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Showing 15 results for Fibers

A.r. Khaloo, Molaee A.,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (12-2003)

An experimental program was carried out to investigate the behavior of steel, fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) under abrasion and cycles of freeze and them. Compression and flexural tests were also performed in order to reach a comprehensive conclusion of the response. In total, over 200 specimens were tested The test variables included two concrete strength., (i. e., 28 MPa as Normal Strength (NSFRC) and 42 MPa as Medium Strength (MSFRC)), four volumetric percentage of fibers (i.e., 0%, 0,5%, 1.0% and 1.5%) and two fiber lengths (i.e.. 25mm and 35rnrn).Cube specimens were tested according to ASTM C6661n-ocedrrre B using 100 cycles of freeze and thaw. The Los Angeles test method for testing aggregate was used to evaluate the abrasion resistance of SFRC.Test results of1VSFRCptesertted improvements up to 39% and 32 % in cylindrical and cubic compressive strength, respectively. and 88�o in modulus of rupture, 57% in resistance against abrasion based oil weight loss and 40% against compressive strength reduction due to freeze and thaw cycles. The corresponding improvements for MSFRC were 18%, 16%, 48%, 53% and 46% respectively.Increase in cocncrete strength from 28 Ala to 42 MPa provided higher freeze and thaw and abrasion resistance than addition of 1.5% of steel fibers to the normal strength concrete matrix.
H. Oucief, M.f. Habita, B. Redjel,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (6-2006)

In most cases, fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete (FRSCC) contains only one type of fiber. The use of two or more types of fibers in a suitable combination may potentially not only improve the overal properties of self-compacting concrete, but may also result in performance synergie. The combining of fibers, often called hybridization, is investigated in this paper for a cimentetious matrix. Control, single, two fibers hybrid composites were cast using different fiber type steel and polypropylene with different sizes. Flexural toughness tests were performed and results were extensively analysed to identify synergy, if any, associated with various fiber combinations. Based on various analysis schemes, the paper identifies fiber combinations that demonstrate maximum synergy in terms of flexural toughness.
Mahmood R. Abdi, Ali Parsapajouh, Mohammad A. Arjomand,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (12-2008)

Clay soils and their related abnormal behavior such as excessive shrinkage, swelling, consolidation settlement and cracking on drying has been the subject of many investigations. Previous studies mainly evaluated the effects of additives such as lime, cement and sand on these characteristics. Initial results indicated that the soil characteristics were improved. However, reportedly in many cases, these additives resulted in a decrease in plasticity and increase in hydraulic conductivity. As a result, there has been a growing interest in soil/fiber reinforcement. The present investigation has focused on the impact of short random fiber inclusion on consolidation settlement, swelling, hydraulic conductivity, shrinkage limit and the development of desiccation cracks in compacted clays. To examine the possible improvements in the soil characteristics, samples consisting of 75% kaolinite and 25% montmorillonite were reinforced with 1, 2, 4 and 8 percent fibers as dry weight of soil with 5, 10 and 15mm lengths. Results indicated that consolidation settlements and swelling of fiber reinforced samples reduced substantially whereas hydraulic conductivities increased slightly by increasing fiber content and length. Shrinkage limits also showed an increase with increasing fiber content and length. This meant that samples experienced much less volumetric changes due to desiccation, and the extent of crack formation was significantly reduced.
P. Ghoddousi, R. Ahmadi, Mahdi Sharifi,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2010)

 Superior performances of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) in fresh state to achieve a more uniform distribution encourage the addition of fibers in concrete which is a motivation for structural application of fiberreinforced concrete. Fiber addition reduces the workability of Self-Compacting Fiber Reinforced Concrete (SCFRC). To provide required workability of the SCFRC, more paste is needed in the mixture. Therefore, the coarse aggregate content shall be adjusted to maintain its workability. The purpose of this study is to drive a model for estimating the aggregate contents for SCFRC. This model is based on constant covering mortar thickness theory. In this paper, all parameters which are participated in coarse aggregate content are discussed and presented in a relation. Then another relation is developed for predicting the void volume in the fibrous concrete. These relations are combined and a mathematical relation is deduced for predicting the coarse volume content in the function of the fiber factors. Proposed model is validated by conducting a rheological test. The result shows that the proposed model is simple, applicable and can be used as starting point in practical project.      Finally in order to complete the proposed model, another relation has been derived that can show the interaction of parameters involved in SCFRC rheology behavior. 

