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Showing 33 results for Numerical Simulation

Sabagh Yazdi S.r., Mohammad Zadeh Qomi M.,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2004)

A numerical model is introduced for solution of shallow water flow equations with negligible physical dissipations due to canal roughness and turbulence effects. Two-dimensional velocity distribution and water depth of the flow field are computed by solving the depth average equations of continuity and motion. The equations are converted to discrete form using cell vertexfinite volume method on triangular unstructured mesh. The formulation of the added numericalviscosity is chosen in such a way that preserves the accuracy of numerical results. The accuracy ofthe model is assessed by computing the challenging case of inviscid frictionless flow in a canal with a 1800 bend. The computed results are compared with analytical solution which is obtainedfrom potential flow theory. Simulation of frictionless free surface flow in a constant width meandering sinusoidal canal is considered as an application of the model. The algorithm produced encouraging results.
A. Khayyer, A. Yeganeh Bakhtiari, A. Ghaheri, T. Asano,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2004)

A two-dimensional numerical model has been developed to study wave breaking on a sloping beach. The basic elements of numerical model are Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations that describe the mean flow motion of a turbulent flow a k turbulence closure model that describes the turbulent transport and dissipation process an efficient technique (VOF- Volume Of Fluid method) for tracking the free surface motion and a new scheme developed by Lin and Liu (1999) for wave generation. Shoaling, breaking and overturning of solitary wave on a slope of 1/16 have been studied with the main emphasis on turbulence characteristics. Turbulence characteristics i.e., turbulence kinetic energy, k turbulence dissipation rate, turbulence production, pr turbulence eddy viscosity, vt and their spatial distribution during the breaking process have been discussed in great details. Spatial distribution of turbulence characteristics and the order of magnitude have been found to be in agreement with existing experimental and numerical studies. The main characteristic of plunging breaking waves, the shoreward advective transport of turbulence, has also been investigated and numerically proved.
Golparvar Fard M., Yeganeh Bakhtiary A., Cheng L.,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (3-2005)

This paper presents a k- turbulence model for simulation of steady current and itsinduced vortex shedding caused by the presence of an offshore pipeline. Performance of the modelaround a circular cylinder above a wall with gap to diameter ratios of 0.1, 0.35 and 0.5 underdifferent flow regimes with Reynolds numbers of 1500, 2500 and 7000 is studied. The flow field iscomputed with solving the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) the seabed underpipeline is treated as a plane boundary with no-slip boundary condition on pipe surface. Thegoverning equations are solved using Finite Volume Method in a Cartesian coordinate system.Based on the numerical solutions, the flow field, vortex shedding and distribution of shear stressdue to the presence of the pipeline near seabed are studied. In addition the mechanism of vortexshedding with different gap to diameter ratios is examined with focusing on the effect of vortexshedding on bed shear stress. It is found that the k- turbulence model can well predict the flowfield and its induced vortex shedding around a pipeline hence it can be easily applied forsimulation of scour below an offshore pipeline.
Ali Noorzad, H.b. Poorooshasb,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (9-2005)

The CANAsand constitutive law in conjunction with the ID technique is used to study the flow phenomenon in a cohesionless granular medium placed between two parallel, rough vertical walls. It is shown that the development of flow is influenced by the geometry of the case. However the main factor is the void ratio of the medium: i.e. arching will prevent the free flow of the material if its void is close to the compact state. The study is extended to cover the axisymmetric situation. Here the flow of bulk solids through a circular opening at the base of a cylindrical tank is examined.
A. Shamsai, R. Soleymanzadeh,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (3-2006)

Flow regime in dam's bottom outlet is divided in pressurized flow and free surface flow by the gate located for discharge control. Down stream tunnel involves high velocity Multi component Air –water flow studied by mathematical model. In this research work, we used Finite volume mixture two phase flow model. Because of high Reynolds number, standard two equations k-e turbulence model was used. Model was verified by backward-facing step flow and results have been compared with experiments founded by Durst and Schmitt. Air demand ratio has been determined as function of Froude number at contracted section. Flow patterns have been compared at two categories of slug & stratified flows, Air mean concentration profile has been obtained at down stream tunnel. Comparison of flow pattern at two case with and without of aeration was investigated. Pressure drop behind of the gate and formation of vortex flow after the gate section have been discussed. Measurement of flow discharge and determination of contraction coefficient of the gate was outlined.
A.r. Khoei, S. Yadegari, M. Anahid,
Volume 4, Issue 3 (9-2006)

