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Showing 8 results for Steel Bars

Mazloom M., Ramezanian Pour A.a.,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (3-2004)

This paper presents the long-term deformations of reinforced high-strength concrete columns subjected to constant sustained axial forces. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of binder systems containing different levels of silica fume on time-dependent behaviour of high-strength concrete columns. The experimental part of the work focused on concrete mixes having a fixed water/binder ratio of 0.35 and a constant total binder content of 500 kg/m3. The percentages of silica fume that replaced cement in this research were: 0%, 6%, 8%, 10% and 15%. The mechanical properties evaluated in the laboratory were: compressive strength secant modulus of elasticity strain due to creep and shrinkage. The theoretical part of the work is about stress redistribution between concrete and steel reinforcement as a result of time-dependent behaviour of concrete. The technique used for including creep in the analysis of reinforced concrete columns was age-adjusted effective modulus method. The results of this research indicate that as the proportion of silica fume increased, the short-term mechanical properties of concrete such as 28-day compressive strength and secant modulus improved. Also the percentages of silica fume replacement did not have a significant influence on total shrinkage however, the autogenous shrinkage of concrete increased as the amount of silica fume increased. Moreover, the basic creep of concrete decreased at higher silica fume replacement levels. Drying creep (total creep - basic creep) was negligible in this investigation. The results of the theoretical part of this researchindicate that as the proportion of silica fume increased, the gradual transfer of load from the concrete to the reinforcement decreased and also the effect of steel bars in lowering the concrete deformation reduced. Moreover, the total strain of concrete columns decreased at higher silicafume replacement levels.
M.r Esfahani , M.r Kianoush, M. Lachemi ,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (9-2004)

This paper compares the results of two experimental studies on bond strength of steel and GFRP bars in the case of self-consolidating concrete (SCC). Each study included pull-out tests of thirty six reinforcing bars embedded in concrete specimens. Two types of concretes, normal concrete and self-consolidating concrete were used in different studies. Different parameters such as bar location and cover thickness were considered as variables in different specimens. The comparison between the results of GFRP reinforcing bars with those of steel deformed bars showed that the splitting bond strength of GFRP reinforcing bars was comparable to that of steel bars in both normal strength and self-consolidating concrete (SCC). The bond strength of bottom reinforcing bars was almost the same for both normal concrete and self-consolidating concrete. However, for the top bars, the bond strength of self-consolidating concrete was less than that of normal concrete.
Abolfazl Arabzadeh, Reza Aghayari, Ali Reza Rahai,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (9-2011)

An experimental-analytical investigation was conducted to study the behavior of high-strength RC deep beams a total of sixteen

reinforced concrete deep beams with compressive strength in range of 59 MPaOf'c O65 MPa were tested under two-point top

loading. The shear span-to-effective depth ratio a/d was 1.10 all the specimens were simply supported and reinforced by

vertical, horizontal and orthogonal steel bars in various arrangements. The test specimens were composed of five series based

on their arrangement of shear reinforcing. The general behavior of tested beams was investigated. Observations were made on

mid-span and loading point deflections, cracks form, failure modes and shear strengths. The test results indicated that both

vertical and horizontal web reinforcement are efficient in shear capacity of deep beams, also the orthogonal shear reinforcement

was the most efficient when placed perpendicular to major axis of diagonal crack. Concentrating of shear reinforcement within

middle region of shear span can improve the ultimate shear strength of deep beam. The test results were then compared with the

predicted ultimate strengths using the ACI 318-08 provisions ACI code tended to either unsafe or scattered results. The

performed investigations deduced that the ACI code provisions need to be revised.

K. Wang, S.f. Yuan, D.f. Cao, W.z. Zheng,
Volume 13, Issue 2 (6-2015)

This paper describes experimental and numerical investigations on two specimens of frames composed of steel reinforced concrete beam and angle-steel concrete column under horizontal low cyclic loading. Based on the test results, the relationship curves of the horizontal load-displacement and the failure modes are acquired. Meanwhile the hysteretic behaviors, skeleton curves, stiffness degradation, energy dissipation, residential deformation of the two specimens are studied. Nonlinear structural analysis program OpenSEES is employed to predict the experimental curves. Using the verified numerical model, the influences of slenderness ratio, axial compression ratio, steel ratio of column, cross-section moment resistance of I-shaped steel in beam, ratio of longitudinal rebars of beam and prestressing level on skeleton curves are investigated. The results indicated that the two specimens exhibited the favorable ductility and energy dissipation capacity, and the beam depth could be reduced to improve service function because of the application of the prestress. The ultimate horizontal load decreases with the increase of column slenderness ratio, and firstly increases then decreases with the increase of axial compression ratio. In the meantime, the descent segment of skeleton curve is smooth with the increase of column slenderness ratio, and becomes steeper with the increase of axial compression ratio.
A. Ahmed A, S. Naganathan, K. Nasharuddin, M.m. Fayyadh,
Volume 13, Issue 2 (6-2015)