Ali Pak, Zahra Zahmatkesh,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (6-2011)

Geotextiles are one of the most widely used synthetic materials in filtration and drainage applications. Since in real

applications, geotextiles are subjected to various hydraulic gradients and confining stresses, hydraulic behavior of geotextiles

under different circumstances is of great practical importance. In this study filtration and drainage properties of several

nonwoven needle-punched geotextiles with different properties and unit mass per area of 200g/m2, 400g/m2, 500g/m2 and

800g/m2, under various confining stresses and hydraulic gradients, were studied using standard permittivity

and transmissivity equipments. Prepared samples were subjected to hydraulic heads in the range of 10cm to 60cm and

confining stresses up to 1000kPa and their hydraulic behavior was investigated accordingly. In this study the flow regime

through the geotextile fibers and also the anisotropic behavior of geotextile permeability were investigated. The results show

that transmissivity will decrease exponentially with increasing the normal stress until a residual value is reached, and

permittivity and transmissivity coefficients were seen to decrease with increasing the hydraulic gradient. The flow regime has

found to be non-turbulent in all cases.The Geotextile hydraulic behavior is of great usage in the design of landfill covers,

design of embankments and irrigation structures drainage systems, and in the design of protection systems in river


Hasan Ghasemzadeh, Ms. Esmat Akbari Jalalabad,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (9-2011)

In this study compressive strength of carbon nanotube (CNT)/cement composite is computed by analytical method. For this purpose representative elementary volume (REV) as an indicator element of composite is chosen and analyzed by elasticity relationships and Von mises' criterion applied to it. It is assumed that carbon nanotubes are distributed uniformly in the cement and there is perfect bonding in the interface of cement and nanotube. At first for simplicity of computations, carbon nanotubes ( CNTs) are assumed to have unidirectional orientation in the cement matrix. In following, the relations are generalized to consider random distribution of nanotubes in cement, and a new factor suggested for random orientation of fibers in the CNT/cement composite. The results of analytical method are compared with experimental results.

A. R. Rahai, S. Fallah Nafari,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (12-2013)

The seismic behavior of frame bridges is generally evaluated using nonlinear static analysis with different plasticity models hence this paper tends to focus on the effectiveness of the two most common nonlinear modeling approaches comprising of concentrated and distributed plasticity models. A three-span prestressed concrete frame bridge in Tehran, Iran, including a pair of independent parallel bridge structures was selected as the model of the study. The parallel bridges were composed of identical decks with the total length of 215 meters supported on different regular and irregular substructures with non-prismatic piers. To calibrate the analytical modeling, a large-scale experimental and analytical seismic study on a two-span reinforced concrete bridge system carried out at the University of Nevada Reno was used. The comparison of the results shows the accuracy of analytical studies. In addition, close correlation between results obtained from two nonlinear modeling methods depicts that the lumped plasticity approach can be decisively considered as the useful tool for the nonlinear modeling of non-prismatic bridge piers with hollow sections due to its simple modeling assumption and less computational time.
M. Khorami, J. Sobhani,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (12-2013)

Worldwide, asbestos fibers utilized in fiber cement boards, have been recognized as harmful materials regarding the public health and environmental pollutions. These concerns motivate the researchers to find the appropriate alternatives to substitute the asbestos material towards the sustainability policies. In this paper, the applicability of asbestos replacement with three types of agricultural waste fibers, including bagasse, wheat and eucalyptus fibers were experimentally investigated. To this end, the flexural behaviour and microstructure of cement composite boards made by addition of 2 % and 4 % of waste agricultural fibers in combination with and without 5 % replacement of silica fume by mass of cement were evaluated. The results of this study attested the applicability of utilized waste agricultural fibers in production of cement composite boards by improving the flexural and energy absorption characteristics, more or less, depending on the type of fibers. Moreover, it is found that application of silica fume in production of cement composite boards led to an increase in flexural strength.
P. Ramadoss,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (3-2014)

