engineering experience throughout the world, we successfully stabilized relatively coarse materials of drain using

cement grouting. The grouting work was performed at the Karkheh earth dam, southwest Iran, and was part of the efforts to

extend the dam’s cut-off wall. Since the dam was completed, the execution of the new cut-off wall from the dam crest was

inevitable. Hence, one of the main difficulties associated with the development of the new cut-off wall was trenching and execution

of plastic-concrete wall through the relatively coarse materials of drain in the dam body. Due to high permeability of drain, the

work was associated with the possible risk of excessive slurry loss which could result in the collapse of the trench. In order to

achieve an appropriate grouting plan and to determine the mix ratio for the grouting material, a full-scale test platform consisting

of actual drain materials was constructed and underwent various tests. Results of the testing program revealed that a grouting

plan with at least 2 grouting rows and a Water/Cement mix ratio of 1/ (1.5-2) can successfully stabilize the drain materials. After

finalizing the technical characteristics of the grouting work, the method was applied on the drain materials of the Karkheh dam

body. The results were satisfactory and the drain materials were stabilized successfully so that the cut-off wall was executed

without any technical problem.

H. Ghiassian, M. Jalili, I. Rahmani, Seyed M. M. Madani,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (12-2013)

The concept of Geosynthetic Cellular Systems (GCS) has recently emerged as a new method in construction of breakwaters and coastal protective structures. The method potentially has significant advantages compared to conventional systems from the standpoint of constructability, cost effectiveness, and environmental considerations. This paper presents the results of physical model testing on the hydraulic responses of GCS structures under wave action. A series of model tests were carried out in a wave flume on GCS models with different shapes and soil types, subjected to various wave characteristics. Horizontal wave forces acting on the models were measured at different elevations. The maximum horizontal force in each test was calculated and compared with conventional formula of predicting wave pressure on breakwaters. The results show that Goda’s equation overestimates the hydrodynamic water pressure on these structures. This can be attributed to the influence of seeping water through the GCS models because of relative permeability of the GCS.
J. Nazari Afshar, M. Ghazavi,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (1-2014)

The Stone-column is a useful method for increasing the bearing capacity and reducing settlement of foundation soil. The prediction of accurate ultimate bearing capacity of stone columns is very important in soil improvement techniques. Bulging failure mechanism usually controls the failure mechanism. In this paper, an imaginary retaining wall is used such that it stretches vertically from the stone column edge. A simple analytical method is introduced for estimation of the ultimate bearing capacity of the stone column using Coulomb lateral earth pressure theory. Presented method needs conventional Mohr-coloumb shear strength parameters of the stone column material and the native soil for estimation the ultimate bearing capacity of stone column. The validity of the developed method has been verified using finite element method and test data. Parametric studies have been carried out and effects of contributing parameters such as stone column diameter, column spacing, and the internal friction angle of the stone column material on the ultimate bearing capacity have been investigated.
M. B. Esfandiari Sowmehsaraei, R. Jamshidi Chenari,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (1-2014)

Soil reinforced with fiber shows characteristics of a composite material, in which fiber inclusion has a significant effect on soil permeability. Concerning to the higher void ratio of carpet fibers, at first stages it may be expected that an increase in fiber content of the reinforced soil would result in an increase in permeability of the mixture. However, the present article demonstrates that fiber inclusion will decrease the permeability of sand-fiber composite.A series of constant head permeability tests have been carried out to show the effects and consequently, a new system of phase relationships was introduced to calculate the dry mass for the sand portion of the composite. Monte Carlo simulation technique adopted with finite element theory was employed to back calculate the hydraulic conductivity of individual porous fibers from the laboratory test results. It was observed that the permeability coefficient of the porous fibers are orders of magnitude less than the skeletal sand portion due to the fine sand particle entrapment and also the fiber volume change characteristics.
E. Lotfi, S. Delfan, A. Hamidi, H. Shahir, Gh. Fardi,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (1-2014)

In saturated soils, heating induces thermal expansion of both grains and the pore fluid. Lower thermal expansion coefficient of aggregates results in the increase of pore pressure and reduction of the effective stress besides subsequent volume changes due to the dissipation of pore pressure and heat transfer. Dissipation of thermally induced pore pressure with time is a coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) phenomenon, involving gradients of pore pressure and temperature, hydraulic and thermal flows within the mass of soil and changes in the mechanical properties with temperature. The objective of this paper is presentation of a numerical method to determine the effect of temperature on consolidation of clays. In this regard, the finite element code, PISA is used for one dimensional THM analysis of porous media. The analysis performed using both linear elastic and elastoplastic Cam clay models. Modified Cam clay model was applied in elastoplastic analysis. Variation of temperature, displacements and pore pressure determined with time and compared with numerical solutions of other researchers. Also it was indicated that implementation of coupled THM analysis yields better results for displacements compared to the hydro mechanical (HM) one. Application of elastoplastic constitutive model instead of linear elastic one indicated that preconsolidation pressure has an important effect on results of analysis.
M. L. Li, Q. Chun-Xiang, Z. Yong-Hao,
Volume 12, Issue 2 (4-2014)

