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Showing 3 results for Pedestrian

Ilker Erkan, Hasan Hastemoglu,
Volume 14, Issue 8 (12-2016)

In this study, the usage of the Level of Service (LOS) concept, which was developed specifically for pedestrian satisfaction and safety, was critically analyzed. The focuses of this investigation were the Fruin and Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) LOS values, which were evaluated and compared in terms of their anthropometric dimensions. In this paper, new LOS values are proposed on the basis of the critical evaluation of the HCM and Fruin LOS values revealing the inconsistencies between the LOS values and the analysis. The importance of emptiness area in calculating human comfort and satisfaction in terms of the anthropometric dimensions and LOS value is also discussed. A software program called Laborer Image Analysis Software (LIAS) was developed to evaluate and compare the impacts of different body dimensions on the LOS values and on the space requirements for pedestrians. LIAS is presented as a facilitation tool for calculating more concise and effective emptiness areas and LOS values. The comfort area concept is also presented and discussed. This discussion is used to reveal the contrasts and inconsistencies in the existing usage of the LOS concept and to highlight the importance of the emptiness area approach. The paper presents a different perspective and discussion on the existing utilization of LOS levels, particularly for pedestrians in different structures. The research contributes to the LOS analysis discussion in terms of the anthropometric scale according to changing user profiles and develops facilitator(s) for analyzing and applying amendments to pedestrian needs, which can be used in transportation buildings.

G. P. Ganapathy, R. Gobinath, I. I. Akinwumi, S. Kovendiran, M. Thangaraj, N. Lokesh, S. Muhamed Anas, R. Arul Murugan, P. Yogeswaran, S. Hema,
Volume 15, Issue 3 (5-2017)

Soils with poor engineering properties have been a concern to construction engineers because of the need to strike a balance between safety and economy during earthworks construction. This research work investigates the effects of treating a soil having poor geotechnical properties with a bio-enzyme to determine its suitability for use as road pavement layer material. The elemental composition and microstructure of the soil was determined using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The specific gravity, Atterberg limits, compaction, strength and permeability characteristics of the soil was determined for various dosages of the bio-enzyme. The mountain soil is classified as clayey sand and A-2–4, according to unified soil classification and AASHTO classification systems, respectively. With increasing dosage of the bio-enzyme, the plasticity index, maximum dry unit weight and permeability of the soil decreased, while its 28-day California bearing ratio value, unconfined compressive strength and shear strength increased. Consequently, the application of bio-enzyme to the soil improved its plasticity and strength, and reduced its permeability. It, therefore, became more workable and its subgrade quality was improved for use as a road pavement layer material. The stabilized soil can be suitably used for constructing pavement layers of light-trafficked rural (earth) roads, pedestrian walkways and bicycle tracks.

Arash Sadrayi, Mahmoud Saffarzadeh, Amin Mirza Boroujerdian,
Volume 15, Issue 8 (12-2017)

Pedestrians are among one of the most vulnerable road users. Speed of vehicles is considered as one of the major causes of danger for pedestrians crossing the street (making cross movements). Therefore, it is of utmost importance to devise suitable solutions for reducing speed of vehicles. One of these solutions is installation of Pedestrian Refuge Islands (PRI) in very wide midblocks. With regard to fluctuations in pedestrian and vehicle traffic volume in traffic hours, there are different variations in collisions between vehicle and pedestrian. In this article the effect of constructed PRI in Tehran on speed of vehicles and consequently their effects on probability fluctuations of fatal accidents are determined. Speed of vehicles in two phases of before and after arriving to the PRI is assessed. Additionally, speed of vehicles in non-observed volumes of vehicle and pedestrian are calculated using Aimsun.v6 simulation software. Paired T-test is applied to compare average speed of vehicles before and after the PRI. The results revealed that except for traffic volumes of 3000-4000 veh/h and 400-600 ped/h in other volumes reduction of average speed of vehicles as a result of PRI is significant. Also, the results show that in all volumes, these equipments reduce the probability of fatal accidents to under 10%. According to the results, it is recommended that PRI should be installed in midblocks where traffic volume of vehicles in each lane is less than 750 veh/h.

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