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Showing 75 results for Simulation

Asghari K.,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (12-2003)

The solution of shallow-water equation for a two-dimensional .simulation of overland /low for an actual watershed, is presented. The Petorv-Galerkin weighted residual method is used to overcome spurious oscillations inflow depth. For modeling overland flow over complex topography and variable surface, ct pre and postprocessor was developed to utilize the Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN) model and to generate finite element mesh. Close agreement of the model with measured data is obtained. This model can be used to better analyze the influence of varying surface roughness and topography on overland flow characteristics, including distribution of flow depth and velocity (is well as resulting hydrographs. Detailed spatial and temporal output parameters provide a basis fur further study of the patterns of soil erosion and evaluation of runoff natural slopes.
Asghari K.,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (12-2003)

The solution of shallow-water equation for a two-dimensional .simulation of overland /low for an actual watershed, is presented. The Petorv-Galerkin weighted residual method is used to overcome spurious oscillations inflow depth. For modeling overland flow over complex topography and variable surface, ct pre and postprocessor was developed to utilize the Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN) model and to generate finite element mesh. Close agreement of the model with measured data is obtained. This model can be used to better analyze the influence of varying surface roughness and topography on overland flow characteristics, including distribution of flow depth and velocity (is well as resulting hydrographs. Detailed spatial and temporal output parameters provide a basis fur further study of the patterns of soil erosion and evaluation of runoff natural slopes.
A. Ardeshir,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (3-2004)

In this research a mathematical model was developed to study bed elevation variation of alluvial rivers. It utilizes two principal modules of hydraulics and sediment transport for simulation purposes. SDAR (Scour and Deposition model of Alluvial Rivers) is a new model with both one and semi-two dimensional (S-2D) computational schemes. It is regarded S-2D in a sence that lateral variation of velocity, hydraulic stresses, and geometrical specifications are achieved by dividing the main channel into serveral stream tubes. In order to overcome the existing limitations, a new idea of reachwise stream tube concept was also introduced. This allows to include branch connections and withdrawal points across the tube barriers. Sediment routing and bed variation calculations are accomplished along each river strip desigated by virtual interfaces of the tubes. Presently, quasi-steady gradually varied flows are processed by the model. It should also be emphasised that this version is only valid for alluvial rivers composed of noncohesive bed material. To assess the model, several river cases and laboratory data base were used. During calibration runs, the ability of model in longitudinal and transversal bed profile simulation and armor layer development predection were especially detected. Results of simulation are also compared with the results of well-known models, e.g. HEC-6, GSTARS-2, and FLUVIAL-I2. It was found that the ability of model in simulating bed variation is noticeably increased when S-2D concept is introduced. Indeed, the comparative validity tests confirm SDAR"s promising functioning in facing with complex real engineering cases. Obviously more article discussions would bring oppurtunities to demonestrate it"s technical cappabilities profoundaly.
Sabagh Yazdi S.r., Mohammad Zadeh Qomi M.,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2004)

A numerical model is introduced for solution of shallow water flow equations with negligible physical dissipations due to canal roughness and turbulence effects. Two-dimensional velocity distribution and water depth of the flow field are computed by solving the depth average equations of continuity and motion. The equations are converted to discrete form using cell vertexfinite volume method on triangular unstructured mesh. The formulation of the added numericalviscosity is chosen in such a way that preserves the accuracy of numerical results. The accuracy ofthe model is assessed by computing the challenging case of inviscid frictionless flow in a canal with a 1800 bend. The computed results are compared with analytical solution which is obtainedfrom potential flow theory. Simulation of frictionless free surface flow in a constant width meandering sinusoidal canal is considered as an application of the model. The algorithm produced encouraging results.
Mohammad T. Dastorani, Nigel G. Wright,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (9-2004)

In this study, an artificial neural networks (ANN) was used to optimise the results obtained from a hydrodynamic model of river flow prediction. The study area is Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed in southwest Idaho, USA. First a hydrodynamic model was constructed to predict flow at the outlet using time series data from upstream gauging sites as boundary conditions. The model, then was replaced with an ANN model using the same inputs. Finally a hybrid model was employed in which the error of the hydrodynamic model is predicted using an ANN model to optimise the outputs. Simulations were carried out for two different conditions (with and without data from a recently suspended gauging site) to evaluate the effect of this suspension in hydrodynamic, ANN and the hybrid model. Using ANN in this way, the error produced by the hydrodynamic model was predicted and thereby, the results of the model were improved.
Jalali M.r., Afshar A., Mokhtare A.r.,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2004)

