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Showing 180 results for Tehran

Behbahani H., Mohammad Elahi S.,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2003)
Abstract

This Paper is the result of a research project on a pavement management system that was performed by the Transportation Division of Iran University of Science and Technology. Information used in the project was gathered from 20 zones of the Tehran Municipality. Any maintenance and repair system for roads has a number of general and coordinated activities in conjunction with programming, designing, construction, Maintenance, Evaluation, and research on road pavement. Prediction of pavement condition is one of the most important parts of, such system. Prediction models have their application at the network level as well as project level activities. At the network level it is used in predicting the condition for budget programming. While in project level it is used in economical analysis. Many factors have been used in determination of pavement condition. These factors are the design life of the pavement, loading, climatic condition, and the type of road. To be able to plan for future improvements we need to predict the future condition of the pavement. In this paper, factors affecting the prediction of pavement condition are discussed. A model is developed exclusively for Tehran based on the distress data collected.
Afshar M.h.,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2003)
Abstract

In this paper the analysis of the pipe networks is formulated as a nonlinear unconstrained optimization problem and solved by a general purpose optimization tool. The formulation is based on the minimization of the total potential energy of the network with respect to the nodal heads. An analogy with the analysis of the skeletal structures is used to derive tire formulation. The proposed formulation owes its significance for use in pipe network optimization algorithms. The ability and versatility of the method to simulate different pipe networks are numerically tested and the accuracy of the results is compared with direct network algorithms.
Saffar Zadeh M., Karbasi Zadeh B.,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (3-2004)
Abstract

In this paper, optimal bridge management system models have been presented. These optimization models are capable of allocating limited resources to the bridge preservation schemes in order to establish the optimal time of completing the activities. Bridge-based activities are divided into two main groups: repair projects, and maintenance activities and both models are presented in this paper. Particular attention has been made to optimize the management of the two system activities. The dynamic programming approach was utilized to formulate and analyze the two models. The developed models are found to be more accurate and faster than the previous ones.
Baziar M.h., Asna Ashari M.,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (9-2004)
Abstract

An experimental study was carried out to evaluate the liquefaction resistance of silty sand utilizing laboratory techniques. In this study, liquefaction potential of silty sand by using cyclic triaxial tests on frozen samples retrieved from calibration chamber and constructed samples by dry pouring method were investigated. Correlation between cone penetration resistance and cyclic strength of undisturbed silty sand samples are also examined using CPT calibration chamber and cyclic triaxial tests. The cone penetration tests were performed on silty sand samples with fine contents ranging from 0% to 50% and overburden stresses in the range of 100-300 kPa. Then the soil sample in calibration chamber, in the same way that soil samples were prepared during CPT sounding, was frozen and undisturbed soil specimen retrieved from frozen soil sample were tested using cyclic triaxial tests. Analysis of results indicates that the quality of frozen samples is affected by fine content and overburden pressures. Also, using data obtained in this research, the relationship between cone tip resistance and cyclic resistance ratio (CRR) for silty sand soils will be presented. These correlations are in relatively good agreement with field case history data. Also increasing confining pressure in silty sand material increases the cone tip resistance and generally, cyclic resistance ratio increases by increasing silt content.
Ghodrati Amiri G., Sedighi S.,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2004)
Abstract

In the past decade design procedure changed to �performance-based design� from�force-based design�, by this mean many researchers focused on nonlinear static analysis (NSA)and the procedure named �PUSHOVER�. Advantages of this method are defining the inelasticbehavior of structure without nonlinear dynamic analysis (NDA) effort and also defining plastichinges formation in critical elements, and the order of formed plastic hinges. In spite of these goodadvantages NSA is limited to short and planar structures and application of that in tall andtorsionaly asymmetric structures may yield unreliable results.In this study reliability of NSA is investigated by performing both nonlinear static and dynamicanalysis on six 2D moment resisting concrete frames. Non linear dynamic analysis has been doneby the suggested method in FEMA356 guideline called �Target Displacement Method�. A groupof 4 different lateral increasing loads were used in pushover analysis and 3 different groundmotions were applied in NDA. Results indicate that same responses can be obtained by performingNSA, but errors will be increased by frames height increment.
Saleh Zadeh H., Ghazanfari E.,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2004)
Abstract

