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Showing 7 results for Shear Wave Velocity

A. Haddad, Gh. Shafabakhsh,
Volume 5, Issue 2 (6-2007)
Abstract

Local site conditions have a strong effect on ground response during earthquakes. Two important soil parameters that control the amplification effects of seismic motions by a soil column are the soil hysteretic damping ratio and shear wave velocity. This paper presents the results of in situ damping ratio measurements performed using continuous surface wave attenuation data at a site in Semnan University campus and analysis used to obtain the near surface soils damping ratio profile. Once the frequency dependent attenuation coefficients are determined, the shear damping ratio profile is calculated using an algorithm based on constrained inversion analysis. A computer code is developed to calculate the shear damping ratio in each soil layer. Comparisons of the in situ shear damping ratio profile determined from continuous surface wave with cross hole independent test measurements are also presented. Values of shear damping ratio, obtained using continuous surface wave measurements, were less than the measured using cross hole tests, possibly because of the higher frequencies used in cross hole tests.
S.m. Mir Mohammad Hosseini, A.a. Hajimohammadi, A. R. Hajimohammadi,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (6-2010)
Abstract

Seismic piezocone device (SCPTu) together with Resonant Column and Cyclic Triaxial test apparatus are

employed to measure small strain shear modulus (G0) of carbonate sandy and clayey soils of southern coasts of Iran.

A large area of southern regions of Iran is formed from clay, silt and sand. In this study, maximum shear modulus that

is derived from both field (by seismic piezocone) and laboratory (by Resonant Column and Cyclic Triaxial) tests on

soil samples from the southern region, indicated a meaningful effect of sample disturbance. Results show that in

laboratory tests, loose samples tend to become denser and therefore exhibit greater stiffness whereas dense samples

tend to become looser, showing a reduction in stiffness. According to the results of the present study, there are narrow

limits of soils shear moduli for which the laboratory tests and the field measurements yield approximately the same

amounts. This limit of shear moduli is about 30-50(MPa) for clay deposits and 70-100 (MPa) for sandy deposits. Since

the shear moduli of soils in small strains can also be computed from the shear wave velocity, also correlations based

on parameters derived from SCPTu test for shear wave velocity determination of sandy and clayey soils of the studied

area are presented. This study shows that shear wave velocity can be related to both corrected tip resistance and total

normal stress. The measurements of the damping ratio and shear module, because of a great disturbance of stiff

deposits during the sampling process and also due to considerable differences between the laboratory and field

results, by the laboratory approaches are not reliable and advised.


Rouzbeh Dabiri, Faradjollah Askari, Ali Shafiee, Mohammad Kazem Jafari,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (6-2011)
Abstract

Laboratory data, which relate the liquefaction resistance of Firoozkooh sand and non-plastic silt mixtures to shear wave velocity are

presented and compared to liquefaction criteria derived from seismic field measurements by Andrus and Stokoe [1]. In the work

described herein, cyclic triaxial and resonant column tests were conducted on specimens of clean sand and sand-silt mixtures with silt

content up to 60%, prepared at different densities. Cyclic undrained strength and small strain shear wave velocity were determined

for identical specimens formed by undercompaction method. It was found that silt content affects cyclic resistance and shear wave

velocity. In addition, the laboratory results indicated that using the existing field-based correlations will overestimate the cyclic

resistance of the Firoozkooh sand-silt mixtures when silt content is 60%. For clean sand and the specimens containing up to 30% fines,

results of this study on cyclic resistance are fairly consistent with Andrus and Stokoe correlations. These findings suggest the need for

further evaluation of the effects of non-plastic fines content upon liquefaction criteria derived from seismic field measurements.