It is indispensable to explore simulation techniques that not only represent complexdynamic systems in a realistic way but also allow the involvement of end users in modeldevelopment to increase their confidence in the modeling process. System dynamics as a feedbackbasedand object-oriented simulation approach is presented for reservoir operation modeling. Thequick modeling process, the trust developed in the model due to user contribution, group modelsdevelopment possibility and the effective relations of model results are the most significant strongpoints of this approach. The simple modification of model in response to changes in system andcapability to accomplish sensitivity analysis make this approach more attractive and useful ratherthan traditional reservoir operation models. In this paper system dynamics is applied to simulateoperation of a free reservoir with an Ogee spillway, a reservoir with a gated spillway and finally amulti-reservoir system with simple and gated spillways. The multi-reservoir system on Karun riverin south of Iran is modeled under flood condition as a case study in order to demonstrate thecapabilities of the developed model.
A. Khayyer, A. Yeganeh Bakhtiari, A. Ghaheri, T. Asano,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2004)

A two-dimensional numerical model has been developed to study wave breaking on a sloping beach. The basic elements of numerical model are Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations that describe the mean flow motion of a turbulent flow a k turbulence closure model that describes the turbulent transport and dissipation process an efficient technique (VOF- Volume Of Fluid method) for tracking the free surface motion and a new scheme developed by Lin and Liu (1999) for wave generation. Shoaling, breaking and overturning of solitary wave on a slope of 1/16 have been studied with the main emphasis on turbulence characteristics. Turbulence characteristics i.e., turbulence kinetic energy, k turbulence dissipation rate, turbulence production, pr turbulence eddy viscosity, vt and their spatial distribution during the breaking process have been discussed in great details. Spatial distribution of turbulence characteristics and the order of magnitude have been found to be in agreement with existing experimental and numerical studies. The main characteristic of plunging breaking waves, the shoreward advective transport of turbulence, has also been investigated and numerically proved.
Golparvar Fard M., Yeganeh Bakhtiary A., Cheng L.,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (3-2005)

This paper presents a k- turbulence model for simulation of steady current and itsinduced vortex shedding caused by the presence of an offshore pipeline. Performance of the modelaround a circular cylinder above a wall with gap to diameter ratios of 0.1, 0.35 and 0.5 underdifferent flow regimes with Reynolds numbers of 1500, 2500 and 7000 is studied. The flow field iscomputed with solving the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) the seabed underpipeline is treated as a plane boundary with no-slip boundary condition on pipe surface. Thegoverning equations are solved using Finite Volume Method in a Cartesian coordinate system.Based on the numerical solutions, the flow field, vortex shedding and distribution of shear stressdue to the presence of the pipeline near seabed are studied. In addition the mechanism of vortexshedding with different gap to diameter ratios is examined with focusing on the effect of vortexshedding on bed shear stress. It is found that the k- turbulence model can well predict the flowfield and its induced vortex shedding around a pipeline hence it can be easily applied forsimulation of scour below an offshore pipeline.
S.j. Mousavi, K. Ponnambalam, F. Karray,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (6-2005)

A dynamic programming fuzzy rule-based (DPFRB) model for optimal operation of reservoirs system is presented in this paper. A deterministic Dynamic Programming (DP) model is used to develop the optimal set of inflows, storage volumes, and reservoir releases. These optimal values are then used as inputs to a Fuzzy Rule-Based (FRB) model to derive the general operating policies. Subsequently, the operating policies are evaluated in a simulation model while optimizing the parameters of the FRB model. The algorithm then gets back to the FRB model to establish the new set of operating rules using the optimized parameters. This iterative approach improves the value of the performance function of the simulation model and continues until the satisfaction of predetermined stopping criteria. The DPFRB performance is tested and compared to a model which uses the multiple regression based operating rules. Results show that the DPFRB performs well in terms of satisfying the system target performances.
Ali Noorzad, H.b. Poorooshasb,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (9-2005)

The CANAsand constitutive law in conjunction with the ID technique is used to study the flow phenomenon in a cohesionless granular medium placed between two parallel, rough vertical walls. It is shown that the development of flow is influenced by the geometry of the case. However the main factor is the void ratio of the medium: i.e. arching will prevent the free flow of the material if its void is close to the compact state. The study is extended to cover the axisymmetric situation. Here the flow of bulk solids through a circular opening at the base of a cylindrical tank is examined.
A. Shamsai, R. Soleymanzadeh,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (3-2006)

