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Showing 45 results for Interaction

M.h. Bagheripour, S.m. Marandi,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (6-2005)

Arational approach is introduced for numerical modeling of unbounded soil foundations based on coupled dynamic periodic infinite and conventional finite elements (IFE-FE). The model can be applied for analysis of various dynamic problems in geomechanics, especially in Soil Structure Interaction (SSI), where determination of stiffness properties and response of unbounded soil domains are of prime importance. In numerical SSI analysis, there exists important problems a) the discretization of natural soil foundation, especially defining the boundaries to prevent reflecting body waves and avoiding spurious results, b) the definition of the matrices related to the soils impedance functions which are essentially dependant on the excitation frequency, c) the evaluation of free field motion of the natural foundation, especially those of irregular geometry and material diversity. An efficient way and integrated solution to these important problems is found to be the use of periodic infinite elements. The wave equation of motion is derived numerically for discretization of the soil domain. Shape functions and mapping coordinates for dynamic periodic infinite elements are presented in this paper. The accuracy of the IFE is examined for the evaluation of free field motion of a visco-elastic soil foundation. Derivation of impedance function is shown and leads to the determination of dynamic stiffness characteristics of the unbounded soil medium including spring and dashpot coefficients. Application of the approach introduced here is shown by analysis of SSI for a semi-tall building subjected to earthquake loading. Other advantages of the approach are the substantial reduction in degrees of freedom involved in numerical SSI analysis, the computational time and costs without sacrificing the accuracy of the results.
S. Mohammadi, A. Bebamzadeh,
Volume 4, Issue 4 (12-2006)

Explosion has always been regarded as one of the most complicated engineering problems. As a result, many engineers have preferred rather simplified empirical approaches in comparison to extremely complex deterministic analyses. In this paper, however, a numerical simulation based on the combined finite/discrete element methodology is presented for analyzing the dynamic behavior of fracturing rock masses in blasting. A finite element discretization of discrete elements allows for complex shapes of fully deformable discrete elements with geometric and material nonlinearities to be considered. Only a Rankine strain softening plasticity model is employed, which is suitable for rock and other brittle materials. Creation of new lines/edges/bodies from fracturing and fragmentation of original objects is systematically considered in the proposed gas-solid interaction flow model. An equation of state is adopted to inexpensively calculate the pressure of the detonation gas in closed form. The model employed for the flow of detonation gas has resulted in a logical algorithmic procedure for the evaluation of spatial distribution of the pressure of detonation gas, work done by the expanding gas and the total mass of the detonation gas as functions of time indicating the ability of model to respond to changes in both the mass of explosive charge and the size of the solid block undergoing fracture. Rock blasting and demolition problems are amongst the engineering applications that are expected to benefit directly from the present development. The results of this study may also be used to provide some numerical based reliable solutions for the complex analysis of structures subjected to explosive loadings.
M. Heidarzadeh, A.a. Mirghasemi, S. Etemadzadeh,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (3-2007)

A new chemical grouting method has been developed for conglomerate formations based on the experimental studies. Due to the lack of chemical grouting experience of conglomerate formations, the testing programs were performed to evaluate the performance of chemical grouting in the water sealing of part of conglomerate foundation of Karkheh earth dam using a combination of field and laboratory tests. First, the chemical grouts alone were examined with regard to viscosity-time behavior, gelation time, temperature-influence, stability, and deformability. These laboratory tests, led to the selection of the final chemical grout which was a solution of sodium silicate, water, and ethyl acetate as reactant. The second step tested grout-soil interaction: The injectability and permeability reduction of the selected chemical grout was examined in field injection tests. In this step two field tests were performed including shallow test holes without hydrostatic pressure and full scale tests under dam real hydrostatic pressure head. Based on these two field injection tests, performed in the conglomerate foundation of Karkheh dam, a new chemical grouting method for conglomerate formations is proposed and satisfactory results led to the recommendation of this method for eventually successful application.
Kourosh Shahverdiani, Ali Reza Rahai, Faramarz Khoshnoudian,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (6-2008)

Large capacity cylindrical tanks are used to store a variety of liquids. Their Satisfactory

performance during earthquake is crucial for modern facilities. In present paper, the behavior of cylindrical

concrete tanks under harmonic excitation is studied using the finite element method. Liquid sloshing, liquid

viscosity and wall flexibility are considered and additionally excitation frequency, liquid level and tank

geometry is investigated. The results show a value for wall thickness to tank diameter ratio which may be used

as a guide in the consideration of wall flexibility effects.

