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Showing 30 results for Settlement

H. Ghiassian,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (3-2004)

A study of bearing capacity and compressibility characteristics of cohesive soil, reinforced by geogrid and supporting square footing loads has been conducted. The lack of adequate frictional resistance between clay and reinforcing elements was compensated by using a thin sand layer (lens) encapsulating the geogrid sheet. In this way, tensile forces induced in the geogrid were transferred to the bulk clay medium through the sand particles and soil reinforcement was improved Experiments were conduced on two sets of specimens, one set of 1 x 1 x 1 m dimension and the footing size of 19 x 19 cm (series A), and the other set of 0.15 x 0.15 x 0.15 m dimension and the footing size of 3.7 x 3.7 cm (series B). The loading systems for the above specimens were stress controlled and strain controlled respectively. All specimens were saturated and presumably loaded under an undrained condition. The results qualitatively confirmed the effectiveness of the sand lens in improving the bearing capacity and settlement characteristics of the model footing. In series A, the maximum increase in the bearing capacity due to the presence of the sand lens was 17% whereas in series B, the amount of increase was 24%. The percentage reductions in the settlement for these results were 30% and 46% respectively.
Mahmood R. Abdi, Ali Parsapajouh, Mohammad A. Arjomand,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (12-2008)

Clay soils and their related abnormal behavior such as excessive shrinkage, swelling, consolidation settlement and cracking on drying has been the subject of many investigations. Previous studies mainly evaluated the effects of additives such as lime, cement and sand on these characteristics. Initial results indicated that the soil characteristics were improved. However, reportedly in many cases, these additives resulted in a decrease in plasticity and increase in hydraulic conductivity. As a result, there has been a growing interest in soil/fiber reinforcement. The present investigation has focused on the impact of short random fiber inclusion on consolidation settlement, swelling, hydraulic conductivity, shrinkage limit and the development of desiccation cracks in compacted clays. To examine the possible improvements in the soil characteristics, samples consisting of 75% kaolinite and 25% montmorillonite were reinforced with 1, 2, 4 and 8 percent fibers as dry weight of soil with 5, 10 and 15mm lengths. Results indicated that consolidation settlements and swelling of fiber reinforced samples reduced substantially whereas hydraulic conductivities increased slightly by increasing fiber content and length. Shrinkage limits also showed an increase with increasing fiber content and length. This meant that samples experienced much less volumetric changes due to desiccation, and the extent of crack formation was significantly reduced.
M.h. Baziar, A. Ghorbani, R. Katzenbach,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (9-2009)

The pile-raft foundation is a combination of a raft foundation with piles. Pile-raft foundation has been widely designed, assuming all structure loads to be transferred to piles without considering contribution of the load taken by contact surface between raft and soil. Methods of analysis currently used in practice are based upon relatively conservative assumptions of soil behavior or on the less realistic soil-structure interaction. In this study the bearing -settlement behavior of combined pile-raft foundations on medium dense sand was investigated. 1g physical model test was performed on a circular rigid raft underpinned with four model piles. Numerical simulation was also carried out on the model test, using FLAC-3D, to show compatibility of the numerical analysis with the test. The obtained results showed very good accuracy of the numerical method used in this study as long as the applied load does not exceed the working load, while the performance of numerical model was relatively good for the loads beyond working load.
T. Dahlberg,
Volume 8, Issue 1 (3-2010)

The track stiffness experienced by a train will vary along the track. Sometimes the stiffness variation may be

very large within a short distance. One example is when an unsupported sleeper is hanging in the rail. Track stiffness

is then, locally at that sleeper, very low. At insulated joints the bending stiffness of the rail has a discontinuity implying

a discontinuity also of the track stiffness. A third example of an abrupt change of track stiffness is the transition from

an embankment to a bridge. At switches both mass and stiffness change rapidly. The variations of track stiffness will

induce variations in the wheel/rail contact force. This will intensify track degradation such as increased wear, fatigue,

track settlement due to permanent deformation of the ballast and the substructure, and so on. As soon as the track

geometry starts to deteriorate, the variations of the wheel/rail interaction forces will increase, and the track

deterioration rate increases. In the work reported here the possibility to smooth out track stiffness variations is

discussed. It is demonstrated that by modifying the stiffness variations along the track, for example by use of grouting

or under-sleeper pads, the variations of the wheel/rail contact force may be considerably reduced.