H. Shakib, Gh. R. Atefatdoost,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (3-2014)
Abstract

An approach was formulated for the nonlinear analysis of three-dimensional dynamic soil-structure interaction (SSI) of asymmetric buildings in time domain in order to evaluate the seismic response behavior of torsionally coupled wall-type buildings. The asymmetric building was idealized as a single-storey three-dimensional system resting on different soil conditions. The soil beneath the superstructure was modeled as nonlinear solid element. As the stiffness of the reinforced concrete flexural wall is a strength dependent parameter, a method for strength distribution among the lateral force resisting elements was considered. The response of soil-structure interaction of the system under the lateral component of El Centro 1940 earthquake record was evaluated and the effect of base flexibility on the response behavior of the system was verified. The results indicated that the base flexibility decreased the torsional response of asymmetric building so that this effect for soft soil was maximum. On the other hand, the torsional effects can be minimized by using a strength distribution, when the centre of both strength CV and rigidity CR is located on the opposite side of the centre of mass CM, and SSI has no effect on this criterion.
A. H. Eghbali, K. Fakharian,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (1-2014)
Abstract

Portland cement can be mixed with sand to improve its mechanical characteristics. Many studies are reported in literature on this topic, but the effect of principal stress rotation has not been investigated yet. Considering the inherent anisotropy of most sands, it is not clear whether the added cement shall contribute to equal increase in strength and stiffness at vertical and horizontal directions or not. Furthermore, it is not well understood how the cement as an additive in non-compacted (loose) sand compared to compacted (dense) sand without cement, contribute to improving the material behavior in undrained condition such as limiting the deformations and the liquefaction potential. In this research, undrained triaxial and simple shear tests under different stress paths are carried out on different mixtures of Portland cement (by adding 1.5, 3 and 5 percent) with clean sand to investigate the effect of principal stress rotations. The triaxial test results revealed that the cement mixture reduces the anisotropy, while it improves the mixture mechanical properties compared to compacted sand without cement. The results of the simple shear tests validated the triaxial test results and further clarified the effect of the  parameter or rotation of principal stresses on the behavior of cemented sand mixtures.
M. Afzalirad, M. Kamalian, M. K. Jafari, A. Sohrabi-Bidar,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (1-2014)
Abstract

In this paper, an advanced formulation of time-domain, two-dimensional Boundary Element Method (BEM) with material damping is presented. Full space two-dimensional visco-elastodynamic time-convoluted kernels are proposed in order to incorporate proportional damping. This approach is applied to carry out site response analysis of viscoelastic topographic structures subjected to SV and P incident waves. Seismic responses of horizontally layered site, semi-circular canyons, slope topography and ridge sections subjected to these incident waves are analyzed in order to demonstrate the accuracy of the kernels and the applicability of the presented viscoelastic boundary element algorithm. The results show an excellent agreement with recent published results obtained in frequency domain. Also, the effects of different material damping ratios on site response are investigated.
M. Fazlavi, E. Haghshenas,
Volume 13, Issue 1 (3-2015)
Abstract

In this paper we are going to show the importance of mode identification in microtremor array analysis. The idea come from four concentric ambient noise array recordings with aperture 100 to 1000 meters, performed in southern urban area of Tehran near the shrine of Imam Khomeini. These measurements were part of a comprehensive research project with the aim of determination of deep shear wave velocity model of Tehran alluvial deposits. Using appropriate signal processing techniques, including array processing methods as well as classical and time-frequency horizontal/vertical spectral ratio, the dispersion curves of surface waves, fundamental resonance frequency and Ellipticity of Rayleigh waves, were extracted. In the final step, the shear wave velocity profile of the site was determined by joint inversion of all of these attributes. The results show 2 different energetic trends in dispersion curves, for arrays of aperture 200 and 400 meters that one of them is coincide with 100m aperture array. For array with aperture 1000m any clear trend of energy could be observed because of deficiency of energy in low frequency. The inversion of data obtained by 100m aperture array alone, assuming the dispersion curve as fundamental mode (a common procedure in urban area) result in shear wave velocity that is not match with existing geological information. Performing the inversion, assuming 2 energetic trends, observed for larger arrays one as fundamental mode and another as mode 1 of Rayleigh waves, can modify significantly the shear wave velocity profile in accordance with existing geological and geotechnical information. This study show the importance of extracting of correct dispersion curves with detecting fundamental and higher modes, using array measurement with various aperture at one place to obtain more realistic shear wave velocity profile.

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