Flow regime in dam's bottom outlet is divided in pressurized flow and free surface flow by the gate located for discharge control. Down stream tunnel involves high velocity Multi component Air –water flow studied by mathematical model. In this research work, we used Finite volume mixture two phase flow model. Because of high Reynolds number, standard two equations k-e turbulence model was used. Model was verified by backward-facing step flow and results have been compared with experiments founded by Durst and Schmitt. Air demand ratio has been determined as function of Froude number at contracted section. Flow patterns have been compared at two categories of slug & stratified flows, Air mean concentration profile has been obtained at down stream tunnel. Comparison of flow pattern at two case with and without of aeration was investigated. Pressure drop behind of the gate and formation of vortex flow after the gate section have been discussed. Measurement of flow discharge and determination of contraction coefficient of the gate was outlined.
A.r. Khoei, S. Yadegari, M. Anahid,
Volume 4, Issue 3 (9-2006)

In this paper, a higher order continuum model is presented based on the Cosserat continuum theory in 3D numerical simulation of shear band localization. As the classical continuum models suffer from the pathological mesh-dependence in strain softening models, the governing equations are regularized by adding the rotational degrees-of-freedom to conventional degrees-of-freedom. The fundamental relations in three-dimensional Cosserat continuum are presented and the internal length parameters are introduced in the elasto-plastic constitutive matrix to control the shear bandwidth. Finally, the efficiency of proposed model and computational algorithm is demonstrated by a 3D strip in tensile. A comparison is performed between the classical and Cosserat theories and the effect of internal length parameter is demonstrated. Clearly, a finite shear bandwidth is achieved and the load-displacement curves are uniformly converged upon different mesh sizes.
S. Mohammadi, A. Bebamzadeh,
Volume 4, Issue 4 (12-2006)

Explosion has always been regarded as one of the most complicated engineering problems. As a result, many engineers have preferred rather simplified empirical approaches in comparison to extremely complex deterministic analyses. In this paper, however, a numerical simulation based on the combined finite/discrete element methodology is presented for analyzing the dynamic behavior of fracturing rock masses in blasting. A finite element discretization of discrete elements allows for complex shapes of fully deformable discrete elements with geometric and material nonlinearities to be considered. Only a Rankine strain softening plasticity model is employed, which is suitable for rock and other brittle materials. Creation of new lines/edges/bodies from fracturing and fragmentation of original objects is systematically considered in the proposed gas-solid interaction flow model. An equation of state is adopted to inexpensively calculate the pressure of the detonation gas in closed form. The model employed for the flow of detonation gas has resulted in a logical algorithmic procedure for the evaluation of spatial distribution of the pressure of detonation gas, work done by the expanding gas and the total mass of the detonation gas as functions of time indicating the ability of model to respond to changes in both the mass of explosive charge and the size of the solid block undergoing fracture. Rock blasting and demolition problems are amongst the engineering applications that are expected to benefit directly from the present development. The results of this study may also be used to provide some numerical based reliable solutions for the complex analysis of structures subjected to explosive loadings.
M.b. Javanbarg, A.r. Zarrati, M.r. Jalili, Kh. Safavi,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (3-2007)

In the present study a quasi 2-D numerical model is developed for calculating air concentration distribution in rapid flows. The model solves air continuity equation (convection diffusion equation) in the whole flow domain. This solution is then coupled with calculations of the free surface in which air content in the flow is also considered. To verify the model, its results are compared with an analytical solution as well as a 2-D, numerical model and close agreement was achieved. The model results were also compared with experimental data. This comparison showed that the decrease in air concentration near the channel bed in an aerated flow could be well predicted by the model. The present simple numerical model could therefore be used for engineering purposes.
F. Amini, R. Vahdani,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (9-2007)

In this research, an innovative numerical simulating approach for time domain analysis of multi degrees of freedom structures with uncertainty in dynamic properties is presented. A full scale finite element model of multi-story and multi bays of three sample structures has been constructed. The reduced order model of structure with holding the dominant and effective Gramians in the balanced state-space realization has been achieved for easy and safe design of the optimal control forces applied to the structure. Some easy selective control algorithms based on the Optimal-Stochastic control theories such as LQG, DLQRY and modified sliding mode control has been programmed with the simulation control sequences. Some real features of accurate control system such as time delay and noise signals in earthquake time histories and also measurement sensors are considered in illustrative simulation models. These models can be analyzed under either various intensity of corresponding earthquakes or desired random excitations passed through the suitable filters providing stochastic parameters of earthquake disturbances. This control procedure will be shown to be very efficient suppressing all the severities and difficulties may arise in design of a multi-objective optimal control system. The obtained results illustrate the feasibility and applicability of the proposed stochastic optimal control design of active control force providing a stable and energy-saving control strategy for tall building structures.
Kourosh Behzadian, Abdollah Ardeshir, Zoran Kapelan, Dragan Savic,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (3-2008)