F. Jafarzadeh, H. Farahi Jahromi, E. Abazari Torghabeh,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (6-2010)

Investigating the parameters influencing the behavior of buried pipelines under dynamic loading is of great

importance. In this study the soil structure interaction of the pipelines with the surrounding soil was addressed using

shaking table tests. Wave propagation along the soil layers was also included in the study. The semi infinite nature of

the field was simulated using a laminar shear box. The soil used in the experiments was Babolsar coastal sand (Iran).

PVC pipes were used due to their analogy with the field. Eight models were constructed with the first four models

having uniform base. In the next models, the non-uniformities of real ground were simulated using a concrete pedestal

installed at the very bottom of the shear box. Pipe deformations under dynamic loading, acceleration distribution in

height, soil settlement and horizontal displacements were measured by strain gauges, acceleratometers and

displacement meters. Analyzing the obtained data, influence of different parameters of dynamic loading such as

acceleration, frequency, soil density, base conditions and shaking direction to pipe axis on the acceleration

amplification ratio and pipe deformation were investigated. Also in order to study the effect of dynamic loading on two

different materials, soil and pipe, the horizontal strains were compared

A. Eslami, M. Veiskarami, M. M. Eslami,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (6-2012)

It has been realized that the raft (mat) foundations are capable of bearing very large loads when they are assisted with a pile
group. The contribution of both raft and piles to carry the surcharge loads is taken into account, considering the stiffness and
strength of involved elements in the system, i.e. piles, raft and surrounding soil. The piles are usually required not to ensure the
overall stability of the foundation but to act as settlement reducers. There is an alternative design in which, the piles are nonconnected
from the raft to reduce the settlement, which are then known to be "settlement reducer non-connected piles" to increase
the system stiffness. In this paper, two and three dimensional finite element analysis of connected and non-connected pile-raft
systems are performed on three case studies including a 12-storey residential building in Iran, a 39-storey twin towers in
Indonesia, and the Messeturm tower, 256m high, in Frankfurt, Germany. The analyses include the investigation of the effect of
different parameters, e.g. piles spacing, embedment length, piling configuration and raft thickness to optimize the design. The role
of each parameter is also investigated. The parametric study results and comparison to a few field measurements indicate that
by concentrating the piles in the central area of the raft foundation the optimum design with the minimum total length of piles is
achieved, which is considered as control parameter for optimum design. This can be considered as a criterion for project cost
efficiency. On the other hand, non-connected piled-raft systems can significantly reduce the settlements and raft internal bending
moments by increasing the subsoil stratum stiffness. Finally, the comparison indicates that simple and faster 2D analysis has
almost similar results to the time consuming and complicated 3D analysis.

R. Mahin Roosta, A. Alizadeh,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (6-2012)

In the first impounding of rockfill dams, additional settlements occur in upstream side in saturated rockfills due to collapse
phenomenon even high rainy seasons can cause additional deformation in the dumped rockfills. Unfortunately these
displacements are not taken into account in the conventional numerical models which are currently used to predict embankment
dam behavior during impounding. In this paper to estimate these displacements, strain hardening-strain softening model in Flac
is modified based on the laboratory tests, in which same impounding process in such dams is considered. Main feature of the
model is reproduction of nonlinear behavior of rockfill material via mobilized shear strength parameters and using collapse
coefficient to display induced settlement due to inundation. This mobilization of shear strength parameters associated with some
functions for dilatancy behavior of rockfill are used in a finite difference code for both dry and wet condition of material. Collapse
coefficient is defined as a stress dependent function to show stress release in the material owing to saturation. To demonstrate
how the model works, simulation of some large scale triaxial tests of rockfill material in Gotvand embankment dam is presented
and results are compared with those from laboratory tests, which are in good agreement. The technique could be used with any
suitable constitutive law in other coarse-grained material to identify collapse settlements due to saturation

