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Showing 132 results for Structures

Mivehchi Mahmood R., M.t. Ahmadi, Hajmomeni A.,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2003)
Abstract

Ambient vibration test is an effective and economical method for identification of dynamic properties of structures such as dams. Mathematical models generally are developed for the design purpose. Structural and material parameter are assumed from similar projects or limited material tests. Therefore it is usually desirable to verify the results obtained from mathematical model by performing vibration test on the actual as-built structure and process its, data correctly. There are addressed in this paper. A modification of mathematical model could then be performed.
Misaghi F., Mohammadi K., Mousavizadeh M.h.,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2003)
Abstract

In the present paper, ANN is used to predict the tidal level fluctuations, which is an important parameter in maritime areas. A time lagged recurrent network (TLRN) was used to train the ANN model. In this kind of networks, the problem is representation of the information in time instead of the information among the input patterns, as in the regular ANN models. Two sets of data were used to test the proposed model. San Francisco Bay tidal levels were used to test the performance of the model as a predictive tool. The second set of data was collected in Gouatr Bay in southeast of Iran. This data set was used to show the ability of the ANN model in predicting and completing of data in a station, which has a short period of records. Different model structures were used and compared with each other. In addition, an ARMA model was used to simulate time series data to compare the results with the ANN forecasts. Results proved that ANN can be used effectively in this field and satisfactory accuracy was found for the two examples. Based on this study, an operational real time environment could be achieved when using a trained forecasting neural network.
Afshar M.h.,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (9-2003)
Abstract

In this paper the analysis of the pipe networks is formulated as a nonlinear unconstrained optimization problem and solved by a general purpose optimization tool. The formulation is based on the minimization of the total potential energy of the network with respect to the nodal heads. An analogy with the analysis of the skeletal structures is used to derive tire formulation. The proposed formulation owes its significance for use in pipe network optimization algorithms. The ability and versatility of the method to simulate different pipe networks are numerically tested and the accuracy of the results is compared with direct network algorithms.
Bakhtiari Nejad F., Rahai A., Esfandiari A.,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2004)
Abstract

In this paper a structural damage detection algorithm using static test data is presented. Damage is considered as a reduction in the structural stiffness (Axial and/or Flexural) parameters. Change in the static displacement of a structure is characterized as a set of non-linear undetermined simultaneous equations that relates the changes in static response of the structure to the location and severity of damage. An optimality criterion is introduced to solve these equations by minimizing the difference between the load vector of damaged and undamaged structures. The overall formulation leads to a non-linear optimization problem with non-linear equality and linear inequality constraints. A method based on stored strain energy in elements is presented to select the loading location. Measurement locations are selected based on Fisher Information Matrix. Numerical and experimental results of a 2D frame represent good ability of this method in detecting damages in a given structure with presence of noise in measurements.
Kimiaei M., Shayanfar M.a., Hesham Ei Naggar M., Agha Kouchak A.a.,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2004)
Abstract

The seismic response of pile-supported offshore structures is strongly affected by the nonlinear behavior of the supporting piles. Nonlinear response of piles is the most important source of potentially nonlinear dynamic response of offshore platforms due to earthquake excitations. It is often necessary to perform dynamic analysis of offshore platforms that accountsfor soil nonlinearity, discontinuity condition at pile soil interfaces, energy dissipation through soil radiation damping and structural non linear behaviors of piles.In this paper, an attempt is made to develop an inexpensive and practical procedure compatible with readily available structural analysis software for estimating the lateral response of flexible piles embedded in layered soil deposits subjected to seismic loading. In the proposed model a BNWF (Beam on Nonlinear Winkler Foundation) approach is used consisting of simple nonlinear springs, dash pots and contact elements. Gapping and caving-in conditions at the pile-soil interfaces are also considered using special interface elements. This model was incorporated into a Finite Element program (ANSYS), which was used to compute the response of laterally excited piles. A linear approach was used for seismic free field ground motion analysis. The computed responses compared well with the Centrifuge test results.This paper deals with the effects of free field ground motion analysis on seismic non linear behavior of embedded piles. Different parts of a BNWF (Beam on Nonlinear Winkler Foundation) model, together with quantitative and qualitative findings and conclusions for dynamic nonlinear response of offshore piles, are discussed and addressed in detail. The proposed BNWF model (only using the existing features of the available general finite element software) could easily be implemented in a more comprehensive model of nonlinear seismic response analysis of pile supported offshore platforms.
Ghodrati Amiri G., Sedighi S.,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2004)
Abstract