Abstract: This paper presents the influence of adding steel fibers and incorporation of silica fume on the mechanical properties of high-strength concrete. The variables investigated were steel fiber volume fraction (0 to 1.5%), silica fume replacement (5, 10 and 15%) and water-to-binder ratio (0.25, 0.30, 0.35 and 0.40). The influence of fiber content in terms of fiber reinforcing index on the compressive and splitting tensile strengths of high-strength steel fiber reinforce concrete (HSFRC) is presented. The use of silica fume increased both the compressive and splitting tensile strengths of concrete at 28 days. On the other hand, the addition of crimped steel fiber into high-strength concrete improves splitting tensile strength significantly. Based on the test data, using regression analysis, empirical expression to predict 28-day tensile strength of HSFRC in terms of fiber reinforcing index was developed and the absolute variation and integral absolute error (IAE) obtained was 3.1% and 3.3, respectively. The relationship between splitting tensile and compressive strength of SFRC was reported with regression coefficient (r) = 0.9. The experimental values of previous researchers were compared with the values predicted by the model and found to predict the values quite accurately.
M. B. Esfandiari Sowmehsaraei, R. Jamshidi Chenari,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (1-2014)

Soil reinforced with fiber shows characteristics of a composite material, in which fiber inclusion has a significant effect on soil permeability. Concerning to the higher void ratio of carpet fibers, at first stages it may be expected that an increase in fiber content of the reinforced soil would result in an increase in permeability of the mixture. However, the present article demonstrates that fiber inclusion will decrease the permeability of sand-fiber composite.A series of constant head permeability tests have been carried out to show the effects and consequently, a new system of phase relationships was introduced to calculate the dry mass for the sand portion of the composite. Monte Carlo simulation technique adopted with finite element theory was employed to back calculate the hydraulic conductivity of individual porous fibers from the laboratory test results. It was observed that the permeability coefficient of the porous fibers are orders of magnitude less than the skeletal sand portion due to the fine sand particle entrapment and also the fiber volume change characteristics.
C. Gümüşer, A. Şenol,
Volume 12, Issue 2 (4-2014)

The total coal and lignite consumption of the thermic power plants in Turkey is approximately 55 million tons and nearly 15 million tons of fly ash is produced. The remarkable increase in the production of fly ash and its disposal in an environmentally friendly manner is increasingly becoming a matter of global concern. Studies for the utilization of fly ash in Turkey are necessary to reduce environmental problems and avoid economical loss caused by the disposal of fly ash. Efforts are underway to improve the use of fly ash in several ways, with the geotechnical utilization also forming an important aspect of these efforts. An experimental program was undertaken to investigate the effects of Multifilament (MF19average) and Fibrillated (F19average) polypropylene fiber on the compaction and strength behavior of CH class soil with fly ash in different proportions. The soil samples were prepared at three different percentages of fiber content (i.e. 0.5%, 1% and 1.5% by weight of soil) and two different percentages of fly ash (i.e. 10% and 15% by weight of soil). A series of tests were prepared in optimum moisture content and laboratory unconfined compression strength tests, compaction tests and Atterberg limits test were carried out. The fiber inclusions increased the strength of the fly ash specimens and changed their brittle behavior into ductile behavior.
Nader Shariatmadari, Amir Hossein Sadeghpour, Farshid Razaghian,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (7-2014)