A. Asakereh, S.n. Moghaddas Tafreshi, M. Ghazavi,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (6-2012)

This paper describes a series of laboratory model tests on strip footings supported on unreinforced and geogrid-reinforced sand
with an inside void. The footing is subjected to a combination of static and cyclic loading. The influence of various parameters
including the embedment depth of the void, the number of reinforcement layers, and the amplitude of cyclic load were studied.
The results show that the footing settlement due to repeated loading increased when the void existed in the failure zone of the
footing and decreased with increasing the void vertical distance from the footing bottom and with increasing the reinforcement
layers beneath the footing. For a specified amplitude of repeated load, the footing settlement is comparable for reinforced sand,
thicker soil layer over the void and much improved the settlement of unreinforced sand without void. In general, the results
indicate that, the reinforced soil-footing system with sufficient geogride-reinforcement and void embedment depth behaves much
stiffer and thus carries greater loading with lower settlement compared with unreinforced soil in the absent of void and can
eliminate the adverse effect of the void on the footing behavior. The final footing settlement under repeated cyclic loading becomes
about 4 times with respect to the footing settlement under static loading at the same magnitude of load applied.

Y.y. Chang, C.j. Lee, W.c. Huang, W.j. Huang, M.l. Lin, W.y. Hung, Y. H. Lin,
Volume 11, Issue 2 (11-2013)

This study presents a series of physical model tests and numerical simulations using PFC2D (both with a dip slip angle=60° and

a soil bed thickness of 0.2 m in model scale)at the acceleration conditions of 1g, 40g, and 80 g to model reverse faulting. The soil

deposits in prototype scale have thicknesses of 0.2 m, 8 m, and 16 m, respectively. This study also investigates the evolution of a

surface deformation profile and the propagation of subsurface rupture traces through overlying sand. This study proposes a

methodology for calibrating the micromechanical material parameters used in the numerical simulation based on the measured

surface settlements of the tested sand bed in the self-weight consolidation stage. The test results show that steeper surface slope

on the surface deformation profile, a wider shear band on the major faulting-induced distortion zone, and more faulting appeared

in the shallower depths in the 1-g reverse faulting model test than in the tests involving higher-g levels. The surface deformation

profile measured from the higher-g physical modeling and that calculated from numerical modeling show good agreement. The

width of the shear band obtained from the numerical simulation was slightly wider than that from the physical modeling at the

same g-levels and the position of the shear band moved an offset of 15 mm in model scale to the footwall compared with the results

of physical modeling.

A. H. Eghbali, K. Fakharian,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (1-2014)

Portland cement can be mixed with sand to improve its mechanical characteristics. Many studies are reported in literature on this topic, but the effect of principal stress rotation has not been investigated yet. Considering the inherent anisotropy of most sands, it is not clear whether the added cement shall contribute to equal increase in strength and stiffness at vertical and horizontal directions or not. Furthermore, it is not well understood how the cement as an additive in non-compacted (loose) sand compared to compacted (dense) sand without cement, contribute to improving the material behavior in undrained condition such as limiting the deformations and the liquefaction potential. In this research, undrained triaxial and simple shear tests under different stress paths are carried out on different mixtures of Portland cement (by adding 1.5, 3 and 5 percent) with clean sand to investigate the effect of principal stress rotations. The triaxial test results revealed that the cement mixture reduces the anisotropy, while it improves the mixture mechanical properties compared to compacted sand without cement. The results of the simple shear tests validated the triaxial test results and further clarified the effect of the  parameter or rotation of principal stresses on the behavior of cemented sand mixtures.
J. Nazari Afshar, M. Ghazavi,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (1-2014)