To study the behavior of carbonate sands parametrically, some monotonic triaxial testswere carried out on Kish carbonate sand. The sample was provided from Kish Island beach. Inorder to examine the effect of density and confining pressure, samples in loose and dense stateswere tested under different confining pressures. For studying the effect of drainage andconsolidation, different stress paths were followed. Also to study the effect of particle crushing indrained tests all samples were graded before and after testing. Comparison between loose anddense samples in both drained and undrained tests showed that with increasing confiningpressure, the reduction in shear resistance in loose samples is less than dense samples and theincrement rate of particle crushing in loose samples is more than dense samples. In the range oflow confining pressures both loose and dense samples showed dilation response. With increasingconfining pressure, the loose samples tended to exhibit contraction and the rate of dilation indense samples reduced. Because recovering undisturbed sample of carbonate sediments is veryhard or even impossible so the effect of soil disturbance is not studied in this research.
Khalou A.r., Ghara Chour Lou A.,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (3-2005)
Abstract

This paper presents the results of analytical studies concerning the flexuralstrengthening of reinforced concrete beams by external bonding of high-strength lightweightcarbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) plates to tension face of the beam. Three groups of beamswere tested analytically and compared with existing experimental results. Results of the numericalanalyses showed that, although addition of CFRP plates to the tension face of the beam increasesthe strength, it decreases the beam ductility. Finite element modeling of fifteen different beams in aparametric study indicates that steel area ratio, CFRP thickness, CFRP ultimate strength andelastic modulus considerably influence the level of strengthening and ductility.
Sabouri Ghomi S., Kharazi M.h.k., Asghari A., Javidan P.,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (3-2005)
Abstract

Design and construction of efficient and economic Reinforced Concrete (R.C.) Hyperbolic Cooling Towers have driven the engineers toward the design of tall and thin-shell towers which have considerable high slenderness aspect ratio. Consequently, the shell of R.C. Cooling Towers with relative high slenderness aspect ratio is extremely prone to buckling instability due to wind loading. To increase the structural stability or buckling safety factor, one economic approach is to design and construct stiffening rings for the R.C. Hyperbolic Cooling Towers. Despite the research previously performed to determine the effect of stiffening rings on the buckling behavior of the R.C. Hyperbolic Cooling Towers, information resulting in maximum buckling stability is absent considering the optimized utilization of the quantity and dimension as well as the location of this type of stiffeners. In this paper, not only the effect of the stiffening rings on the buckling stability of the R.C. Cooling Tower is studied but also the optimized location,quantity and dimension of the stiffening rings are carried out for a sample RC Cooling Tower. The dimensions of the selected sample cooling tower are in average typical dimensions which are used in the current practice. In this study, finite element (F. E.) analyses has been carried out to define the buckling modes and resistance of this tower due to wind loading for different number of stiffening ring configurations. Based on the conducted buckling analysis, the optimized number, location and dimension of the stiffening rings that maximizes the tower.s buckling stability are defined and the methodology to achieve this information is discussed in this paper.
Sadeghi J.m., Youldashkhan M.,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (3-2005)
Abstract

In this paper, the main factors in the analysis of the railway concrete sleepers areinvestigated and new recommendations are made in order to improve the accuracy of the currentpractices in analysis of the railway track system. First, a comprehensive literature survey isconducted, then, FEM models for a railway track system are developed and used to discuss andevaluate the assumptions commonly used in the analysis of the railway track system. The analysisfactors investigated include stress distribution under a concrete sleeper, rail-seat load, anddynamic coefficient factor. Finally, recommendations and needs for continuation of the researchare presented.
Golparvar Fard M., Yeganeh Bakhtiary A., Cheng L.,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (3-2005)
Abstract

This paper presents a k- turbulence model for simulation of steady current and itsinduced vortex shedding caused by the presence of an offshore pipeline. Performance of the modelaround a circular cylinder above a wall with gap to diameter ratios of 0.1, 0.35 and 0.5 underdifferent flow regimes with Reynolds numbers of 1500, 2500 and 7000 is studied. The flow field iscomputed with solving the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) the seabed underpipeline is treated as a plane boundary with no-slip boundary condition on pipe surface. Thegoverning equations are solved using Finite Volume Method in a Cartesian coordinate system.Based on the numerical solutions, the flow field, vortex shedding and distribution of shear stressdue to the presence of the pipeline near seabed are studied. In addition the mechanism of vortexshedding with different gap to diameter ratios is examined with focusing on the effect of vortexshedding on bed shear stress. It is found that the k- turbulence model can well predict the flowfield and its induced vortex shedding around a pipeline hence it can be easily applied forsimulation of scour below an offshore pipeline.
Kaveh A., Shahrouzi M.,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (9-2005)
Abstract

