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Showing 8 results for Rehabilitation

A. A. Tasnimi, M. A. Rezazadeh,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (9-2012)

The torsional capacity of unreinforced masonry brick buildings is generally inadequate to provide a stable seismic behavior. The

torsional strength is believed to be the most important parameter in earthquake resistance of masonry buildings and the shear

stresses induced in the bed joints of such building’s walls is an important key for design purposes. Brick buildings strengthened

with wire-mesh reinforced concrete overlay are used extensively for building rehabilitation in Iran. Their quick and simple

applications as well as good appearance are the main reasons for the widespread use of such strengthening technique. However,

little attention has been paid to torsional strengthening in terms of both experimental and numerical approach. This paper reports

the response and behavior of two single-story brick masonry buildings having a rigid two-way RC floor diaphragm. Both

specimens were tested under monotonic torsional moment.Numerical work was carried out using non-linear finite element

modeling. Good agreement in terms of torque–twist behavior, and crack patterns was achieved. The unique failure modes of the

specimens were modeled correctly as well. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of reinforced concrete overlay in enhancing

the torsional response of strengthened building. Having evaluated the verification of modeling, an unreinforced brick building

with wall-to-wall vulnerable connections was modeled so that the effect of these connections on torsional performance of brick

building could be studied. Then this building was strengthened with reinforced concrete overlay and the effect of strengthening

on torsional performance of brick buildings with vulnerable connections was predicted numerically.

A. Gholizad, P. Kamrani Moghaddam,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (3-2014)

High performance and reliability of refurbish able knee braced steel frames has been confirmed in previous researches trying to get an optimal design for its configuration. Buckling of diagonal member which affects the hysteretic behavior of KBF under cyclic loadings has not been foreseen in previous evaluations of this system. This deficiency can be improved by utilization of adjustable rotary friction damper device (FDD) as knee element. Diagonal element buckling can be prevented considering a suitable value for FDD sliding threshold moment Mf. Lower values of Mf Lower energy dissipation rate in FDD and this leads to an optimization problem. Nonlinear time history analyses have been performed in addition to lateral cyclic loading analyses to evaluate the response of single story KBF subjected to seismic excitation. Optimal Mf in FDD has been chosen according to these analyses results. Roof displacement and acceleration, base shear and diagonal element’s buckling status have been compared in optimally designed KBF and FDD utilized KBF (FKBF) with different configurations. Nonlinear dynamic analyses have been performed for one, four, eight and twelve story frames under different seismic records with several PGAs. More than 60% displacement response reduction has been earned for the FKBF without considerable increase in base shear.
A. R. Habibi, Keyvan Asadi,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (3-2014)

Setback in elevation of a structure is a special irregularity with considerable effect on its seismic performance. This paper addresses multistory Reinforced Concrete (RC) frame buildings, regular and irregular in elevation. Several multistory Reinforced Concrete Moment Resisting Frames (RCMRFs) with different types of setbacks, as well as the regular frames in elevation, are designed according to the provisions of the Iranian national building code and Iranian seismic code for the high ductility class. Inelastic dynamic time-history analysis is performed on all frames subjected to ten input motions. The assessment of the seismic performance is done based on both global and local criteria. Results show that when setback occurs in elevation, the requirements of the life safety level are not satisfied. It is also shown that the elements near the setback experience the maximum damage. Therefore it is necessary to strengthen these elements by appropriate method to satisfy the life safety level of the frames.
Gonçalo Sá, João Sá, Jorge de Brito, B. Amaro,
Volume 12, Issue 2 (6-2014)

This paper presents an inspection and diagnosis system customized for rendered walls, both interior and external. It classifies all anomalies capable of affecting renderings and most of the likeliest corresponding causes and is supplemented by anomaly-cause and inter-anomaly correlation matrices. In addition, the diagnosis, repair and maintenance techniques suitable for these anomalies are classified. Examples of the files that contain the exhaustive characterization of the anomalies and diagnosis, repair and maintenance techniques are also presented. The system is the result of an intense literature review, which allowed collecting and organizing the information available on pathology of renders. Next it was validated by mathematical manipulation of the data collected from standard inspections of 55 buildings, in which 150 renderings (100 exterior and 50 interior) were examined. The system proposed may be included in a proactive maintenance strategy, since it is robust, reliable and has been statistically validated. The systematic structure of this system is innovative and can help the inspector by making his/her work more objective and standardizing procedures. Anomalies in wall renderings may be prevented/minimized if buildings are properly managed by developing and implementing proactive maintenance plans that cover the following areas: technology (adequate maintenance and repair solutions, including the selection of materials and execution techniques), economy (minimizing running costs) and functionality (appropriate use).
S.m. Zahrai,
Volume 13, Issue 3 (9-2015)