In this paper, a higher order continuum model is presented based on the Cosserat continuum theory in 3D numerical simulation of shear band localization. As the classical continuum models suffer from the pathological mesh-dependence in strain softening models, the governing equations are regularized by adding the rotational degrees-of-freedom to conventional degrees-of-freedom. The fundamental relations in three-dimensional Cosserat continuum are presented and the internal length parameters are introduced in the elasto-plastic constitutive matrix to control the shear bandwidth. Finally, the efficiency of proposed model and computational algorithm is demonstrated by a 3D strip in tensile. A comparison is performed between the classical and Cosserat theories and the effect of internal length parameter is demonstrated. Clearly, a finite shear bandwidth is achieved and the load-displacement curves are uniformly converged upon different mesh sizes.
M.h. Baziar, A. Ghorbani, R. Katzenbach,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (9-2009)

The pile-raft foundation is a combination of a raft foundation with piles. Pile-raft foundation has been widely designed, assuming all structure loads to be transferred to piles without considering contribution of the load taken by contact surface between raft and soil. Methods of analysis currently used in practice are based upon relatively conservative assumptions of soil behavior or on the less realistic soil-structure interaction. In this study the bearing -settlement behavior of combined pile-raft foundations on medium dense sand was investigated. 1g physical model test was performed on a circular rigid raft underpinned with four model piles. Numerical simulation was also carried out on the model test, using FLAC-3D, to show compatibility of the numerical analysis with the test. The obtained results showed very good accuracy of the numerical method used in this study as long as the applied load does not exceed the working load, while the performance of numerical model was relatively good for the loads beyond working load.
O. Omidi, V. Lotfi,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (9-2010)

 Neither damage mechanics model nor elastoplastic constitutive law can solely describe the behavior of concrete satisfactorily. In fact, they both fail to represent proper unloading slopes during cyclic loading. To overcome the disadvantages of pure plastic models and pure damage approaches, the combined effects need to be considered. In this regard, various classes of plastic-damage models have been recently proposed. Here, the theoretical basics of the plastic-damage model originally proposed by Lubliner et al. and later on modified by Lee and Fenves is initially presented and its numerical aspects in three-dimensional space are subsequently emphasized. It should be mentioned that a part of the implementation in 3-D space needs to be reformulated due to employing a hyperbolic potential function to treat the singularity of the original linear form of plastic flow proposed by Lee and Fenves. The consistent algorithmic tangent stiffness, which is utilized to accelerate the convergence rate in solving the nonlinear global equations, is also derived. The validation and evaluation of the model to capture the desired behavior under monotonic and cyclic loadings are shown with several simple one-element tests. These basic simulations confirm the robustness, accuracy, and efficiency of the algorithm at the local and global levels. At the end, a four-point bending test is examined to demonstrate the capabilities of the model in real 3-D applications.

D. P. Chen, C. X. Qian, C. L. Liu,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2010)

 Concrete deformation due to temperature and moisture condition will always develop simultaneously and interactively. The environmentally (hygral and thermally) induced stress and deformation are essential to concrete durability. To simulate the deformation of concrete caused by the coupling effect of temperature and moisture, a numerical simulation approach is proposed comprising analytical process and finite element analysis is proposed based on the mechanism of heat and moisture transfer in porous medium. In analytical method, Laplace transformation and transfer function were used to simplify and solve the coupled partial differential equations of heat and moisture transfer. The hygro-thermal deformation of concrete is numerically simulated by finite element method (FEM) based on the obtained temperature and moisture stress transformed from the solved moisture distribution. This numerical simulation approach avoids the complex eigenvalues, coupling difficulty and low accuracy in other solving method, and also effectively calculates the moisture induced shrinkage which is almost impossible using familiar FEM software. Furthermore, a software named Combined Temperature and Moisture Simulation System for concrete (CTMSoft) was represented and developed by a mix programming of Visual Basic, Matlab and ANSYS. CTMSoft provided a simple and more intuitive interface between user and computer by providing a graphical user interface (GUI). The validity of the numerical simulation approach was verified by two cases analysis.

