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Showing 6 results for Progressive Collapse

Mohsen Shahrouzi, Amir Abbas Rahemi,
Volume 12, Issue 2 (6-2014)
Abstract

Well-known seismic design codes have offered an alternative equivalent static procedure for practical purposes instead of verifying design trials with complicated step-y-step dynamic analyses. Such a pattern of base-shear distribution over the building height will enforce its special stiffness and strength distribution which is not necessarily best suited for seismic design. The present study, utilizes a hybrid optimization procedure to seek for the best stiffness distribution in moment-resistant building frames. Both continuous loading pattern and discrete sizing variables are treated as optimization design variables. The continuous part is sampled by Harmony Search algorithm while a variant of Ant Colony Optimization is utilized for the discrete part. Further search intensification is provided by Branch and Bound technique. In order to verify the design candidates, static, modal and time-history analyses are applied regarding the code-specific design spectra. Treating a number of building moment-frame examples, such a hyper optimization resulted in new lateral loading patterns different from that used in common code practice. It was verified that designing the moment frames due to the proposed loading pattern can result in more uniform story drifts. In addition, locations of the first failure of columns were transmitted to the upper/less-critical stories of the frame. This achievement is important to avoid progressive collapse under earthquake excitation.
S. Karimiyan, A. Moghadam, A. . Husseinzadeh Kashan, M. Karimiyan,
Volume 13, Issue 1 (3-2015)
Abstract

Plan irregularity causes local damages being concentrated in the irregular buildings. Progressive collapse is also the collapse of a large portion or whole building due to the local damages in the structure. The effect of irregularity on the progressive collapse potential of the buildings is investigated in this study. This is carried out by progressive collapse evaluation of the asymmetric mid rise and tall buildings in comparison with the symmetric ones via the nonlinear time history analyses in the 6, 9 and 12 story reinforced concrete buildings. The effect of increasing the mass eccentricity levels is investigated on the progressive collapse mechanism of the buildings with respect to the story drift behavior and the number of beam and column collapsed hinges criteria. According to the results, increasing the mass eccentricity levels causes earlier instability with lower number of the collapsed hinges which is necessary to fail the asymmetric buildings and at the same time mitigates the potential of progressive collapse. Moreover, the decreasing trend of the story drifts of the flexible edges is lower than those of the stiff edges and the mass centers and the amount of decrement in the story drifts of the stiff edges is approximately similar to those of the mass centers.
M. Mahmoudi, T. Teimoori, H. Kozani,
Volume 13, Issue 4 (12-2015)
Abstract

The current building codes provide limited prescriptive guidance on design for protection of buildings due to progressive collapse. Progressive collapse is a situation in which a localized failure in a structure, caused by an abnormal load, such as explosions or other happenings. Three procedures, often employed for determination of the structural response during progressive collapse i.e. linear static procedure (LSP), nonlinear static (NSP) and nonlinear dynamic (NDP) analyses. In nonlinear static analysis, a force-based method is applied and the structure is pushed down to the target force. In this research, a new displacement-based method will be proposed for nonlinear static analysis. In displacement-based method, the structure is pushed down to target displacement instead of target force (similar to the one in seismic pushover analysis). To make a nonlinear static analysis, instead of increasing the load around the area of the removed column, a maximum displacement is calculated and the upper node of the removed column is pushed up to target displacement. Here, to determine the target displacement, results from nonlinear dynamic and linear static analyses are compared. This paper tries to present a formula to calculate the target displacement using the linear static rather than the nonlinear dynamic analysis. For this reason, 3 buildings with 3, 5 and 10 stories have been seismically designed and studied. The results show that, this method is much more accurate in comparison to the recommended approach in current codes. Also, this method does not have the limitations of force-based nonlinear static analysis.


Niloufar Mashhadiali, Majid Gholhaki, Ali Kheyroddin, Rouzbeh Zahiri-Hashemi,
Volume 14, Issue 8 (12-2016)
Abstract

Steel plate shear walls have long been used as a lateral load resisting system. It is composed of beam and column frame elements, to which infill plates are connected. This paper investigates the progressive collapse-resisting capacity of 50-story building 3D model of the strip model of steel plate shear wall comparing with X-braced and moment frame system based on the removing structural elements from a middle and corner of the exterior frame, in the story above the ground. The collapse behavior is evaluated by different nonlinear static and dynamic analyses using conventional analysis software. In this study, vulnerability of structures is also assessed by sensitivity index (SI) regarding the sensitivity of structures to dynamic effect induced by progressive collapse. To identify vulnerable members, resulting actions of nonlinear static analysis, considering load factor to account for dynamic effect, at the failure mode of structure at the specific performance level are compared by the factor of redundancy related to overall strength of structure, with the linear static analysis of damaged model without considering dynamic effect,. Comparing analysis results indicated that in the steel plate shear wall system, the progressive collapse resisting potential is more than X-braced and moment frame. Sensitive index of highly sensitive elements to dynamic effect stated that in the structural models, beams are more vulnerable in moment frame than X-braced frame and SPSW structure, significantly, and vulnerability of columns in X-braced frame and SPSW system is more than moment frame.


Somayyeh Karimiyan, Abdolreza S. Moghadam, Ali Husseinzadeh Kashan , Morteza Karimiyan,
Volume 15, Issue 5 (7-2017)
Abstract

Among important issues in progressive collapse behavior of a building is tracking down the type and location of the damaged elements. This paper deals with identifying the distribution of collapse from the first element to the entire building due to earthquake loads. Here, 3D collapse propagations in symmetric and asymmetric reinforced concrete buildings are compared using nonlinear time history analyses. The variables of such analyses are earthquake load intensity and the level of in plan one directional mass eccentricity. Results show that collapse distribution is dependent on the degree of asymmetry in building. Some patterns to predict progressive collapse scenarios in similar symmetric and asymmetric buildings are also determined. One main pattern shows that the propagation of collapse is horizontal through the stories, but not vertical through the height of the buildings. Spread of the collapse is independent of the earthquake records also according to the results, damage concentration is larger in places with larger mass concentration.


Dr. Ali Massumi, Dr. Kabir Sadeghi, Mr. Morteza Nekuei,
Volume 15, Issue 7 (10-2017)
Abstract

One of the main concerns in an essential or highly important building is finding the appropriate structural system, while the efficiency of each conventional structural system varies in different cases. In this paper a new multi objective structural configuration is proposed and its efficiency for protecting buildings against the multi-hazards including earthquake, explosion and typhoon is shown in a case study of a 10 stories building sample. To create the optimum and efficient configuration of the structural elements, and to make some large spans, a configuration including Vierendeel girders is used. In this type of configuration, the inner suspended floor parts protect the outer elements by balancing perimeter span loads. This system makes a new condition for the building to be protected against the progressive collapse due to the terrorism attacks. Furthermore, the partially suspended floors in special stories act like tuned mass dampers (TMDs), which are suitable to decrease the amplitude of the displacement response of the structure during an earthquake.



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