S. N. Moghaddas Tafreshi,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (12-2008)

This paper presents the numerical analysis of seismic soil-pile-superstructure interaction in soft clay using free-field soil analysis and beam on Winkler foundation approach. This model is developed to compute the nonlinear response of single piles under seismic loads, based on one-dimensional finite element formulation. The parameters of the proposed model are calibrated by fitting the experimental data of largescale seismic soil-pile-structure tests which were conducted on shaking table in UC Berkeley. A comparative evaluation of single piles shows that the results obtained from the proposed procedure are in good agreement with the experimental results.
S.a. Naeini, R. Ziaie_moayed,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (6-2009)

In recent years, soil reinforcement is considered of great importance in many different civil projects. One of the most significant applications of soil reinforcement is in road construction. Sub grade soil and its properties are very important in the design of road pavement structure. Its main function is to give adequate support to the pavement from beneath. Therefore, it should have a sufficient load carrying capacity. The use of geosynthetics in road and airfield construction has shown the potential to increase the soil bearing capacity. One category of geosynthetics to particular, geogrid, has gained increasing acceptance in road construction. A geogrid is a geosynthetic material consisting of connected parallel sets of tensile ribs with apertures of sufficient size to allow strike-through of surrounding soil, stone, or other geotechnical material. Geogrid reinforcement of sub grade soil is achieved through the increase of frictional interaction between the soil and the reinforcement. Geogrid have been successfully used to provide a construction platform over subgrades. In this application, the geogrid improves the ability to obtain compaction in overlying aggregates, while reducing the amount of material required be removing and replacing. Relative agreement exists that substantial benefits can be achieved from the inclusion of geogrids within the pavement systems however, the quantity of the improvement is in relative disagreement. This paper presents the effects of plasticity index and also reinforcing of soft clay on CBR values. Three samples of clay with different plasticity index (PI) values are selected and tested without reinforcement. Then by placing one and two layer of geogrid at certain depth within sample height, the effects of reinforcement and PI on CBR values are investigated in both soaked and unsoaked conditions. The results shows that as the PI increase the CBR value decreases and reinforcing clay with geogrid will increase the CBR value.
M.h. Baziar, A. Ghorbani, R. Katzenbach,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (9-2009)

The pile-raft foundation is a combination of a raft foundation with piles. Pile-raft foundation has been widely designed, assuming all structure loads to be transferred to piles without considering contribution of the load taken by contact surface between raft and soil. Methods of analysis currently used in practice are based upon relatively conservative assumptions of soil behavior or on the less realistic soil-structure interaction. In this study the bearing -settlement behavior of combined pile-raft foundations on medium dense sand was investigated. 1g physical model test was performed on a circular rigid raft underpinned with four model piles. Numerical simulation was also carried out on the model test, using FLAC-3D, to show compatibility of the numerical analysis with the test. The obtained results showed very good accuracy of the numerical method used in this study as long as the applied load does not exceed the working load, while the performance of numerical model was relatively good for the loads beyond working load.
M.r. Abdi, S. A. Sadrnejad, M.a. Arjomand,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (12-2009)

Large size direct shear tests (i.e.300 x 300mm) were conducted to investigate the interaction between clay reinforced with geogrids embedded in thin layers of sand. Test results for the clay, sand, clay-sand, clay-geogrid, sandgeogrid and clay-sand-geogrid are discussed. Thin layers of sand including 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14mm were used to increase the interaction between the clay and the geogrids. Effects of sand layer thickness, normal pressure and transverse geogrid members were studied. All tests were conducted on saturated clay under unconsolidated-undrained (UU) conditions. Test results indicate that provision of thin layers of high strength sand on both sides of the geogrid is very effective in improving the strength and deformation behaviour of reinforced clay under UU loading conditions. Using geogrids embedded in thin layers of sand not only can improve performance of clay backfills but also it can provide drainage paths preventing pore water pressure generations. For the soil, geogrid and the normal pressures used, an optimum sand layer thickness of 10mm was determined which proved to be independent of the magnitude of the normal pressure used. Effect of sand layers combined with the geogrid reinforcement increased with increase in normal pressures. The improvement was more pronounced at higher normal pressures. Total shear resistance provided by the geogrids with transverse members removed was approximately 10% lower than shear resistance of geogrids with transverse members.
T. Dahlberg,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (3-2010)