Genetic Algorithm is known as a generalized method of stochastic search and has been successfully applied to various types of optimization problems. By GA s it is expected to improve the solution at the expense of additional computational effort. One of the key points which controls the accuracy and convergence rate of such a process is the selected method of coding/decoding of the original problem variables and the discrete feasibility space to be searched by GAS. In this paper, a direct index coding (DIC) is developed and utilized for the discrete sizing optimization of structures. The GA operators are specialized and adopted for this kind of encoded chromosomes and are compared to those of traditional GA S. The well-known lO-bar truss example from literature is treated here as a comparison benchmark, and the outstanding computational efficiency and stability of the proposed method is illustrated. The application of the proposed encoding method is not limited to truss structures and can also be directly applied to frame sizing problems.
Nassiri H., Khayat Khoie A.,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (9-2005)
Abstract

This paper studies the effects of queue formation in the bottlenecks at off-ramps on the capacity of the freeways. Six expressway exit-ramps throughout the city of Tehran, Iran were selected and their traffic flows were observed in thirty-minute intervals during which the queue formation and queue elimination occurred. Assuming that in the absence of the queue, the traffic flow is in its normal state, the changes in the volume of through vehicles has been modeled as an average estimator of the change in the expressway capacity.The developed models prove that the changes in freeway capacity are due to queue formation at the off-ramp sections. However, the estimated figures are different from those obtained from the theory of freeway capacity. The conclusion is that lane blockage is only one of many factors that affect the freeway capacity while the queue forms. Since it is not possible to quantify all those factors individually, the resulting models are macroscopic estimates of the phenomenon.
Mohammad Reza Kavian Pour, H.r. Masoumi ,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (9-2008)
Abstract

Hydraulics of stepped spillway is a very complicated phenomenon, as it consists of a two phase flow passing through a set of designed steps. The steps increase the rate of energy dissipation taking place on the spillway face. Turbulence, flow aeration and energy dissipation are the main tasks in the design of such structures. This study consists of the experimental investigation to determine the energy dissipation over stepped spillways. Experiments conducted at Water Research Institute on two physical models of the Siyah Bisheh stepped spillways in Iran. To develop a more generalized expression, the results of previous investigations were also considered in our study. Therefore, a wide range of variables were taken into account to estimate the energy dissipation along the non-uniform flow regime. Assuming the energy dissipation along the uniform flow regime to be equal to the vertical displacement of the jet, the total energy lost was calculated. A comparison of the results with those of measurements showed a regression of 0.92 for the total energy dissipation, which is one of the features of the present method for estimating of the energy dissipation, compared with the previous investigation.
Shahriar Afandizadeh, Morteza Araghi,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (12-2008)
Abstract


Prof Javad Farhoudi,
Volume 7, Issue 4 (12-2009)
Abstract

ABSTRACT

Induced total pressure by flow, including mean and fluctuating components, around a selected chute block in SAF stilling basins downstream of an ogee spillway was studied. Several pressure holes were selected on various faces of a selected chute block to get enough information regarding the total pressure field. This paper reports the results of an experimental work and measurement of mean and fluctuation pressures around chute blocks of SAF stilling basins. The observations showed that the maximum total pressure varies inversely with Froude number of incoming flow while its position of occurrence follows a quadratic polynomial relation ship. Statistical analysis also showed that the peak instantaneous pressure fluctuations could be as large as ±4.5times the RMS value.It is concluded that pressure fluctuation around the chute blocks may double the magnitude of pressure field around the chute blocks and can not be overlooked in designing such appurtenances.


P. Alimohammadi, N. Shariatmadari, M.a. Abdoli, H. Ghiasinejad, A. Mansouri,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (6-2010)
Abstract

Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model is one of the most accepted tools to simulate

the hydrological attributes of landfills. Although some major deviations from real values has been reported about the

calculated results for leachate generation by HELP model but other researchers and/or engineers in practice have

used it in some places to estimate amount of leachate produced in the landfills. On the Other hand this model is

elaborated and mainly used in developed countries with the waste having low moisture content and also in climatic

conditions with high precipitation. This research investigated the applicability of the model in arid areas, by

construction of two 30m× 50m (effective horizontal length) test cells in Kahrizak landfill (longitude=51°, 20',

latitude= 35° 27' degrees), and monitoring the real leachate generation from each one. A set of field capacity and

saturated water conductivity tests were also performed to determine basic hydrologic properties of municipal waste

landfilled. A comparison was made between values calculated by HELP model and recorded values, shows that a

prediction of leachate on annual basis can be done by HELP model with acceptable accuracy but when the infiltration

of water to waste body increases due to leachate production, the model intents to underestimate water storage capacity

of the landfill, which lead to deviation of calculated values from real ones.