A novel approach to determine optimal sampling locations under parameter uncertainty in a water distribution system (WDS) for the purpose of its hydraulic model calibration is presented. The problem is formulated as a multi-objective optimisation problem under calibration parameter uncertainty. The objectives are to maximise the calibrated model accuracy and to minimise the number of sampling devices as a surrogate of sampling design cost. Model accuracy is defined as the average of normalised traces of model prediction covariance matrices, each of which is constructed from a randomly generated sample of calibration parameter values. To resolve the computational time issue, the optimisation problem is solved using a multi-objective genetic algorithm and adaptive neural networks (MOGA-ANN). The verification of results is done by comparison of the optimal sampling locations obtained using the MOGA-ANN model to the ones obtained using the Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) method. In the MCS method, an equivalent deterministic sampling design optimisation problem is solved for a number of randomly generated calibration model parameter samples.The results show that significant computational savings can be achieved by using MOGA-ANN compared to the MCS model or the GA model based on all full fitness evaluations without significant decrease in the final solution accuracy.
Farnad Nasirzadeh, Abbas Afshar, Mostafa Khanzadi,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (6-2008)

Presence of risks and uncertainties inherent in project development and implementation plays

significant role in poor project performance. Thus, there is a considerable need to have an effective risk

analysis approach in order to assess the impact of different risks on the project objectives. A powerful risk

analysis approach may consider dynamic nature of risks throughout the life cycle of the project, as well as

accounting for feedback loops affecting the overall risk impacts. This paper presents a new approach to

construction risk analysis in which these major influences are considered and quantified explicitly. The

proposed methodology is a system dynamics based approach in which different risks may efficiently be

modeled, simulated and quantified in terms of time, cost and quality by the use of the implemented object

oriented simulation methodology. To evaluate the performance of the proposed methodology it has been

employed in a bridge construction project. Due to the space limitations, the modeling and quantification

process for one of the identified risks namely “pressure to crash project duration” is explained in detail.

M.h. Baziar, A. Ghorbani, R. Katzenbach,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (9-2009)

The pile-raft foundation is a combination of a raft foundation with piles. Pile-raft foundation has been widely designed, assuming all structure loads to be transferred to piles without considering contribution of the load taken by contact surface between raft and soil. Methods of analysis currently used in practice are based upon relatively conservative assumptions of soil behavior or on the less realistic soil-structure interaction. In this study the bearing -settlement behavior of combined pile-raft foundations on medium dense sand was investigated. 1g physical model test was performed on a circular rigid raft underpinned with four model piles. Numerical simulation was also carried out on the model test, using FLAC-3D, to show compatibility of the numerical analysis with the test. The obtained results showed very good accuracy of the numerical method used in this study as long as the applied load does not exceed the working load, while the performance of numerical model was relatively good for the loads beyond working load.
I.a. Hansen,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (3-2010)

The paper discusses the current state of research concerning railway network timetabling and traffic

management. Timetable effectiveness is governed by frequency, regularity, accurate running, recovery and layover

times, as well as minimal headway, buffer times and waiting times. Analytic (queuing) models and stochastic microsimulation

are predominantly used for estimation of waiting times and capacity consumption anlong corridors and in

stations, while combinatorial models and stability analysis are suitable for network timetable optimisation. Efficient

traffic management can be achieved by real-time monitoring, fusion, analysis and rescheduling of railway traffic in

case of disturbances. Real-time simulation, optimisation and impact evaluation of dispatching measures can improve

the effectiveness of rescheduling and traffic management. The display of dynamic signal and track occupancy data in

driver cabins, as RouteLint developed by ProRail, can support anticipative actions of the driver in order to reduce

knock-on delays and increase throughput.

N. Adamko, V. Klima, P. Marton,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (3-2010)

Railway service terminals are the places of a railway network usually equipped with costly technology based

on highly complicated technological procedures demanding a high degree of coordination and control skills. Design

of these systems and the organization of their operation should facilitate reaching to the required capacity together

with high quality of service processes as well as minimal costs of resources. Due to the complexity of such systems, a

simulation model seems to be the only suitable tool for performing investigations under realistic conditions. The paper

focuses on the possible utilization of simulation methods to support the design and optimisation of infrastructure,

operation, and process control algorithms in railway terminals. The paper also deals with the most important

properties and possibilities offered by the simulation tool Villon and comments on the experience gained during its

utilization. The tool supports tactical (mid-term) and strategic (long-term) planning usually related to infrastructural

or operational proposals which are supposed to guarantee the optimal (or at least effective) behaviour of the modelled


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