F. Hajivalie, A. Yeganeh Bakhtiary,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (3-2011)

In this paper, a two-dimensional Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model is developed to simulate the shoaling, breaking and overtopping of a solitary wave over a vertical breakwater. Turbulence intensity is described by using a k turbulence closure model and the free surface configuration is tracked by Volume Of Fluid (VOF) technique. To validate the numerical model the simulation results is compared with the Xie (1981) experimental data and a very good agreement between them is observed. The results revealed that wave height and wave energy decrease considerably during the reflection from vertical wall, which illustrates a considerable energy lost during the impaction and wave overtopping process. The turbulence production during the broken wave interaction with vertical breakwater is very significant consequently the vertical breakwater undergoes sever turbulent and dynamic drag force.

Kabir Sadeghi,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (9-2011)

An energy based damage index based on a new nonlinear Finite element (FE) approach applicable to RC structures subjected to cyclic, earthquake or monotonic loading is proposed. The proposed method is based on the evaluation of nonlinear local degradation of materials and taking into account of the pseudo-plastic hinge produced in the critical sections of the structure. A computer program is developed, considering local behavior of confined and unconfined concretes and steel elements and also global behavior and damage of reinforced concrete structures under cyclic loading. The segments located between the pseudoplastic hinges at critical sections and the inflection points are selected as base-models through simulation by the proposed FE method. The proposed damage index is based on an energy analysis method considering the primary half-cycles energy absorbed by the structure during loading. The total primary half-cycles absorbed energy to failure is used as normalizing factor. By using the proposed nonlinear analytical approach, the structure's force-displacement data are determined. The damage index is then calculated and is compared with the allowable value. This damage index is an efficient means for deciding whether to repair or demolish structures after an earthquake. It is also useful in the design of new structures as a design parameter for an acceptable limit of damage defined by building codes.  The proposed approach and damage index are validated by results of tests carried out on reinforced concrete columns subjected to cyclic biaxial bending with axial force.

R. Attarnejad, F. Kalateh,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (3-2012)

This paper describes a numerical model and its finite element implementation that used to compute the cavitation effects on

seismic behavior of concrete dam and reservoir systems. The system is composed of two sub-systems, namely, the reservoir and

the dam. The water is considered as bilinear compressible and inviscid and the equation of motion of fluid domain is expressed

in terms of the pressure variable alone. A bilinear state equation is used to model the pressure–density relationship of a cavitated

fluid. A standard displacement finite element formulation is used for the structure. The Structural damping of the dam material

and the radiation damping of the water and damping from foundation soil and banks have been incorporated in the analysis. The

solution of the coupled system is accomplished by solving the two sub-systems separately with the interaction effects at the damreservoir

interface enforced by a developed iterative scheme. The developed method is validated by testing it against problem for

which, there is existing solution and the effects of cavitation on dynamic response of Konya gravity dam and Morrow Point arch

dam subjected to the first 6 s of the May 1940 El-Centro, California earthquake, is considered. Obtained results show that impact

forces caused by cavitation have a small effect on the dynamic response of dam-reservoir system.

M. R. Kavianpour, E. Rajabi,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (12-2012)

The objective of this work is to perform a direct numerical simulation of turbulent channel flow where all essential scales of

motion are resolved due to variable time-stepping algorithm in various time advancement method and different discritized form

of convection term. A pseudo spectral method (Fourier series in stream-wise and span-wise directions and Chebychev polynomial

expansion in normal direction) is employed for the spatial derivatives. The time advancement is carried out by different semiimplicit

and splitting schemes. Also Alternating and Linearized forms are added to four commonly used forms of the convective

term, referred to as divergence, Convection, skew-symmetric, and rotational. Spectral method based on the primitive variable

formulation is used in Cartesian coordinates with two periodic and one non-periodic boundary condition in three dimensional

directions &Omega=[0,4&pi]×[-1,1]×[0,2&pi]. The friction Reynolds number for channel flow is set to be Re&tau=175 and the computational

grids of 128×65×128 are used in the x, y and z directions, respectively. The comparison is made between turbulent quantities

such as the turbulent statistics, wall shear velocity, standard deviation of u and total normalized energy of instantaneous velocities

in different time-discretization methods and different forms of nonlinear term. The present results show that third-order timediscretizations

forward Euler for explicit terms and backward Euler for implicit terms can minimize the computational cost of

integration by maximizing the time step, while keeping the CFL number near a threshold in time-discretization schemes. Also, the

de-aliased results of turbulence statistics do indicate that different expressions of nonlinear terms have minor discrepancy in

pseudo spectral method. The results show that the most desirable approach is a combination of variable time stepping third order

backward difference algorithm and rotational form, which provides reduced cost and further accuracy improvements.