H. Shakib, F. Omidinasab, M.t. Ahmadi,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (9-2010)
Abstract

Elevated water tanks as one of the main lifeline elements are the structures of high importance. Since they are extremely vulnerable under lateral forces, their serviceability performance during and after strong earthquakes is a matter of concern. As such, in recent years, the seismic behavior of water tanks has been the focus of a significant amount of studies. In the present work, three reinforced concrete elevated water tanks, with a capacity of 900 cubic meters and height of 25, 32 and 39 m were subjected to an ensemble of earthquake records. The behavior of concrete material was assumed to be nonlinear. Seismic demand of the elevated water tanks for a wide range of structural characteristics was assessed. The obtained results revealed that scattering of responses in the mean minus standard deviation and mean plus standard deviation are approximately 60% to 70 %. Moreover, simultaneous effects of mass increase and stiffness decrease of tank staging led to increase in the base shear, overturning moment, displacement and hydrodynamic pressure equal to 10 - 20 %, 13 - 32 %, 10 - 15 % and 8 - 9 %, respectively.


H. Bahrampoor, S. Sabouri-Ghomi,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (9-2010)
Abstract

 From the time that civil engineers have used steel in building structures, they tried to increase its strength so as to produce more economic and lighter structures by using more elegant sections. Increase of steel strength is not always useful for all members of a steel structure. In some members under certain conditions, it is needed to reduce the strength as much as possible to improve the behavior of structure. By using very low strength steel according to the Easy-Going Steel (EGS) concept in this research, it is shown that the performance of diagonal Eccentrically Braced Frames (EBFs) improves substantially. For this purpose, a finite element analysis was used to simulate diagonal eccentrically braced frames. Fifteen diagonal eccentrically braced frames were designed through AISC2005. By substitutingvery low strength steelinstead of carbon steel with equal strength in the links, their performance improve fundamentally without any global or local instability in their links.


A. Allahverdi, B. Shaverdi, E. Najafi Kani,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2010)
Abstract

:The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of sodium oxide on properties of fresh and hardened paste of alkali-activated blast furnace slag from Isfahan steel plant. The silica modulus (SiO2/Na2O) of activator was adjusted at 0.6 and a number of mixes were designed in such a way to contain different levels of sodium oxide including 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6% by weight of dry slag. The most important physico-mechanical properties of the pastes including workability, initial and final setting times, 28-day compressive strength and efflorescence severity were measured. Suitable mixes were chosen for more studies including compressive strength at different ages, 90-day autogenous and drying shrinkages. According to the results, increasing the sodium oxide content of the mixes results in increased workability, reduced setting times, and higher compressive strength. The results confirm the possibility of achieving 28-day compressive strengths up to 27.5, 50.0 and 70.0 MPa for mixes with sodium oxide content of 1, 2 and 3 wt% respectively. The measured values for autogenous shrinkage were all less than 0.1% and SEM studies showed a significant decrease in pore sizes with increasing sodium oxide concentration from 1 to 2%.


J. Vafaie, T. Taghikhany, M. Tehranizadeh,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (3-2011)
Abstract

The near field ground motions have a high amplitude pulse like at the beginning of the seismogram which are significantly influenced by the rupture mechanism and direction of rupture propagation. This type of ground motion cause higher demands for engineering structures and its response spectrum is dramatically different than far field spectra.

Tabriz is one of the ancient cities in

Azerbaijan province with many industrial factories, financial centers and historical monuments in North-West of Iran. In this region, North Tabriz Fault which has a well known history of intense seismic activity is passing through in close distance of urban area. In this regard investigation of near field ground motion effect on current practice seismic design spectrum in this region is necessary.

Hence, probabilistic seismic hazard analysis is carried out using appropriate attenuation relationship to consider near field effect. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) and several spectral accelerations (SA) over bedrock are estimated for different return periods and maps of iso acceleration contour lines are provided to indicate the earthquake hazard in different points of

Tabriz city.

Afterward, the generated horizontal equal-hazard spectrums considering near field effect are compared with different spectrums developed base on simple pulses model for near field motion. Both types spectrum used to verify current practice seismic design spectrum of Iranian code (2005) and International Building Code (IBC 2000). The results reveal the long-period structures which are seismically designed based on current practice seismic codes are in high risk to be damaged during near fault ground motion.



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