This research shows the results of studies carried out to define and analyze the effect of aging on MSW behavior of Kahrizak Landfill, the biggest landfill in Iran. Studied samples consisted of fresh samples and also aged ones with 5.5, 14 and 21 years of age which were obtained by mechanical excavators in aged burial locations. Analyzing variation in MSW components illustrates that paste fraction of MSW decreases due to aging process while fibers show a rising trend. Also the moisture content and the organic content of MSW reduce below half of the initial values while the degree of decomposition (DOD) increase up to almost 60% after 14 years. These variations over the time are significantly related to the burying methods and environmental condition of burying location. Shear strength behavior of MSW material was analyzed by some CU tests using large scale triaxial apparatus (D=150mm, H=300mm) on remolded MSW specimens. General observations depict that with an increase in strain level, loading rises without any peak point on stress-strain curves. Fresh samples represent the lowest shear strength followed by 21, 14 and 5.5 year-old samples respectively. There is a direct relationship between fiber content and shear strength. Internal friction angle of aged samples decreases in comparison with fresh ones while cohesion has an inverse trend and rises over the time. According to the effect of burying condition on MSW characteristics, it seems that DOD factor is a more appropriate factor than age in order to analyze long-term behavior of MSW.
R. Perumal, K. Nagamani,
Volume 12, Issue 4 (12-2014)

An experimental study on the impact performance of silica fume concrete and steel fiber reinforced concrete at 28 days and 56 days under the action of repeated dynamic loading was carried out. In this experimental investigation, w/cm ratios of 0.4 and 0.3, silica fume replacement at 10% and 15% and crimped steel fibers with an aspect ratio of 80 were used. Results indicated that addition of fibers in high-performance concrete (HPC) can effectively restrain the initiation and propagation of cracks under stress, and enhance the impact strengths, toughness and ductility of HPC. Pulse velocity test was carried out for quality measurements of high-performance steel fiber reinforced concrete. Steel fibers were observed to have significant effect on flexural strength of concrete. The maximum first crack strength and ultimate failure strength at 28 days were 1.51 times and 1.78 times, respectively at 1.5% volume fraction to that of HPC. Based on the experimental data, failure resistance prediction model was developed with correlation coefficient (R) = 0.96 and absolute variation determined is 1.82%.
M.m. Kamal, M.a. Safan, Z.a. Etman, M.a. Abd-Elbaki,
Volume 13, Issue 4 (12-2015)

The current research intends to study the possibility of producing fiber recycled self-compacting concrete (FRSCC) using demolitions as a coarse aggregate (crushed red brick and crushed ceramic). Steel fibers were used in recycled self-compacting concrete (RSCC) to improve fresh and hardened properties of this type of concrete. Thirty nine concrete mixes were prepared to achieve the aim proposed in this paper. Steel fiber volume fraction varied from 0 to 2.0% by the volume of concrete with aspect ratio 65. The fresh properties of FRSCC were evaluated using slump flow, J-ring and V-funnel tests. Compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength and density tests were performed in order to investigate mechanical properties. The optimum volume fraction of steel fibers was 0.25% and 1.0% for the mixes contained crushed red brick and ceramic as a coarse aggregate respectively. At optimum content of steel fibers, the compressive strength for the RSCC mixes with steel fibers improved by 11.3% and 31.8% for the mixes with crushed ceramic and crushed red brick, respectively with respect to control mix. Also the tensile strength and the flexural strength for the mixes were improved

Mahmood Reza Abdi, Hamed Mirzaeifar,
Volume 14, Issue 4 (6-2016)

Abstract To meet construction demands, reinforcement and stabilization methods have been widely used to improve properties and mechanical behavior of clays. Although cement stabilization increases soil strength, at the same time reduces ductility which is of paramount importance in roads, landfill covers, etc. In current study, kaolinite was stabilized with 1, 3 and 5% cement and mixed with 0.05, 0.15, 0.25 and 0.35% polypropylene fibers to increase ductility. Samples were cured at 35°C for 1, 7 and 28 days and subjected to unconfined compression tests. Results showed that inclusion of discrete fibers to uncemented and cemented kaolinite reduced stiffness and the loss of post-peak strength and changed brittle behavior of cemented samples to a more ductile behavior. Cement and fiber contents as well as curing period were found to be the most influential factors and fiber – soil interaction was influenced by binding materials.

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