In the past decade design procedure changed to �performance-based design� from�force-based design�, by this mean many researchers focused on nonlinear static analysis (NSA)and the procedure named �PUSHOVER�. Advantages of this method are defining the inelasticbehavior of structure without nonlinear dynamic analysis (NDA) effort and also defining plastichinges formation in critical elements, and the order of formed plastic hinges. In spite of these goodadvantages NSA is limited to short and planar structures and application of that in tall andtorsionaly asymmetric structures may yield unreliable results.In this study reliability of NSA is investigated by performing both nonlinear static and dynamicanalysis on six 2D moment resisting concrete frames. Non linear dynamic analysis has been doneby the suggested method in FEMA356 guideline called �Target Displacement Method�. A groupof 4 different lateral increasing loads were used in pushover analysis and 3 different groundmotions were applied in NDA. Results indicate that same responses can be obtained by performingNSA, but errors will be increased by frames height increment.
M. Naderi,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (3-2005)
Abstract

Having observed the costly failures of different cutoff walls, that had been constructed according to the mix design specified by reputable consultants in Iran, a research programme was conducted to study the effects of constituent materials on the properties of plastic concrete. The main properties, such as compressive strength, biaxial and triaxial strains, permeability, and modulus of elasticity have been investigated using different mixes, obtained from prototype production line plant, situated on site, because it was realized that the site production line and the systems employed have major effects on the properties of plastic concrete. Statistical analysis of the results, revealed the coefficients of influence of main constituent materials of plastic concrete namely cement, bentonite, aggregate and water on its compressive strength and modulus of elasticity. Having realized the cancelling effects of bentonite and aggregates on the measured properties, some equations relating the quantities of cement and water to the compressive strength and modulus of elasticity are introduced. Effects of clay and hydrated lime powder, as fillers were also investigated leading to the proposal of limits for their safe and economic use. Since most of the cutoff walls are buried structures, failure strains under both uniaxial and triaxial tests, with values of cohesion and internal friction, are also presented in this paper.
Saleh Zadeh H., Procter D.c., Merrifield C.m.,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (9-2005)
Abstract

The unique behaviour of carbonate materials under shear loading has stimulated in investigating of their geological and engineering properties.Carbonate soils composed of calcium or other carbonates and most abundant in tropical marine environments are of interest from geotechnical view, especially for offshore engineers engaged with Fossil-based fuel exploitation. This was initiated in the early 1960's, when the first offshore borings in the Persian Gulf identified layers of calcarenite and thick layers of sand containing visible shell fragments.For the purpose of exploiting gas and oil resources in hot and temperate climates (e.g. Persian Gulf) off-shore structures have been placed on carbonate soils. The carbonate sediments are high crushable compared with low crushable sediments such as quartzic soils.To examine the crushability of these problematic sediments a series of monotonic compression, extension and post-cyclic triaxial tests under different densities and confining pressures was carried out to study the crushing behaviour of "Rock" carbonate sand obtained from Cornwall, England.It was shown that crushing coefficient decreases with increasing in maximum principal effective stress ratio for both loose and dense states. It seems that for skeletal carbonate sand maximum and minimum dry densities will be changed during shearing loading. In other words, even though the sample has experienced an increase in density, it may also have experienced a reduction in relative density.
Kaveh A., Shahrouzi M.,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (9-2005)
Abstract

