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Showing 6 results for Stress Path

Saleh Zadeh H., Ghazanfari E.,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2004)

To study the behavior of carbonate sands parametrically, some monotonic triaxial testswere carried out on Kish carbonate sand. The sample was provided from Kish Island beach. Inorder to examine the effect of density and confining pressure, samples in loose and dense stateswere tested under different confining pressures. For studying the effect of drainage andconsolidation, different stress paths were followed. Also to study the effect of particle crushing indrained tests all samples were graded before and after testing. Comparison between loose anddense samples in both drained and undrained tests showed that with increasing confiningpressure, the reduction in shear resistance in loose samples is less than dense samples and theincrement rate of particle crushing in loose samples is more than dense samples. In the range oflow confining pressures both loose and dense samples showed dilation response. With increasingconfining pressure, the loose samples tended to exhibit contraction and the rate of dilation indense samples reduced. Because recovering undisturbed sample of carbonate sediments is veryhard or even impossible so the effect of soil disturbance is not studied in this research.
A. H. Eghbali, K. Fakharian,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (1-2014)

Portland cement can be mixed with sand to improve its mechanical characteristics. Many studies are reported in literature on this topic, but the effect of principal stress rotation has not been investigated yet. Considering the inherent anisotropy of most sands, it is not clear whether the added cement shall contribute to equal increase in strength and stiffness at vertical and horizontal directions or not. Furthermore, it is not well understood how the cement as an additive in non-compacted (loose) sand compared to compacted (dense) sand without cement, contribute to improving the material behavior in undrained condition such as limiting the deformations and the liquefaction potential. In this research, undrained triaxial and simple shear tests under different stress paths are carried out on different mixtures of Portland cement (by adding 1.5, 3 and 5 percent) with clean sand to investigate the effect of principal stress rotations. The triaxial test results revealed that the cement mixture reduces the anisotropy, while it improves the mixture mechanical properties compared to compacted sand without cement. The results of the simple shear tests validated the triaxial test results and further clarified the effect of the  parameter or rotation of principal stresses on the behavior of cemented sand mixtures.
M. Hassanlourad, M. R. Rasouli, H. Salehzadeh,
Volume 12, Issue 4 (12-2014)

Compared to quartz sand, the shear behavior of carbonate sand differs in  appearance, origin, and kind. Carbonate sand is found mainly in the northern coast of the Persian Gulf and the Oman Sea. In this research, a comparison is made between the shear behavior of carbonate sand retrieved from the eastern region of the Chabahar Port, located north of the Oman Sea, and quartz sand obtained from Firoozkooh, north of Iran. Both carbonate and quartz sands have identical and uniform particle size distributions. A total of 4 one-dimensional consolidation tests, and 16 triaxial consolidated-undrained (CU) tests under confining pressures of 100, 200, 400, and 600 kPa were performed with initial relative densities of 20%-80%. The results indicated that despite  their uniform properties,  including size and grading, the two types of sand  can differ in other  properties as  inherent interlocking, compressibility, stress-strain behavior, internal friction angle, changes in pore water pressure and stress path. For instance, Chabahar carbonate sand has more compressive potential than Firoozkooh sand because of the fragility of its grains. Moreover, the internal friction angle of carbonate sand is more than that of quartz sand. Quartz sand is more affected by initial relative density, whereas, carbonate sand is influenced by  inherent packing.

M. Mojezi, M.k. Jafari, M. Biglari,
Volume 13, Issue 3 (12-2015)

Experimental study of the cyclic behavior of unsaturated materials is more complex than that of the saturated materials due to the required equipment, experience and time. Furthering investigations in the field of unsaturated materials is necessary to better understand its complexity and sensitivity of unsaturated cyclic parameters to different determinants such as suction path, stress path, loading speed, deviatoric stress amplitude, physical specifications, and etc. To this end, the main focus of this study has been to analyze the effects of factors such as mean net stress and deviatoric stress levels in fast cyclic loading on the cyclic behavior of a normally consolidated unsaturated fine-grained trade soil, namely the Zenoz kaolin. Various unsaturated tests were performed in three mean net stress levels and three amplitudes of cyclic deviatoric stress levels. Results showed that increase of suction in the same strain level leads to increase in stiffness in normally consolidated samples (i.e. increase in elastic modulus and shear modulus and decrease in damping ratio). Also, in the same suction value and strain level, increase of the mean net stress during the isotropic consolidation causes to the denser normally consolidated samples and results to increase of elastic modulus and shear modulus, and decrease of damping ratio.

Krzysztof Sternik,
Volume 15, Issue 3 (5-2017)

Constitutive model for saturated cohesive soils based on the bounding surface plasticity notion with anisotropic hardening law is presented in the paper. The model predicts inelastic behaviour of overconsolidated cohesive soils. The projection centre is the only point in the stress space which represents elastic soil behaviour. Approximation of the plastic modulus within the preconsolidation domain is made using the radial mapping rule between a projection centre and a reflecting point on the bounding surface. The projection centre changes its position each time when stress path turns rapidly of more than 90°. The configuration of the elliptic bounding surface is governed by preconsolidation effective pressure pc which depends on change of plastic both volumetric and deviatoric strain. Associated flow rule has been assumed in the formulation. Integration of constitutive relations is done according to forward Euler scheme with error control proposed by Sloan. The effectiveness of the proposed model is illustrated in both monotonic and cyclic loading in the homogeneous triaxial drained and undrained conditions.

Volume 15, Issue 6 (9-2017)

To reveal the deformation mechanism during tunneling in deep soft ground, triaxial unloading confining pressure tests and triaxial unloading creep tests were carried out on sandy mudstone specimens to study the dilatancy and fracturing behavior of soft rock. In the triaxial unloading confining pressure tests, the stress path and different unloading rates were considered to reflect the unloading characteristics of the excavation methods. The unloading rate effects and the rock damage evolution law are studied. The following conclusions are obtained from the results. Firstly, when the unloading rate is smooth, the peak strengths and deviatoric stress–strain curves under the unloading condition are close to those under the conventional loading condition. Secondly, the post-peak brittle characteristics are more apparent with the increasing unloading rates. Thirdly, the soft rock undergoes five deformation and failure regimes of elasticity, pre-peak unloading damage–dilatancy, post-peak brittle drop, linear strain softening and residual perfect plasticity under quasi-static smooth unloading of mechanized excavation which is mainly focused on in this study. Fourthly, the damage evolution law at the pre-peak damage–dilatancy stage follows an exponential function. Fifthly, during the post-peak stages, multistage microfractures are initiated, propagated and finally coalesced forming a shear-fragmentation band with a certain thickness, accompanied by significant volumetric dilatancy. In the triaxial unloading creep tests, multistep unloading of the confining pressure was applied, while the axial pressure was kept constant. The results show that when the deviatoric stress is larger and the experienced creep time is longer, the unloading effect and creep characteristics become more apparent accompanied with obvious lateral dilatancy, eventually leading to significant creep–dilatancy. The progressive failure with time is caused by the damage accumulating with time-dependent crack expansion, which can be called as ‘time-dependent damage and fracturing’. The reasons for the above evolution process are presented, then the deformation mechanism of soft rock is revealed. The soft rock deformation mainly consists of two parts. One part is the pre-peak damage–dilatancy and post-peak fracture–bulking produced at the excavation unloading instant. The other part is creep–dilatancy caused by time-dependent damage and fracturing in a period of time after excavation. The above-mentioned results of damage, dilatancy and fractures evolution process are in good agreement with the in situ monitoring results and previous studies about the surrounding rock convergence, fracturing and EDZ (excavation damaged zone) development.

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