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Showing 32 results for Traffic

Mahmoud Saffarzadeh, Maghsoud Pooryari,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (6-2005)

This paper specifies the relationship among various factors contributing to road accidents including geometrical design characteristics, environmental and traffic specifications, by multiple regression analysis. The main objective of this paper is identification of problems associated with the safety issue of road networks by application of accident prediction models. Data from previous accidents were used to develop the models. Results of this study showed that the rate of road accidents is to a large extent dependent on the rate of traffic volume. Type of road and land-use are other important factors influencing the number and intensity of accidents. The mountainous roads in this respect require special attention regarding their safety factors. The quantitative rate of road safety upgrading has also been specified by adding traffic lanes in road networks.
Nassiri H., Khayat Khoie A.,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (9-2005)

This paper studies the effects of queue formation in the bottlenecks at off-ramps on the capacity of the freeways. Six expressway exit-ramps throughout the city of Tehran, Iran were selected and their traffic flows were observed in thirty-minute intervals during which the queue formation and queue elimination occurred. Assuming that in the absence of the queue, the traffic flow is in its normal state, the changes in the volume of through vehicles has been modeled as an average estimator of the change in the expressway capacity.The developed models prove that the changes in freeway capacity are due to queue formation at the off-ramp sections. However, the estimated figures are different from those obtained from the theory of freeway capacity. The conclusion is that lane blockage is only one of many factors that affect the freeway capacity while the queue forms. Since it is not possible to quantify all those factors individually, the resulting models are macroscopic estimates of the phenomenon.
Shahriar Afandizadeh, Jalil Kianfar,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (3-2009)

This paper presents a hybrid approach to developing a short-term traffic flow prediction model. In this

approach a primary model is synthesized based on Neural Networks and then the model structure is optimized through

Genetic Algorithm. The proposed approach is applied to a rural highway, Ghazvin-Rasht Road in Iran. The obtained

results are acceptable and indicate that the proposed approach can improve model accuracy while reducing model

structure complexity. Minimum achieved prediction r2 is 0.73 and number of connection links at least reduced 20%

as a result of optimization.

I.a. Hansen,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (3-2010)

The paper discusses the current state of research concerning railway network timetabling and traffic

management. Timetable effectiveness is governed by frequency, regularity, accurate running, recovery and layover

times, as well as minimal headway, buffer times and waiting times. Analytic (queuing) models and stochastic microsimulation

are predominantly used for estimation of waiting times and capacity consumption anlong corridors and in

stations, while combinatorial models and stability analysis are suitable for network timetable optimisation. Efficient

traffic management can be achieved by real-time monitoring, fusion, analysis and rescheduling of railway traffic in

case of disturbances. Real-time simulation, optimisation and impact evaluation of dispatching measures can improve

the effectiveness of rescheduling and traffic management. The display of dynamic signal and track occupancy data in

driver cabins, as RouteLint developed by ProRail, can support anticipative actions of the driver in order to reduce

knock-on delays and increase throughput.

Sh. Afandizadeh, M. Yadak, N. Kalantar,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (3-2011)

The congestion pricing has been discussed as a practical tool for traffic management on urban transport networks. The traffic congestion is defined as an external diseconomy on the network in transport economics. It has been proposed that the congestion pricing would be used to reduce the traffic on the network. This paper investigates the cordon-based second-best congestion-pricing problems on road networks, including optimal selection of both toll levels and toll locations. A road network is viewed as a directed graph and the cutest concept in graph theory is used to describe the mathematical properties of a toll cordon by examining the incidence matrix of the network. Maximization of social welfare is sought subject to the elastic-demand traffic equilibrium constraint. A mathematical programming model with mixed (integer and continuous) variables is formulated and solved by use of two genetic algorithms for simultaneous determination of the toll levels and cordon location on the networks. The model and algorithm are demonstrated in the road network of Mashhad CBD.
F. Rezaie Moghaddam, Sh. Afandizadeh, M. Ziyadi,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (3-2011)

In spite of significant advances in highways safety, a lot of crashes in high severities still occur in highways. Investigation of influential factors on crashes enables engineers to carry out calculations in order to reduce crash severity. Therefore, this paper deals with the models to illustrate the simultaneous influence of human factors, road, vehicle, weather conditions and traffic features including traffic volume and flow speed on the crash severity in urban highways. This study uses a series of artificial neural networks to model and estimate crash severity and to identify significant crash-related factors in urban highways. Applying artificial neural networks in engineering science has been proved in recent years. It is capable to predict and present desired results in spite of limited data sets, which is the remarkable feature of the artificial neural networks models. Obtained results illustrate that the variables such as highway width, head-on collision, type of vehicle at fault, ignoring lateral clearance, following distance, inability to control the vehicle, violating the permissible velocity and deviation to left by drivers are most significant factors that increase crash severity in urban highways.