The track stiffness experienced by a train will vary along the track. Sometimes the stiffness variation may be

very large within a short distance. One example is when an unsupported sleeper is hanging in the rail. Track stiffness

is then, locally at that sleeper, very low. At insulated joints the bending stiffness of the rail has a discontinuity implying

a discontinuity also of the track stiffness. A third example of an abrupt change of track stiffness is the transition from

an embankment to a bridge. At switches both mass and stiffness change rapidly. The variations of track stiffness will

induce variations in the wheel/rail contact force. This will intensify track degradation such as increased wear, fatigue,

track settlement due to permanent deformation of the ballast and the substructure, and so on. As soon as the track

geometry starts to deteriorate, the variations of the wheel/rail interaction forces will increase, and the track

deterioration rate increases. In the work reported here the possibility to smooth out track stiffness variations is

discussed. It is demonstrated that by modifying the stiffness variations along the track, for example by use of grouting

or under-sleeper pads, the variations of the wheel/rail contact force may be considerably reduced.

F. Messaoud, M. S. Nouaouria,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (3-2010)

This paper presents a description of the equipment, testing procedure, and methodology to obtain ground

mechanical parameters. The p-y curves for laterally loaded piles are developed. Methods for the development of p-y

curves from pressure meter and dilatometer (DMT) test are described. P-y curves are used in the analysis to represent

lateral soil-pile interaction. The pressure meter offers an almost ideal in-situ modeling tool for determining directly

the p-y curves for the design of deep foundations. As the pressure meter can be driven into the soil, the results can be

used to model a displacement pile. DMT tests were performed for comparisons with PPMT tests. Correlations were

developed between the PPMT and DMT results, indicating a consistency in soil parameters values. Comparisons

between PPMT and DMT p-y curves were developed based on the ultimate soil resistance, the slope of the initial

portion of the curves, and the shape of the curves. The initial slope shows a good agreement between PPMT and DMT

results. The predicted DMT and PPMT ultimate loads are not similar, while the predicted PPMT and DMT deflections

within the elastic range are identical.

S.m. Moosavi, M.k. Jafari , M. Kamalian, A. Shafiee ,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (6-2010)

Ground differential movements due to faulting have been observed to cause damage to engineered structures

and facilities. Although surface fault rupture is not a new problem, there are only a few building codes in the world

containing some type of provisions for reducing the risks. Fault setbacks or avoidance of construction in the proximity

to seismically active faults, are usually supposed as the first priority. In this paper, based on some 1-g physical

modelling tests, clear perspectives of surface fault rupture propagation and its interaction with shallow rigid

foundations are presented. It is observed that the surface fault rupture could be diverted by massive structures seated

on thick soil deposits. Where possible the fault has been deviated by the presence of the rigid foundation, which

remained undisturbed on the footwall. It is shown that the setback provision does not give generally enough assurance

that future faulting would not threaten the existing structures.

F. Jafarzadeh, H. Farahi Jahromi, E. Abazari Torghabeh,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (6-2010)

Investigating the parameters influencing the behavior of buried pipelines under dynamic loading is of great

importance. In this study the soil structure interaction of the pipelines with the surrounding soil was addressed using

shaking table tests. Wave propagation along the soil layers was also included in the study. The semi infinite nature of

the field was simulated using a laminar shear box. The soil used in the experiments was Babolsar coastal sand (Iran).