The effect of steel plate thickness on the repair effectiveness of RC beam is presented in this paper. A total of four beams were tested, one beam repaired by CFRP with a thickness of 1.2 mm and used as a control beam, and three beams repaired by a steel plate. Steel plates with a thickness of 2 mm, 3 mm, and 4 mm were used in repairing the beams. The maximum load-carrying capacity, deflection at mid span and edge of the opening, strain in steel bars, strain in externally bonded plates, crack patterns, and failure modes were observed on each beam. The externally bonded CFRP sheet and steel plates were found to be effective in the repairing of RC beams with large rectangular web opening. The results show that increasing steel plate thickness has little effect on the maximum load capacity. The CFRP plate is more effective than steel plate in increasing the load capacity of beams.
Vahid Broujerdian, Mohammad T. Kazemi,
Volume 14, Issue 8 (12-2016)

Complex nature of diagonal tension accompanied by formation of new cracks as well as closing and propagating preexisting cracks has deterred researchers to achieve an analytical and mathematical procedure for accurate predicting shear behavior of reinforced concrete, and there is the lack of a unique theory accepted universally. Shear behavior of reinforced concrete is studied in this paper based on recently developed constitutive laws for normal strength concrete and mild steel bars using nonlinear finite element method. The salient feature of these stress-strain relations is to account the interactive effects of concrete and embedded bars on each other in a smeared rotating crack approach. Implementing the considered constitutive laws into an efficient secant-stiffness based finite element algorithm, a procedure for nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete is achieved. The resulted procedure is capable of predicting load-deformation behavior, cracking pattern, and failure mode of reinforced concrete. Corroboration with data from shear-critical beam test specimens with a wide range of properties showed the model to predict responses with a good accuracy. The results were also compared with those from the well-known theory of modified compression field and its extension called disturbed stress field model which revealed the present study to provide more accurate predictions. 

Muhammad Yousaf, Zahid Ahmed Siddiqi, Muhammad Burhan Sharif, Asad Ullah Qazi,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (6-2017)

In this study, a comparison is made between force and displacement controlled non-linear FE analyses for an RC beam in flexure with partially developed steel bars. An FE model with slightly unsymmetrical reinforcement was analyzed by applying two-point loading using both force and displacement controlled methods. The responses obtained using ANSYS-13 were validated against available experimental data. Combined comparative display of flexural response of the beam using force and displacement controlled analysis, that has least been addressed in the literature, is given here. Study choses large-deformation-nonlinear plastic analysis scheme, discrete modeling approach for material modeling and program-chosen incremental scheme following Newton-Raphson method. The results show that displacement controlled approach is efficient in terms of time saving and less disk space requirement along with the ability to give falling branch of load-deflection response, if element displacement capacity still exists. Moreover, it gives an early estimate of the load carrying capacity of the structural element along with suitable values of convergence and non-linear solution parameters. However, for a beam with unsymmetrical detailing, force controlled analysis method seems to yield more realistic and practical results in terms of mid span deflection and beam cracking behavior compared with assumed symmetric displacement controlled technique. It also gives true fracture prediction at ultimate load level, which is not true for the displacement controlled method as the computer code forces the model to maintain equal displacements at two load points, falsely increasing the capacity of the beam.

Xiaolei Chen, Jianping Fu, Feng Xue, Xiaofeng Wang,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (6-2017)

This paper presents a comparative numerical research on the overall seismic behavior of RC frames with different types of rebars (normal versus high strength rebar). A nonlinear numerical model is developed and is validated using experimental results. Comparing the numerical and experimental behaviors shows that the developed model is capable of describing the hysteretic behavior and plastic hinges development of the experimental RC frames with various strength longitudinal steel bars. The validated model is then used, considering the influences of axial load ratios and volumetric ratios of longitudinal rebars of column, to investigate the effects of reinforcement strength on the overall seismic behavior of RC frames. The simulation results indicate that utilizing high strength reinforcement can improve the structural resilience, reduce residual deformation and achieve favorable distribution pattern of plastic hinges on beams and columns. The frames reinforced with normal and high strength steel bars have comparable overall deformation capacity. The effect of axial load ratio on the energy dissipation, hysteretic curves and ultimate lateral load of frames with different strength rebars is similar. In addition, increasing the volumetric ratios of longitudinal rebars can increase the ultimate lateral load of frame and improve the plastic hinge distribution of frame.

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