A. Shariat Mohaymany, M. Babaei,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (3-2013)

Since the 1990’s, network reliability has been considered as a new index for evaluating transportation networks under uncertainty. A large number of studies have been revealed in the literature in this field, which are mostly dedicated to developing relevant measures that can be utilized for the evaluation of vulnerable networks under different sources of uncertainty, such as daily traffic flow fluctuations, natural disasters, weather conditions, and so fourth. This paper addresses the resource allocation problem in vulnerable transportation networks, in which multiple performance reliability measures should be met at their desired levels, while the overall cost of upgrading links’ performances should be minimized simultaneously. For this purpose, a new approach has been considered to formulate the two well-known performance measures, connectivity and capacity reliability, along with their application in a bi-objective nonlinear mixed integer goal programming model. In order to take into account the uncertain conditions of supply, links’ capacities have been assumed to be random variables and follow normal distribution functions. A computationally efficient method has been developed that allows calculating the network-wise performance indices simply by means of a set of functions of links’ performance reliabilities. Using this approach, as the performance reliability of links are themselves functions of the random links’ capacities, they can be simply calculated through numerical integration. To achieve desirable levels for both connectivity reliability and capacity reliability (as network-wise performance reliability measures) two distinct objectives have been considered. One of the objectives seeks to maximize each of the measures regardless of what is happening to the other objective function which minimizes the budget. Since optimization models with two conflicting objectives cannot be solved directly, the well-known goal attainment multi-objective decision-making (MODM) approach has been adapted to formulate the model as a single objective model. Then the resultant single objective model has been solved through the generalized gradient method, which is a straightforward solution algorithm coded in existing commercial software such as MATLAB programming software. To show the applicability of the proposed model, numerical results are provided for a simple network. Also, to show the sensitiveness of the model to decision maker’s direction weights, the results of sensitivity analysis are presented..
R. Prasanna Kumar, G. Dhinakaran,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (3-2013)

Delay is one of the principal measures of performance used to determine the Level of Service (LOS) at signalized intersections and several methods have been widely used to estimate vehicular delay. Very few studies only have been carried out to estimate delay at signalized intersections under mixed traffic conditions prevailing in developing countries like India. In the present study, various problems associated with delay estimation under mixed traffic conditions in a developing country (India) and the methods to over come them were discussed and an attempt was made to improve the accuracy estimating the same. Five isolated signalized intersections from a fast developing industrial city located in TamilNadu, India were chosen for the study. Site specific PCU values were developed considering the static and dynamic characteristics of vehicles. Saturation flow was also directly measured in the field for the prevailing roadway, traffic and signalized conditions and expressed in PCU/h. Control delay was also measured following HCM 2000 guidelines. Later, this was compared with that estimated from the theoretical delay model. Even after taking several measures, good correlation between observed and predicted delay could not be obtained. Therefore, in the present scenario field measured control delay was taken into account to define LOS. A new criteria for Indian cities recently published in the literature was used to assign LOS grades of study intersections and found to be better reflecting the field conditions.
F. Askari, M. R. Arvin, O. Farzaneh,
Volume 11, Issue 2 (11-2013)

Seismic stability of slopes is typically evaluated by conventional methods under the assumption that the slope is subjected to an

earthquake just for one time. In general, time histories of loadings on slopes are unknown and loads are of variable repeated

nature. Shakedown phenomenon can be considered as a safe state for slopes subjected to variable repeated loadings. In this study,

lower bound dynamic shakedown theorem is employed for the seismic stability of slopes as a comprehensive verification. A

numerical method applied previously to evaluate roads under the traffic loads was modified to make it appropriate for dynamic

shakedown analysis in the present study. The numerical method is based on the combination of finite element and linear

programming methods. Critical PGA is employed as a comparative parameter to compare shakedown and pseudostatic methods.