It introduced an innovative bioengineering method of consolidating incompact sand by urea-hydrolysis producing calcite cementation under the inducement of urease producing microbe. In the paper it discussed the effects of cementation methods and time on porosity and mechanical properties of microbe-inspired cementing sand columns. Method A adopted reaction fluid gravitational permeating and external pressing and method B adopted reaction fluid gravitational permeating and outlet intermittent plugging method. 28-day sand columns prepared by method A exhibited stronger mechanical properties than those prepared by method B, considering of the compressive strengths and three-point flexural strength as well. Pore volume fractions of sand columns prepared by method A reduced with an increase in cementation time which represented the bulk densities of sand columns were improved positively with time. The compressive strengths and the flexural strengths of sand columns prepared by method A increased with time. All these improved mechanical properties were attributed to the fact that the increasing amount of microbe inspired calcite precipitation with time consolidated sand columns by filling or bridging in sand gaps.
F. Dastjerdy, Dr O.r. Barani, Dr F. Kalantary,
Volume 13, Issue 3 (12-2015)

In this paper, a finite element model is developed for the fully hydro-mechanical analysis of hydraulic fracturing in partially saturated porous media. The model is derived from the framework of generalized Biot theory. The fracture propagation is governed by a cohesive fracture model. The flow within the fracture zone is modeled by the lubrication equation. The displacement of solid phase, and the pressure of wetting and non-wetting phases are considered as the main unknown parameters. Other variables are incorporated into the model using empirical relationships between saturation, permeability and capillary pressure. Zero-thickness element and conventional bulk element are used for propagating fracture and the surrounding media, respectively. The model is validated with respect to analytical solution of hydraulic fracture propagation problem in saturated media and then the problem is solved in semi-saturated media, considering the wetting and non-wetting pore fluid. 

B.a. Mir,
Volume 13, Issue 3 (12-2015)

Fly ash is one of the most plentiful and versatile of the industrial by-products. At present, nearly 150 million tonnes of fly ash is being generated annually in India posing dual problem of environmental pollution and difficulty in disposal. This calls for establishing strategies to use the same effectively and efficiently. However, it is only in geotechnical engineering applications such as the construction of embankments/dykes, as back fill material, as a sub-base material etc., its large-scale utilization is possible either alone or with soil. Soil stabilization can be achieved by various means such as compaction, soil replacement, chemical improvement, earth reinforcement etc. Usually, in the case of clay soils, chemical improvement is commonly most effective since it can strengthen the soil, to remove its sensitivity both to water and its subsequent stress history. Among chemical means or additives, fly ash/lime provides an economic and powerful means of improvement, as demonstrated by the significant transformation that is evident on mixing with heavy clay. In the present investigation, different percent fly ashes (10%, 20%, 40%, 60% & 80%) were added to a highly expansive soil from India by dry weight of the natural soil, and subjected to various tests. The important properties that are necessary for using fly ash in many geotechnical applications are index properties, compaction characteristics, compressibility characteristics, permeability and strength. Based on test results, it has been found that using fly ash for improvement of soils has a two-fold advantage. First, to avoid the tremendous environmental problems caused by large scale dumping of fly ash and second, to reduce the cost of stabilization of problematic/marginal soils and improving their engineering properties for safe construction of Engineering Structures. 

Behrooz Mehrzad, Abdolhosein Haddad, Yaser Jafarian,
Volume 14, Issue 2 (3-2016)

Currently, there is no reliable design procedure which considers all aspects of liquefaction effects on shallow foundations. There are many light and heavy structures resting on saturated sand with high liquefaction potential in seismic areas. The aim of this experimental and numerical study is to evaluate the performance of two shallow foundations with different contact pressures in liquefaction. The results of the centrifuge experiment of shallow foundations with surcharges of three-story and nine-story buildings on liquefiable sand are presented in detail. Although entire soil profile liquefied, no liquefaction observed under the foundations. There was a clear difference in settlement mechanisms observed beneath the shallow foundation and in the free-field. The heavy foundation fluctuated more strongly compared with the lighter one. The effect of soil permeability and contact pressure on foundation response was investigated during numerical study. The experiment was simulated two dimensionally using a fully coupled nonlinear constitutive model (UBCSAND) implemented in a finite difference program, FLAC-2D. The results show that settlement of foundations increased with the increase of soil permeability. Trends of excess pore water pressure were captured reasonably by the soil model, but the settlement mechanisms were different. The soil model underestimated total liquefaction-induced settlement of shallow foundation, especially for light foundation.

Mahdi Karkush, Dhurgham Al-Hamdani,
Volume 15, Issue 3 (5-2017)

The present study focuses on measuring the effects of industrial wastewater disposed from thermal electricity power plant as by-product on the geotechnical properties of sandy soil and applying washing process to remediate the contaminated soil samples and measure the efficiency of washing technique. The disturbed sandy soil samples were obtained from Al-Kufa City located to the southwest of Iraq and the industrial wastewater obtained from Al-Musayib thermal electricity power plant. The intact sandy soil was contaminated in the laboratory with four percentages of industrial wastewater (10, 20, 40 and 100%) calculated according to the weight of dry soil. The industrial wastewater is mixed with distilled water to constitute the solution used in the contamination process of soil through soaking the soil by this solution for 30 days. The study results showed that with increasing the percentages of the contaminant, there was a slight increase in both the liquid limit and particle size, while there was a significant increase in the optimum water content. Nevertheless, a slight decrease was observed in the specific gravity, maximum dry unit weight, and void ratio, while, a considerable decrease was noticed in the angle of the internal friction and coefficient of permeability of soil. The proposed remediation technique “soil washing” is efficient, economical, and time saving when used to remediate sandy soils. After remediation, the results showed an increase in the cohesion, angle of internal friction and maximum dry unit weight. Also, a slight increase was observed in the specific gravity, void ratio and permeability coefficient of remediated soil samples when compared with that of contaminated samples. The removal efficiencies of contaminant from soil were (97.63, 96.79, 96.58, and 93.87%) for the soil samples contaminated with industrial wastewater by (10, 20, 40 and 100%), respectively.

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