Y.y. Chang, C.j. Lee, W.c. Huang, W.j. Huang, M.l. Lin, W.y. Hung, Y. H. Lin,
Volume 11, Issue 2 (11-2013)

This study presents a series of physical model tests and numerical simulations using PFC2D (both with a dip slip angle=60° and

a soil bed thickness of 0.2 m in model scale)at the acceleration conditions of 1g, 40g, and 80 g to model reverse faulting. The soil

deposits in prototype scale have thicknesses of 0.2 m, 8 m, and 16 m, respectively. This study also investigates the evolution of a

surface deformation profile and the propagation of subsurface rupture traces through overlying sand. This study proposes a

methodology for calibrating the micromechanical material parameters used in the numerical simulation based on the measured

surface settlements of the tested sand bed in the self-weight consolidation stage. The test results show that steeper surface slope

on the surface deformation profile, a wider shear band on the major faulting-induced distortion zone, and more faulting appeared

in the shallower depths in the 1-g reverse faulting model test than in the tests involving higher-g levels. The surface deformation

profile measured from the higher-g physical modeling and that calculated from numerical modeling show good agreement. The

width of the shear band obtained from the numerical simulation was slightly wider than that from the physical modeling at the

same g-levels and the position of the shear band moved an offset of 15 mm in model scale to the footwall compared with the results

of physical modeling.

S. Soudmand, M. Ghatee, S. M. Hashemi,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (12-2013)

This paper proposes a new hybrid method namely SA-IP including simulated annealing and interior point algorithms to find the optimal toll prices based on level of service (LOS) in order to maximize the mobility in urban network. By considering six fuzzy LOS for flows, the tolls of congested links can be derived by a bi-level fuzzy programming problem. The objective function of the upper level problem is to minimize the difference between current LOS and desired LOS of links. In this level, to find optimal toll, a simulated annealing algorithm is used. The lower level problem is a fuzzy flow estimator model with fuzzy link costs. Applying a famous defuzzification function, a real-valued multi-commodity flow problem can be obtained. Then a polynomial time interior point algorithm is proposed to find the optimal solution regarding to the estimated flows. In pricing process, by imposing cost on some links with LOS F or E, users incline to use other links with better LOS and less cost. During the iteration of SA algorithm, the LOS of a lot of links gradually closes to their desired values and so the algorithm decreases the number of links with LOS worse than desirable LOS. Sioux Falls network is considered to illustrate the performance of SA-IP method on congestion pricing based on different LOS. In this pilot, after toll pricing, the number of links with LOS D, E and F are reduced and LOS of a great number of links becomes C. Also the value of objective function improves 65.97% after toll pricing process. It is shown optimal toll for considerable network is 5 dollar and by imposing higher toll, objective function will be worse.
E. Lotfi, S. Delfan, A. Hamidi, H. Shahir, Gh. Fardi,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (1-2014)

In saturated soils, heating induces thermal expansion of both grains and the pore fluid. Lower thermal expansion coefficient of aggregates results in the increase of pore pressure and reduction of the effective stress besides subsequent volume changes due to the dissipation of pore pressure and heat transfer. Dissipation of thermally induced pore pressure with time is a coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) phenomenon, involving gradients of pore pressure and temperature, hydraulic and thermal flows within the mass of soil and changes in the mechanical properties with temperature. The objective of this paper is presentation of a numerical method to determine the effect of temperature on consolidation of clays. In this regard, the finite element code, PISA is used for one dimensional THM analysis of porous media. The analysis performed using both linear elastic and elastoplastic Cam clay models. Modified Cam clay model was applied in elastoplastic analysis. Variation of temperature, displacements and pore pressure determined with time and compared with numerical solutions of other researchers. Also it was indicated that implementation of coupled THM analysis yields better results for displacements compared to the hydro mechanical (HM) one. Application of elastoplastic constitutive model instead of linear elastic one indicated that preconsolidation pressure has an important effect on results of analysis.
K. Sadeghi,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (9-2014)