Genetic Algorithm is known as a generalized method of stochastic search and has been successfully applied to various types of optimization problems. By GA s it is expected to improve the solution at the expense of additional computational effort. One of the key points which controls the accuracy and convergence rate of such a process is the selected method of coding/decoding of the original problem variables and the discrete feasibility space to be searched by GAS. In this paper, a direct index coding (DIC) is developed and utilized for the discrete sizing optimization of structures. The GA operators are specialized and adopted for this kind of encoded chromosomes and are compared to those of traditional GA S. The well-known lO-bar truss example from literature is treated here as a comparison benchmark, and the outstanding computational efficiency and stability of the proposed method is illustrated. The application of the proposed encoding method is not limited to truss structures and can also be directly applied to frame sizing problems.
A. Afshar, H. Abbasi, M. R. Jalali,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (3-2006)
Abstract

Water conveyance systems (WCSs) are costly infrastructures in terms of materials, construction, maintenance and energy requirements. Much attention has been given to the application of optimization methods to minimize the costs associated with such infrastructures. Historically, traditional optimization techniques have been used, such as linear and non-linear programming. In this paper, application of ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm in the design of a water supply pipeline system is presented. Ant colony optimization algorithms, which are based on foraging behavior of ants, is successfully applied to optimize this problem. A computer model is developed that can receive pumping stations at any possible or predefined locations and optimize their specifications. As any direct search method, the mothel is highly sensitive to setup parameters, hence fine tuning of the parameters is recommended.
H. Salehzadeh, D.c. Procter, C.m. Merrifield,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (3-2006)
Abstract

Carbonate materials are mostly found in tropical areas, where exploiting gas and oil resources are of high concern. Their unique behavior under shear loading first was recognised during oil resources investigations in the Persian Gulf. Off-shore structures have been placed on carbonate soils which are highly crushable.During storms cyclic loading imposes on the bases of structures lied down on seabed. Cyclic loading, therefore, may trigger liquefaction phenomenon which leads to soil collapse and a catostrophic event. Therefore, stability of these expensive structures need to be investigated. To this aim carbonate sand in medium dense to medium dense state was considered and its response under varied cyclic shear stress ratio was studied.
M. Naderi,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (6-2006)
Abstract

This paper introduces an innovative partially destructive method, called “Twist-off”, for the assessment of in situ concrete strength. In this method a 40mm diameter metal probe is bonded to a concrete surface by means of a high strength epoxy resin adhesive. To measure the concrete compressive strength, a torque is applied using an ordinary torque-meter and the maximum shear stress at failure is used to estimate the cube compressive strength by means of a calibration graph. The relationship between the results of this new method and compressive strengths of concrete cores is also presented in this paper. The average coefficient of variation of the results of this method was seen to be of the order of 8 percent and the correlation coefficients of its comparative results with concrete cube and core compressive strengths were found to be 0.97 and 0.90 respectively. In order to assess the performance of this method on site, tests were undertaken on a number of buildings. Although the method was found to perform well but with some of the structures tested, the differences between the strengths of sample cubes and estimated in situ compressive strength of concrete were seen to be significant.
S. Mohammadi, A. Bebamzadeh,
Volume 4, Issue 4 (12-2006)
Abstract