The Stone-column is a useful method for increasing the bearing capacity and reducing settlement of foundation soil. The prediction of accurate ultimate bearing capacity of stone columns is very important in soil improvement techniques. Bulging failure mechanism usually controls the failure mechanism. In this paper, an imaginary retaining wall is used such that it stretches vertically from the stone column edge. A simple analytical method is introduced for estimation of the ultimate bearing capacity of the stone column using Coulomb lateral earth pressure theory. Presented method needs conventional Mohr-coloumb shear strength parameters of the stone column material and the native soil for estimation the ultimate bearing capacity of stone column. The validity of the developed method has been verified using finite element method and test data. Parametric studies have been carried out and effects of contributing parameters such as stone column diameter, column spacing, and the internal friction angle of the stone column material on the ultimate bearing capacity have been investigated.
A. Eslami, I. Tajvidi, M. Karimpour-Fard,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (1-2014)

Three common approaches to determine the axial pile capacity based on static analysis and in-situ tests are presented, compared and evaluated. The Unified Pile Design (UPD), American Petroleum Institute (API) and a SPT based methods were chosen to be validated. The API is a common method to estimate the axial bearing capacity of piles in marine environments, where as the others are currently used by geotechnical engineers. Seventy pile load test records performed in the northern bank of Persian Gulf with SPT profile have been compiled for methods evaluation. In all cases, pile capacities were measured using full scale static compression and/or pull out loading tests. As the loading tests in some cases were in the format of proof test without reaching the plunging or ultimate bearing capacity, for interpretation the results, offset limit load criteria was employed. Three statistical and probability based approaches in the form of a systematic ranking, called Rank Index, RI, were utilized to evaluate the performance of predictive methods. Wasted Capacity Index (WCI) concept was also applied to validate the efficiency of current methods. The evaluations revealed that among these three predictive methods, the UPD is more accurate and cost effective than the others.
H. Shahnazari, M. A. Shahin, M. A. Tutunchian,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (1-2014)

Due to the heterogeneous nature of granular soils and the involvement of many effective parameters in the geotechnical behavior of soil-foundation systems, the accurate prediction of shallow foundation settlements on cohesionless soils is a complex engineering problem. In this study, three new evolutionary-based techniques, including evolutionary polynomial regression (EPR), classical genetic programming (GP), and gene expression programming (GEP), are utilized to obtain more accurate predictive settlement models. The models are developed using a large databank of standard penetration test (SPT)-based case histories. The values obtained from the new models are compared with those of the most precise models that have been previously proposed by researchers. The results show that the new EPR and GP-based models are able to predict the foundation settlement on cohesionless soils under the described conditions with R2 values higher than 87%. The artificial neural networks (ANNs) and genetic programming (GP)-based models obtained from the literature, have R2 values of about 85% and 83%, respectively which are higher than 80% for the GEP-based model. A subsequent comprehensive parametric study is further carried out to evaluate the sensitivity of the foundation settlement to the effective input parameters. The comparison results prove that the new EPR and GP-based models are the most accurate models. In this study, the feasibility of the EPR, GP and GEP approaches in finding solutions for highly nonlinear problems such as settlement of shallow foundations on granular soils is also clearly illustrated. The developed models are quite simple and straightforward and can be used reliably for routine design practice.
Fabrizio Palmisano, Angelo Elia,
Volume 12, Issue 2 (6-2014)