Results show that, unlike pseudostaic method, shakedown approach is able to consider dynamic properties of load and slope.

Also, it is indicated that contrary to pseudostaic approach, shakedown solutions are different for slopes and embankments.

Shakedown and pseudostaic critical PGA versus dynamic properties of load and slope creates four distinct zones. It is shown that

the forgoing zones can be used as appropriate tools for seismic zonation of slopes based on their short term and long term safety

Kwang-Suek Oh, Tae-Hyung Kim,
Volume 11, Issue 2 (11-2013)

This study was conducted to determine the effect of vibration on the curing and compressive strength of lightweight air-trapped

soil (ATS). ATS is manufactured by mixing cement with water and sand and injecting bubbles into the mixture. It is light as

compared to regular soil, can reduce the weight on the ground, and has high fluidity. If ATS is used at construction sites with

many vibration sources, such as pile driving, blasting, and construction machinery, the effect of vibration needs to be seriously

considered. If a road is expanded using ATS to reduce traffic congestion, the ATS quality may decrease because of vibration

generated by traffic moving on the road. In particular, because ATS contains many air bubbles and needs time for curing, the

effect of vibration can be greater than expected. Therefore, the effect of vibration on ATS was evaluated during the curing process

by conducting unconfined compression tests on samples prepared with different values of variables including vibration velocity,

starting vibration time, and mixing ratio. Vibration velocities of 0.25 and 0.50 cm/s did not greatly affect the strength. However,

vibration velocities of above 2.50 cm/s significantly affected the decrease in strength, and the starting vibration time also had a

clear effect on specimens cured for less than 2 hours.

K. J. Tu, Y. W. Huang,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (12-2013)

The decisions made in the planning phase of a building project greatly affect its future operation and maintenance (O&M) cost. Recognizing the O&M cost of condominiums’ common facilities as a critical issue for home owners, this research aims to develop an artificial neural network (ANN) O&M cost prediction model to assist developers and architects in effectively assessing the impacts of their decisions made in the planning phase of condominium projects on future O&M costs. A regression cost prediction model was also developed as a benchmark model for testing the predictive accuracy of the ANN model. Six critical building design attributes (building age, number of apartment units, number of floors, average sale price, total floor area, and common facility floor area) which are usually available in the project planning phase, were identified as the input factors to both models and average monthly O&M cost as the output factor. 55 of the 65 existing condominium properties randomly selected were treated as the training samples whose data were used to develop the ANN and regression models the other ten as the test samples to compare and verify the predictive performance of both models. The study results revealed that the ANN model delivers more accurate and reliable cost prediction results, with lower average absolute error around 7.2% and maximum absolute error around 16.7%, as compared with the regression model. This study shows that ANN is an effective method in predicting building O&M costs in the project planning phase. Keywords: Project management, Facility management, Common facilities, Cost modeling.
S. Soudmand, M. Ghatee, S. M. Hashemi,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (12-2013)

This paper proposes a new hybrid method namely SA-IP including simulated annealing and interior point algorithms to find the optimal toll prices based on level of service (LOS) in order to maximize the mobility in urban network. By considering six fuzzy LOS for flows, the tolls of congested links can be derived by a bi-level fuzzy programming problem. The objective function of the upper level problem is to minimize the difference between current LOS and desired LOS of links. In this level, to find optimal toll, a simulated annealing algorithm is used. The lower level problem is a fuzzy flow estimator model with fuzzy link costs. Applying a famous defuzzification function, a real-valued multi-commodity flow problem can be obtained. Then a polynomial time interior point algorithm is proposed to find the optimal solution regarding to the estimated flows. In pricing process, by imposing cost on some links with LOS F or E, users incline to use other links with better LOS and less cost. During the iteration of SA algorithm, the LOS of a lot of links gradually closes to their desired values and so the algorithm decreases the number of links with LOS worse than desirable LOS. Sioux Falls network is considered to illustrate the performance of SA-IP method on congestion pricing based on different LOS. In this pilot, after toll pricing, the number of links with LOS D, E and F are reduced and LOS of a great number of links becomes C. Also the value of objective function improves 65.97% after toll pricing process. It is shown optimal toll for considerable network is 5 dollar and by imposing higher toll, objective function will be worse.
Wen-Chao Huang,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (7-2014)