Seismic retrofit of masonry slabs in existing steel or masonry buildings has found special significance in current codes as failure of unstable jack arch slabs has been reported as a major reason for collapsing structures in Middle East deadly earthquakes. In this paper, three retrofit schemes are investigated and compared. The proposed rehabilitation techniques consist of a single X strapping, SXS, a double X strapping, DXS, and a two-way jack arch slab supported by a steel grid. Using experimental studies, advantages and disadvantages of each scheme are evaluated. In-plane stiffness and capacity of the diaphragm are adopted as the seismic performance index of each rehabilitation scheme. According to the obtained results, the jack arch slab systems designed and constructed based on proposed retrofit methods provide an appropriate alternative to other forms of flooring in seismic zones. DXS can greatly improve diaphragm performance in terms of in-plane stiffness, capacity and even energy dissipation of the diaphragm compared with the other two techniques. The second place belongs to SXS while the steel grid scheme has a minor effect on the in-plane stiffness of the diaphragm.
Guray Arslan, Muzaffer Borekci, Muzaffer Balci, Melih Hacisalihoglu,
Volume 14, Issue 3 (4-2016)

The contribution of concrete to inelastic deformation capacity and shear strength of reinforced concrete (RC) columns failing in shear has been investigated extensively by various researchers. Although RC members are designed to have shear strengths much greater than their flexural strengths to ensure flexural failure according to the current codes, shear degradation of RC columns failing in flexure has not been studied widely. The aim of this study is to investigate the shear degradation of RC columns using finite element analyses (FEA). The results of FEA are compared with the results of experimental studies selected from literature, and it is observed that the lateral load-deflection curves of analysed columns are compatible with the experimental results. Twenty-six RC columns were analysed under monotonically increasing loads to determine the concrete contribution to shear strength. The results of analyses indicate that increasing the ratio of shear to flexural strength reduces the concrete contribution to shear strength of the columns.

Volume 15, Issue 4 (6-2017)

THIS IS THE REVISED VERSION OF THE PAPER A-10-581-3, CONSIDERED AS "MAJOR REVISION": One of the best methods to improve structural seismic behavior is to strengthen the infills by shotcreting. Most rehabilitation codes have a special part for masonry buildings and masonry infill panels. However they are completely silent for infills improved by concrete covers, probably for the lack of sufficient experimental test data. This paper focuses on the ultimate strength and modification factor of this type of infill panels, based on some experimental studies. The proposed formula of the existing codes for the equivalent width of the masonry infill panels is improved for the ultimate strength of shotcreted infill panels. It is also shown that the modification factors of the masonry and clay tile infill panels are downgraded and upgraded, respectively, if they are rehabilitated by concrete covers. The envelopes of the load-displacement behavior of the specimens are applied to calculate the modification factor, rather than the standard back bone curves. It is shown that they give more conservative values for the m-factor. Subsequently, some suggestions are proposed to estimate m-factor of shotcreted infill panels.

Ms Ladan Hatami, Dr. Masoud Jamshidi,
Volume 15, Issue 5 (7-2017)

Colored self-compacting mortar (C-SCM) is a novel cementitious product that has been recently used in decoration and rehabilitation and has improved aesthetic quality of architectural constructions. C-SCM is susceptible to strength decrease due to excessive pigment presence in the mixture. Optimum pigment content with respect to color intensity and mechanical performance is an important matter that should be determined to prevent mortar failure after construction. In this research, two inorganic pigments in production of colored self-compacting mortar were utilized. The impact of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and iron hydroxide (FeO(OH)) contents on behavior of C-SCMs were investigated in white and gray cement matrixes. Experiments included measurements of compressive strength of mortar cubes and cylinders, flexural strength and colorimetric properties. Analyses on compressive and flexural toughness were applied, as well. It was concluded that pigment content in mix design of colored self-compacting mortar could be optimized with regard to color quality in surface and mechanical strength of the product. Results implied that 5 and 2% of titanium dioxide were the saturation points of color and strength respectively and iron hydroxide at 10% was unsurpassed in C-SCMs containing white cement. Application of both pigments in gray SCMs caused the saturation points of color and strength to occur at 10 and 2%, respectively.

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