Explosion has always been regarded as one of the most complicated engineering problems. As a result, many engineers have preferred rather simplified empirical approaches in comparison to extremely complex deterministic analyses. In this paper, however, a numerical simulation based on the combined finite/discrete element methodology is presented for analyzing the dynamic behavior of fracturing rock masses in blasting. A finite element discretization of discrete elements allows for complex shapes of fully deformable discrete elements with geometric and material nonlinearities to be considered. Only a Rankine strain softening plasticity model is employed, which is suitable for rock and other brittle materials. Creation of new lines/edges/bodies from fracturing and fragmentation of original objects is systematically considered in the proposed gas-solid interaction flow model. An equation of state is adopted to inexpensively calculate the pressure of the detonation gas in closed form. The model employed for the flow of detonation gas has resulted in a logical algorithmic procedure for the evaluation of spatial distribution of the pressure of detonation gas, work done by the expanding gas and the total mass of the detonation gas as functions of time indicating the ability of model to respond to changes in both the mass of explosive charge and the size of the solid block undergoing fracture. Rock blasting and demolition problems are amongst the engineering applications that are expected to benefit directly from the present development. The results of this study may also be used to provide some numerical based reliable solutions for the complex analysis of structures subjected to explosive loadings.
M. Mazloom, A.a. Mehrabian,
Volume 4, Issue 4 (12-2006)
Abstract

The objective of this paper is to present a new method for protecting the lives of residents in catastrophic earthquake failures of unreinforced masonry buildings by introducing some safe rooms within the buildings. The main idea is that occupants can seek refuge within the safe rooms as soon as the earthquake ground motions are felt. The information obtained from the historical ground motions happened in seismic zones around the globe expresses the lack of enough safety of masonry buildings against earthquake. For this potentially important reason, an attempt has been made to create some cost-effective seismic-resistant areas in some parts of the existing masonry buildings, which are called safe rooms. The practical method for creating these areas and increasing the occupant safety of the buildings is to install some prefabricated steel frames in some of their rooms or in their halls. These frames do not carry any service loads before earthquake. However, if a near field seismic event happens and the load bearing walls of the building destroy, some parts of its floors, which are in the safe areas, will fall on the roof of the installed frames consequently, the occupants who have sheltered in the safe rooms will survive. This paper expresses the experimental and theoretical work executed on the steel structures of the safe rooms for bearing the shock and impact loads. Finally, it was concluded that both the strength and displacement capacity of the steel frames were adequate to accommodate the distortions generated by seismic loads and aftershocks properly.
M. Khanzadi, G. Ghodrati Amiri, G. Abdollahzadeh Darzi,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (3-2007)
Abstract

According to performance-based seismic design method by using energy concept, in this paper it is tried to investigate the duration and damping effects on elastic input energy due to strong ground motions. Based on reliable Iranian earthquake records in four types of soils, structures were analyzed and equivalent velocity spectra were computed by using input energy. These spectra were normalized with respect to PGA and were drawn for different durations, damping ratios and soil types and then effects of these parameters were investigated on these spectra. Finally it was concluded that in average for different soil types when the duration of ground motions increases, the input energy to structure increases too. Also it was observed that input energy to structures in soft soils is larger than that for stiff soils and with increasing the stiffness of the earthquake record soil type, the input energy decreases. But damping effect on input energy is not very considerable and input energy to structure with damping ratio about 5% has the minimum value.
H.r. Ashrafi, A.a. Ramezanianpour,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (9-2007)
Abstract

Deterioration of concrete structures in the Gulf region is a serious problem. Penetration of Chloride ion into concrete is responsible for such early deterioration. Determination of chloride diffusion coefficient is an effective way to predict the service life of concrete structures. In order to investigate the performance of concrete mixtures in such environments, ordinary and silica fume concrete mixtures containing various water to cementitious materials ratios were used. Rapid chloride permeability test and determination of diffusion coefficient of chloride ion penetration in accordance with bulk diffusion test under laboratory conditons simulated to Persian Gulf climate, and site investigation were performed. Concentration of chloride ions in various depths of concrete specimens was measured using acid soluble chloride test method. Test results show that silica fume reduces the chloride penetration and the diffusion coefficient in concrete mixtures. Different models were made for rapid chloride test results, and diffusion coefficient, of concretes maintained in the hot and corrosive environments of the Persian Gulf. The models which were calibrated with real data obtained from the concrete structures are capable to predict the penetration and service life of concrete structures in such corrosive environments.
F. Amini, R. Vahdani,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (9-2007)
Abstract