When geogrid reinforcement is used as a treatment method for improving soft subgrade as a roadway foundation, a top layer of subgrade is usually excavated and backfilled with geogrid-reinforced aggregates. This treatment method produces an adequate platform for the planned roadway construction site, where heavy traffic loading is constantly moving. This paper presents a quantitative assessment of subgrade improvement by geogrid reinforcement based on numerical modelling and parametric studies. First of all, the preliminary numerical models were verified by comparing the analysis results with previous studies. Secondly, the major numerical models in this study were assumed to be a simplified simulation of a geogrid-reinforced two-layer system with an aggregate layer above a subgrade layer. The numerical models were applied a quasi-static loading and unloading cycle, in order to monitor the permanent deformation at the surface of the models. Afterwards, thickness of aggregate layer, and subgrade CBR values were varied in order to summarize the outcomes of each case. This approach makes it possible to quantify the effects of geogrid reinforcement and aggregate material in terms of an enhanced California Bearing Ratio (CBR) of a single subgrade clay layer. Results have shown that when the aggregate thickness is up to 450mm, the contribution of enhanced CBR is mostly from aggregate material. However, when the aggregate thickness is about 150mm with a relatively weak subgrade material, the inclusion of geogrid material can contribute about 50% of the enhanced value.
L. Zhang,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (9-2014)

Short-term traffic flow forecasting plays a significant role in the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), especially for the traffic signal control and the transportation planning research. Two mainly problems restrict the forecasting of urban freeway traffic parameters. One is the freeway traffic changes non-regularly under the heterogeneous traffic conditions, and the other is the successful predictability decreases sharply in multiple-steps-ahead prediction. In this paper, we present a novel pattern-based short-term traffic forecasting approach based on the integration of multi-phase traffic flow theory and time series analysis methods. For the purpose of prediction, the historical traffic data are classified by the dynamic flow-density relation into three traffic patterns (free flow, synchronized and congested pattern), and then different predict models are built respectively according to the classified traffic patterns. With the current traffic data, the future traffic state can be online predicted by means of pattern matching to identify traffic patterns. Finally, a comparative study in a section of the Third-Loop Freeway, LIULIQIAO, Beijing city, shows that the proposed approach represents more accurately the anticipated traffic flow when compared to the classical time series models that without integration with the traffic flow theory.
M. Effati, M. A. Rajabi, F. Samadzadegan, Sh. Shabani,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (9-2014)

Road transportation by way of automobiles is a very convenient means of transportation. Today, the most detrimental consequence of developing transportation systems in a country is traffic accident that places a huge financial burden on society. This paper investigates the role of information systems in transportation safety that leads to improved planning and operation of the transportation system through the application of new technologies. Current methods for identification of segments of roads with high potential of accident are based on statistical approaches. Since there are not accident records for newly built roads, these methods cannot be used for regional roads that are recently built. This paper presents a GIS based Neuro-Fuzzy modeling for identification of road hazardous zones. The results of proposed approach are compared with statistical methods. It is shown that this method is a cheaper but at the same time robust means of analyzing the level of hazard associated with each road segment under consideration, specially when data are uncertain and incomplete.
H. Qi, D. Wang, P. Chen, Y. M. Bie,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (9-2014)

A structural model for urban arterial road is proposed. It describes the road traffic dynamics in a disaggregated way. The structural model mainly includes: (1) a link traffic model that tracks the traffic waves cyclically. Traffic waves within each cycle are captured by three characteristic points. These points are formed by the encounter of different traffic waves. (2) a proportional line model which is used to split the overall outflow into different turning flow. The model is derived directly from first-in-first-out (FIFO) principle. (3) a spillover component that deals with channelized section queue overflow and (4) a traffic flow performance index component that outputs macroscopic and microscopic level indexes. These indexes include delay, stops, queue length and vehicle trajectory, travel time. The former three can be used in traffic flow optimization and the latter two are valuable in vehicle emission evaluation. Simulation results show that with the increasing of numerical resolution, traditional CTM model gradually converges to our model.
S. F. Eftekharzadeh, A. Khodabakhshi,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (9-2014)