An analytical nonlinear stress-strain model and a microscopic damage index for confined and unconfined concretes together with a macroscopic damage index for reinforced concrete (RC) structures under cyclic loading are proposed. In order to eliminate the problem of scale effect, an adjustable finite element computer program was generated to simulate RC structures subjected to cyclic loading. By comparing the simulated and experimental results of tests on the full-scale structural members and concrete cylindrical samples, the proposed stress-strain model for confined and unconfined concretes under cyclic loading was accordingly modified and then validated. The proposed model has a strong mathematical structure and can readily be adapted to achieve a higher degree of precision by modifying the relevant coefficients based on more precise tests. To apply the proposed damage indices at the microscopic and macroscopic levels, respectively, stress-strain data of finite elements (confined and unconfined concrete elements) and moment-curvature data of critical section are employed. The proposed microscopic damage index can easily be calculated by using the proposed simple analytic nonlinear stress-strain model for confined and unconfined concretes. The proposed macroscopic damage index is based on the evaluation of nonlinear local degradation of materials and taking into account the pseudo-plastic hinge produced in the critical section of the structural element. One of the advantages of the macroscopic damage index is that the moment-curvature data of the critical section is sufficient in itself and there is no need to obtain the force-displacement data of the structural member.
M. Heidarzadeh, A. A. Mirghasemi, H. Niroomand,
Volume 13, Issue 1 (3-2015)

We report engineering experiences from the critical task of relief well installation under high artesian flow conditions at the downstream toe of the Karkheh earth dam, Iran. Due to the establishment of excessive uplift pressure at the downstream toe of the Karkheh dam, installation of a series of new relief wells was considered to permanently relieve part of these pressures. The mentioned uplift pressure, as high as around 30 m above the ground level, was produced in a confined conglomerate aquifer bounded above and below by relatively impervious mudstone layers which reduced the safety factor of the dam toe to below 1.0. Investigations on the shortcomings of the old relief wells installed at the dam site showed that the main problems were: insufficient well numbers, insufficient well diameters, irregular well screens causing their blockage by time passing, and insufficient total opening area. Despite engineering difficulties and associated risk of downstream toe instability, installation of new relief wells was successfully completed under high artesian flow conditions” was successfully completed. The employed technique for the construction of the new relief wells under flowing artesian conditions was based on: 1) cement grouting and casing of the well, 2) telescopic drilling, 3) application of appropriate drilling fluid, and 4) controlling the artesian flow by adding a long vertical pipe to the top of the relief wells. Numerical modeling of seepage for the Karkheh dam foundation showed that, as a result of the installation of the new relief wells, the safety factor of the downstream toe increased to the safe value of 1.3 for the normal reservoir water level.
Dr. Gh. Tavakoli Mehrjardi, Prof. S.n. Moghaddas Tafreshi, Dr. A.r. Dawson,
Volume 13, Issue 2 (6-2015)

A numerical simulation of laboratory model tests was carried out to develop an understanding of the behaviour of pipes in a trench prepared with 3-Dimensional reinforced (namely "geocell-reinforced" in the present study) sand and rubber-soil mixtures, under repeated loadings. The study reports overall performance of buried pipes in different conditions of pipe-trench installations and the influence of pipe stiffness on backfill settlements, stress distribution in the trench depth and stress distribution along the pipe's longitudinal axis. Good agreements between the numerical results and experimental results were observed. The results demonstrate that combined use of the geocell layer and rubber-soil mixture can reduce soil surface settlement and pipe deflection and eventually provide a secure condition for buried pipe even under strong repeated loads.
D.p. Chen, C.w. Miao, J.p. Liu, M.s. Tang,
Volume 13, Issue 3 (9-2015)

This paper presents theoretical and numerical state-of-the-art information in the field of hygro-thermo-mechanical deformation simulation in structural concrete. The aspects discussed include coupled hygro-thermo-mechanical performance of porous materials including concrete, multi-scale simulation of concrete properties especially the volumetric and structural deformation performance, and the multi-scale simulation of concrete under the coupling effect of multi-physics fields. The multi-scale simulation section includes the multi-scale simulation of composition and structure in concrete, the multi-scale simulation of concrete’s mechanical performance, and the multi-scale simulation of durability concerned performance of concrete. This paper presents an overview of the work, of which data from early 80 recent studies, carried out on the multiscale simulation of hygro-thermo-mechanical deformation performance of structural concrete. The relating previous studies and analysis showed that sufficient data have been obtained to give confidence in simulating hygro-thermo-mechanical performance of concrete based on the theory of heat and mass transfer in porous media, and the clear relationships have been obtained between moisture-heat transfer and hygro-thermal distribution at different scale. It is necessary to make further systematic multi-scale research on the relationship between micro-structure and property parameters of cement paste, threephase basic properties at meso level of concrete and the performance of concrete structures, which makes important practical significance to solve the crack of large-area and mass concrete structure and improve the durability of concrete structures

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