The increase in the computational capabilities in the last decade has allowed numerical models to be widely used in the analysis, leading to a higher complexity in structural engineering. This is why simple models are nowadays essential because they provide easy and accessible understanding of fundamental aspects of the structural response. Accordingly, this article aims at showing the utility and effectiveness of a simple method (i.e. the Load Path Method) in the interpretation of the behaviour of masonry buildings subjected to foundation settlements due to landslide. Models useful for understanding brick-mortar interface behaviour as well as the global one are reported. The global proposed approach is also validated by using Bi-directional Evolutionary Structural Optimization method. Moreover, drawing inspiration from a case study, the article shows that the proposed approach is useful for the diagnosis of crack patterns of masonry structures subjected to landslide movements.
Q. Q. Zhang, Sh. C. Li, F. Y. Liang, M. Yang, Q. Zhang,
Volume 12, Issue 2 (4-2014)

A simplified approach for nonlinear analysis of the load-displacement response of a single pile and a pile group is presented using the load-transfer approach. A hyperbolic model is used to capture the relationship between unit skin friction and pile-soil relative displacement developed at the pile-soil interface and the load-displacement relationship developed at the pile end. As to the nonlinear analysis of the single pile response, a highly effective iterative computer program is developed using the proposed hyperbolic model. Furthermore, determinations of the parameters related to the hyperbolic model of an individual pile in a pile group are obtained considering interactions between piles. Based on the determinations of the parameters presented in the hyperbolic model of an individual pile in a pile group and the proposed iterative computer program developed for the analysis of the single pile response, the conventional load-transfer approach can then be extended to the analysis of the load-settlement response of an arbitrary pile in a pile group. Comparisons of the load-settlement response demonstrate that the proposed method is generally in good agreement with the field-observed behavior and the calculated results derived from other approaches.
R. Jamshidi Chenari, P. Pishgah ,
Volume 12, Issue 2 (4-2014)

In this technical note, a methodology is introduced for reliability calculation of consolidation settlement based on cone penetration test (CPT) data. The present study considers inherent soil variability which influences consolidation settlements results. To proceed reliability analysis, the measured data of a sample corrected cone tip resistance (􀝍􀯧) is detrended using a quadratic trend and the residuals are assumed to be lognormally distributed random field. Realizations of 􀝍􀯧 is generated by using spatial variability of residuals including standard deviation and the scale of fluctuation. The quadratic trend and the generated residuals are then combined to correlate shear and bulk modulus as input consolidation properties for coupled analysis and subsequently consolidation settlement was calculated by using finite difference method adopted in Monte Carlo simulations. The results of reliability analysis are presented describing the range of possible settlements by considering characteristics of uncertainties involved at the particular site. Number of realizations rendering settlements smaller than the allowable settlement must be such that guarantee proper performance or acceptable reliability index.
M. Derakhshandi, H. R. Pourbagherian, M. H. Baziar, N. Shariatmadari, A. H. Sadeghpour,
Volume 12, Issue 4 (12-2014)

In this study, the mechanical behavior of Vanyar dam was evaluated at the end of construction. A two-dimensional numerical analysis was conducted based on a finite element method on the largest cross-section of the dam. The data recorded by the instruments located in the largest cross-section were compared with the results of the numerical analysis at the place of instruments. The settlement, pore water pressure, and total vertical stress were the parameters used for evaluating the dam behavior at the end of construction. The results showed that the settlements obtained from the numerical analysis were in reasonable agreement with the data recorded by the instruments, which proved that the numerical analysis was implemented based on realistic material properties. In addition, the difference between the instruments and the numerical analysis in terms of total vertical stresses was discussed by focusing on the local arching around the pressure cells. Furthermore, the arching ratios were calculated based on the results of the numerical analysis and the data recorded by the instruments. Moreover, the pore water pressures and total vertical stresses, recorded by piezometers and pressure cells, respectively, were the two parameters utilized for evaluating the hydraulic fracturing phenomena in the core. The results demonstrated that the maximum settlement obtained from the numerical analysis was 1 m, which corresponded to 46 m above the bedrock on the core axis. The recorded data in the core axis indicated that maximum settlement of 0.83 m happened 40 m above the bedrock. In addition, maximum pore water pressure ratio recorded by the instruments (Ru =0.43) was more than that obtained from the numerical analysis (Ru =0.26) this difference was due to the local arching around the pressure cells. Furthermore, the arching ratios in Vanyar dam were found to be 0.83 to 0.90. In general, the results revealed that the dam was located on a safe side in terms of critical parameters, including settlement and hydraulic fracturing. In addition, results of the numerical analysis were consistent with those provided by the monitoring system