The previous studies show that a high percentage of traffic accidents take place in two-lane rural highways and most of which happen at horizontal curves. Meanwhile the horizontal alignment is often subject to hard topographic conditions where because of economic aspects designers are forced to design horizontal curves at grades. Vertical angle of longitudinal slope reduces the normal force of vehicle on road and friction force in tire-pavement surface will decrease. This leads to a lack of sufficient driver control over the vehicle especially if the curve with small radius is located at downgrade. In this paper, the suitability of operating speed and lateral friction coefficient as geometric design criteria for horizontal curves in downgrades are studied with regard to traffic safety and vehicle stability. The investigation of speed reduction of the vehicles running on a horizontal curve at downgrade as a response of driver behavior and the use of friction ellipse theory give the available friction coefficient. Whereas the dynamic analysis of forces applied on the vehicle in curve which is located at downgrade if combined with operating speed results in the required coefficient of lateral friction. Finally, a comparison of these two parameters based on safety evaluation criteria gives an estimation of actual safety level in designing horizontal curve at downgrades with regard to AASHTO’s data in horizontal curve design.
S.a.o. Hosseini, M. Nasiri, M. Akbarimehr,
Volume 13, Issue 3 (9-2015)

Harvesting of timber using ground based machinery is still a common practice around the world. Track and road building, and movement of machinery during harvesting operations cause soil disturbance. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the change in soil properties after logging operation on skid trails (2 years and 7 years after logging) and compare disturbed soil properties with control sampling (undisturbed soil). For this purpose, soil samples were collected from the skid trail and undisturbed area. Electrical conductivity, pH, organic carbon, moisture equivalent, moisture, total porosity and bulk density were determined on the skid trail and undisturbed area. Soil characteristics were examined in two ages (2 years and 7 years skid trail). There were crucial differences in the values of electrical conductivity, organic carbon, moisture, total porosity and bulk density from skid trail and undisturbed area in 2 years skid trail (p<0.05). But on 7 years skid trail, there were no significant differences in values of mentioned factors from skid trail and undisturbed area (p>0.05) except bulk density (p=0). It has been concluded that 7 years after logging, all soil properties except bulk density were completely recovered on skid trail. These findings have important implications for assessing the impact of skidders traffic and recovery time in skid trails.
H.s. Qi, Y. Y, Dian Hai Wang, Y.m. Bie,
Volume 13, Issue 4 (12-2015)

Abstract: Gridlock is an extreme traffic state where vehicle cannot move at all. This research studies the development of gridlock by theoretical and numerical analysis. It is shown that the development of gridlock can be divided into several stages. The core of the development is the evolution of congestion loop. A congestion loop is comprised of a number of consecutively connected spillover links. The evolution of a congestion loop always tends to be stable, i.e. the state of all related links tends to be identical.. Under the stable condition, traffic states of all links are identical. A novel concept, “virtual signal” is proposed to describe the queue propagation and spillover during the stabilization. Simulation results show that congestion propagates in an accelerated way. The prevention of the first congestion loop is crucial. The achieved results have potential use for future network traffic control design and field applications

Dongfang Ma, Fengjie Fu, Weiming Zhao, Dianhai Wang, Sheng Jin,
Volume 14, Issue 5 (7-2016)

The purpose of this paper is to improve the intelligence and universality of classical method for gating control in the SCOOT system. Firstly, we introduce a method to identify spillovers, and use the occupancy threshold for spillover recognition to trigger this special control logic. Then we present an influence rate model for links upstream of the bottleneck link, and a share ratio model for the downstream links, after analyzing the interrelationship of the traffic flows among adjacent traffic links. With known threshold values for the influence rate and share ratio, we propose a rule and process for selecting the intersections that should be included in the sub-area of the gating control. Thirdly, we determine total capacity adjustments for the incoming and outgoing streams of bottleneck links, with the aim of dissipating the queue to a permissible length within a given period of time. After that, the apportion models for the total adjustments among different paths and links are presented, along with the correlation coefficients of the traffic flows between the bottleneck link and the other links. Next, we ascertain the capacity decrements and increments for the gated and benefiting streams, and define the optimization schemes so as to calculate splits for the gated and benefiting intersections. Finally, we evaluate the advanced method using a VISSIM simulation. The results show that new control method brings significant and positive effects to the bottleneck link itself and to the entire control area.

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