PVC pipes were used due to their analogy with the field. Eight models were constructed with the first four models

having uniform base. In the next models, the non-uniformities of real ground were simulated using a concrete pedestal

installed at the very bottom of the shear box. Pipe deformations under dynamic loading, acceleration distribution in

height, soil settlement and horizontal displacements were measured by strain gauges, acceleratometers and

displacement meters. Analyzing the obtained data, influence of different parameters of dynamic loading such as

acceleration, frequency, soil density, base conditions and shaking direction to pipe axis on the acceleration

amplification ratio and pipe deformation were investigated. Also in order to study the effect of dynamic loading on two

different materials, soil and pipe, the horizontal strains were compared

P. Ghoddousi, R. Ahmadi, Mahdi Sharifi,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2010)

 Superior performances of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) in fresh state to achieve a more uniform distribution encourage the addition of fibers in concrete which is a motivation for structural application of fiberreinforced concrete. Fiber addition reduces the workability of Self-Compacting Fiber Reinforced Concrete (SCFRC). To provide required workability of the SCFRC, more paste is needed in the mixture. Therefore, the coarse aggregate content shall be adjusted to maintain its workability. The purpose of this study is to drive a model for estimating the aggregate contents for SCFRC. This model is based on constant covering mortar thickness theory. In this paper, all parameters which are participated in coarse aggregate content are discussed and presented in a relation. Then another relation is developed for predicting the void volume in the fibrous concrete. These relations are combined and a mathematical relation is deduced for predicting the coarse volume content in the function of the fiber factors. Proposed model is validated by conducting a rheological test. The result shows that the proposed model is simple, applicable and can be used as starting point in practical project.      Finally in order to complete the proposed model, another relation has been derived that can show the interaction of parameters involved in SCFRC rheology behavior. 

F. Hajivalie, A. Yeganeh Bakhtiary,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (3-2011)

In this paper, a two-dimensional Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) model is developed to simulate the shoaling, breaking and overtopping of a solitary wave over a vertical breakwater. Turbulence intensity is described by using a k turbulence closure model and the free surface configuration is tracked by Volume Of Fluid (VOF) technique. To validate the numerical model the simulation results is compared with the Xie (1981) experimental data and a very good agreement between them is observed. The results revealed that wave height and wave energy decrease considerably during the reflection from vertical wall, which illustrates a considerable energy lost during the impaction and wave overtopping process. The turbulence production during the broken wave interaction with vertical breakwater is very significant consequently the vertical breakwater undergoes sever turbulent and dynamic drag force.

R. Attarnejad, F. Kalateh,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (3-2012)

This paper describes a numerical model and its finite element implementation that used to compute the cavitation effects on

seismic behavior of concrete dam and reservoir systems. The system is composed of two sub-systems, namely, the reservoir and

the dam. The water is considered as bilinear compressible and inviscid and the equation of motion of fluid domain is expressed

in terms of the pressure variable alone. A bilinear state equation is used to model the pressure–density relationship of a cavitated

fluid. A standard displacement finite element formulation is used for the structure. The Structural damping of the dam material

and the radiation damping of the water and damping from foundation soil and banks have been incorporated in the analysis. The

solution of the coupled system is accomplished by solving the two sub-systems separately with the interaction effects at the damreservoir

interface enforced by a developed iterative scheme. The developed method is validated by testing it against problem for

which, there is existing solution and the effects of cavitation on dynamic response of Konya gravity dam and Morrow Point arch

dam subjected to the first 6 s of the May 1940 El-Centro, California earthquake, is considered. Obtained results show that impact

forces caused by cavitation have a small effect on the dynamic response of dam-reservoir system.

A. A. Maghsoudi, H. Akbarzadeh Bengar,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (12-2012)

In order to lighten the prestressed concrete solid members, nowadays, it is possible to make use of the advantage of HPC (fc'>60

MPa) as well as replacing the solid section with a PSC thin-walled section for certain members such as circular and box columns.

Using the strength theory of ACI, a numerical procedure along with a computer program was developed for the analysis of such

sections subjected to axial compression or tension load and bending moments. The program solves for all possible variables such

as, concrete compressive strength (fc'= 60-100 MPa), type of prestressed steel, concrete cover, ratio of wall thickness to the section

dimensions and the PS steel arrangements to satisfy the given loading cases, thus leading to an optimal cost solution. However,

since the cross section is thin-walled circular or box and the PS steel is located at discrete points along the periphery of a circle

or rectangle, the equations of equilibrium are complex for hand computations (especially for circular section) but suitable for

computer program. So, by use of MATLAB software the interaction diagrams were also drawn for the analysis of such sections

for all mentioned variables. The use of prestressed thin-walled column diagrams is a safe and easy tool for the analysis of such

columns. Finally, the accuracy of the proposed method is demonstrated by comparing its results to those of the available

experimental values and is indicate that the proposed method predict very well the capacity of prestressed thin-walled column.