M. Haghbin,
Volume 12, Issue 4 (12-2014)

This research examines the behavior of soil-reinforced piles and applied loads based on the analytical method and by using the numerical results of FLAC3D software for comparison with the analytical results. The analysis was based on a method called virtual retaining wall, the following into consideration: an imaginary retaining wall that passes the footing edge the bearing capacity of footing on reinforced soil with piles, which was determined by applying equilibrium between active and passive forces on virtual wall and a pile row that exists beneath the shallow foundation. To calculate the lateral pile resistance here, an analytical equation was then required. The main objective of this paper is to determine the percentage of applied load on pile. Similarly, the effect of adding pile in various positions relative to the present footing (underpinning) was studied in this research. The various parameters of this study included pile length, vertical distance of pile head to shallow footing, pile distance to center of footing and location of the pile. Finally, the findings were compared with the numerical results of FLAC3D and the formerly presented experimental results. Results show that the analytical method, while being close to other methods is more conservative.

Z. Sabzi, A. Fakher,
Volume 13, Issue 1 (3-2015)

Limitations in the design method used for the support systems of urban buildings make them vulnerable to damage by adjacent excavations. This paper examines a traditional system used to support excavation sites and adjacent buildings in which inclined struts are connected to the wall or foundation of the adjacent building. This method can be considered to be a type of shoring or underpinning. The performance of buildings and the criteria for deformation control during excavation are introduced. Next, a 2D finite element analysis is presented in which an excavation is modeled considering the parameters from the adjacent building and the inclined struts. The numerical model is capable of simulating the overall excavation and installation of the support system. The soil is modeled using an elastic perfectly-plastic constitutive relation based on the Mohr-Coulomb criterion. The finite element model is validated using Rankine earth pressure and in situ data was measured during an excavation. The effect of different variables on performance and acceptable limits for the inclined strut are discussed. The model used for the parametric study shows the influence of the characteristics of the adjacent building, soil parameters, geometry of excavation, type of excavation and effect of strut installation. It was found that one type of strut arrangement produced the best possible result. The results can be used as a primary approximation of small-to-medium depth excavations in which struts are used to reduce the deflections.
A. Shojaei, H. Tajmir Riahi, M. Hirmand,
Volume 13, Issue 1 (3-2015)

Incremental launching is a widespread bridge erection technique which may offer many advantages for bridge designers. Since internal forces of deck vary perpetually during construction stages, simulation and modeling of the bridge behavior, for each step of launching, are tedious and time consuming tasks. The problem becomes much more complicated in construction progression. Considering other load cases such as support settlements or temperature effects makes the problem more intricate. Therefore, modeling of construction stages entails a reliable, simple, economical and fast algorithmic solution. In this paper, a new Finite Element (FE) model for study on static behavior of bridges during launching is presented. Also a simple method is introduced to normalize all quantities in the problem. The new FE model eliminates many limitations of some previous models. To exemplify, the present model is capable to simulate all the stages of launching, yet some conventional models of launching are insufficient for them. The problem roots from the main assumptions considered to develop these models. Nevertheless, by using the results of the present FE model, some solutions are presented to improve accuracy of the conventional models for the initial stages. It is shown that first span of the bridge plays a very important role for initial stages it was eliminated in most researches. Also a new simple model is developed named as "semi infinite beam" model. By using the developed model with a simple optimization approach, some optimal values for launching nose specifications are obtained. The study may be suitable for practical usages and also useful for optimizing the nose-deck system of incrementally launched bridges.

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