In this research, an innovative numerical simulating approach for time domain analysis of multi degrees of freedom structures with uncertainty in dynamic properties is presented. A full scale finite element model of multi-story and multi bays of three sample structures has been constructed. The reduced order model of structure with holding the dominant and effective Gramians in the balanced state-space realization has been achieved for easy and safe design of the optimal control forces applied to the structure. Some easy selective control algorithms based on the Optimal-Stochastic control theories such as LQG, DLQRY and modified sliding mode control has been programmed with the simulation control sequences. Some real features of accurate control system such as time delay and noise signals in earthquake time histories and also measurement sensors are considered in illustrative simulation models. These models can be analyzed under either various intensity of corresponding earthquakes or desired random excitations passed through the suitable filters providing stochastic parameters of earthquake disturbances. This control procedure will be shown to be very efficient suppressing all the severities and difficulties may arise in design of a multi-objective optimal control system. The obtained results illustrate the feasibility and applicability of the proposed stochastic optimal control design of active control force providing a stable and energy-saving control strategy for tall building structures.
M. Rezaiee-Pajand, M. Riyazi-Mazloomi,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (9-2007)
Abstract

In this research a new approach is proposed for elasto-plastic analysis of structures with truss elements. This method covers both perfectly plastic and hardening properties. The Proposed technique uses substituting virtual loads instead of modifying the stiffness matrix. To solve this kind of problems, complementary programming is utilized. Numerical examples demonstrate that elastoplastic analysis by this approach has very good convergence, rapidity, and accuracy.
H. Shakib, A. Ghasemi,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (12-2007)
Abstract

An attempt has been made to explore the general trends in the seismic response of planasymmetric structures when subjected to near-fault and far-fault ground motions. Systems with structural wall elements in both orthogonal directions considering actual and common nonlinear behavior under bi-directional excitation were studied. Idealized single-storey models with uni-axial eccentricity were employed. The main findings are: The rotational response trend considering actual behavior method would be different from common behavior method assumption, when the system subjected to near-fault motions. In the former case, the minimum rotational response could be achieved, when stiffness and strength centers are located on opposite side of the mass center. In the latter case, stiffness eccentricity determines the minimum and maximum rotational response. General trends in the rotational demand for far-fault motions, considering two type behavior assumptions, are similar to the last case. Moreover, in near-fault motions, when stiffness and strength centers are located on opposite side of the mass center, stiff side displacement demand would be greater than that soft side which is contrary to the conventional guidelines. While, in farfault motions similar to near-fault motions which stiffness and strength centers are located on one side of the mass center, displacement demand would be according to conventional guidelines.
Mehdi Poursha, Faramarz Khoshnoudian, Abdoreza S. Moghadam,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (6-2008)
Abstract

The nonlinear static pushover analysis technique is mostly used in the performance-based design of structures and it is favored over nonlinear response history analysis. However, the pushover analysis with FEMA load distributions losses its accuracy in estimating seismic responses of long period structures when higher mode effects are important. Some procedures have been offered to consider this effect. FEMA and Modal pushover analysis (MPA) are addressed in the current study and compared with inelastic response history analysis. These procedures are applied to medium high-rise (10 and 15 storey) and high-rise (20 and 30 storey) frames efficiency and limitations of them are elaborated. MPA procedure present significant advantage over FEMA load distributions in predicting storey drifts, but the both are thoroughly unsuccessful to predict hinge plastic rotations with acceptable accuracy. It is demonstrated that the seismic demands determined with MPA procedure will be unsatisfactory in nonlinear systems subjected to individual ground motions which inelastic SDF systems related to significant modes of the buildings respond beyond the elastic limit. Therefore, it’s inevitable to avoid evaluating seismic demands of the buildings based on individual ground motion with MPA procedure.

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