Y. L. Luo,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (5-2013)

The occurrence of piping failures in earth structures demonstrates the urgency and importance of studying piping. With this

intention, a new piping model was developed in the framework of continuum mixture theory. Assuming that porous media are

comprised of solid skeleton phase, fluid phase and fluidized fine particles phase, the fluidized fine particles phase is considered

to be a special solute migrating with the fluid phase. The three phases interact while being constrained by the mass conservation

equations of the three phases, and a sink term was introduced into the mass conservation equation of the solid skeleton phase to

describe the erosion of fluidized fine particles, then a new continuum fluid-particle coupled piping model was established and

validated. The validation indicates that the proposed model can predict the piping development of complicated structures under

complex boundary and flow conditions, and reflect the dynamic changes of porosity, permeability and pore pressure in the

evolution of piping.

A. Ghanbari, E. Hoomaan, M. Mojallal,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (5-2013)

For calculating the natural frequency of structures such as buildings, chimneys, bridges and silos appropriate analytical

formulas exist. However, in the case of retaining walls undergoing the soil pressure at one side, calculating the natural frequency

is not a straightforward task and requires the effects of soil-structure interactions to be considered. By modeling the soil as series

of linear springs, a new formulation is presented in this article, to calculate the natural frequency of retaining walls. This formula

considers the vertical cross sectional width change, and hence, enables us to calculating the natural frequency of retaining walls

with different types of backfill. The geometrical properties of the retaining walls and its bending rigidity together with the soil’s

modulus of elasticity and its Poisson’s ratio are the most important parameters to calculate. A comparison of the results for

retaining walls with constant cross section obtained from the suggested method with those of the software analyses was carried

out and good agreement was detected. A second comparison of the results with those of other researchers revealed that the natural

frequency of flexible retaining wall is an upper bound for natural frequency of rigid walls. The Selected shape function is also

very close to the real shape mode.

A. R. Rahai, S. Fallah Nafari,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (12-2013)

The seismic behavior of frame bridges is generally evaluated using nonlinear static analysis with different plasticity models hence this paper tends to focus on the effectiveness of the two most common nonlinear modeling approaches comprising of concentrated and distributed plasticity models. A three-span prestressed concrete frame bridge in Tehran, Iran, including a pair of independent parallel bridge structures was selected as the model of the study. The parallel bridges were composed of identical decks with the total length of 215 meters supported on different regular and irregular substructures with non-prismatic piers. To calibrate the analytical modeling, a large-scale experimental and analytical seismic study on a two-span reinforced concrete bridge system carried out at the University of Nevada Reno was used. The comparison of the results shows the accuracy of analytical studies. In addition, close correlation between results obtained from two nonlinear modeling methods depicts that the lumped plasticity approach can be decisively considered as the useful tool for the nonlinear modeling of non-prismatic bridge piers with hollow sections due to its simple modeling assumption and less computational time.
H. Ghiassian, M. Jalili, I. Rahmani, Seyed M. M. Madani,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (12-2013)

The concept of Geosynthetic Cellular Systems (GCS) has recently emerged as a new method in construction of breakwaters and coastal protective structures. The method potentially has significant advantages compared to conventional systems from the standpoint of constructability, cost effectiveness, and environmental considerations. This paper presents the results of physical model testing on the hydraulic responses of GCS structures under wave action. A series of model tests were carried out in a wave flume on GCS models with different shapes and soil types, subjected to various wave characteristics. Horizontal wave forces acting on the models were measured at different elevations. The maximum horizontal force in each test was calculated and compared with conventional formula of predicting wave pressure on breakwaters. The results show that Goda’s equation overestimates the hydrodynamic water pressure on these structures. This can be attributed to the influence of seeping water through the GCS models because of relative permeability of the GCS.

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