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Showing 9 results for Noise

Saffar Zadeh M., Asadi M.b.,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2004)
Abstract

In this research, the Integrated Noise Model (INM), has been calibrated to perform the noise pollution evaluation in the vicinity of Mehrabad International Airport (MIA). First a conceptual model was developed to analyze the compatibility of airport noise with the land use based on the most widely accepted noise pollution standards. Second, the data generated from the INM package was compared with real data acquired from the test stations positioned around airport. Finally, the outputs of the calibrated model was compared with the noise pollution standards. The results show that more than 70 percent of the land use in the vicinity of airport are not compatible with the accepted noise levels. The generated noise contours was superimposed on the digital map of the city and the areas which violated the permitted levels was recognized. Moreover, the more noise sensitive facilities such as hospitals, schools, and residential units can be positioned in areas which have the permitted noise levels. The model and the procedure can be used to design new airports. Noise evaluation of existing operational airports can be performed by the model developed in this research.
Bakhtiari Nejad F., Rahai A., Esfandiari A.,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2004)
Abstract

In this paper a structural damage detection algorithm using static test data is presented. Damage is considered as a reduction in the structural stiffness (Axial and/or Flexural) parameters. Change in the static displacement of a structure is characterized as a set of non-linear undetermined simultaneous equations that relates the changes in static response of the structure to the location and severity of damage. An optimality criterion is introduced to solve these equations by minimizing the difference between the load vector of damaged and undamaged structures. The overall formulation leads to a non-linear optimization problem with non-linear equality and linear inequality constraints. A method based on stored strain energy in elements is presented to select the loading location. Measurement locations are selected based on Fisher Information Matrix. Numerical and experimental results of a 2D frame represent good ability of this method in detecting damages in a given structure with presence of noise in measurements.
F. Amini, R. Vahdani,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (9-2007)
Abstract

In this research, an innovative numerical simulating approach for time domain analysis of multi degrees of freedom structures with uncertainty in dynamic properties is presented. A full scale finite element model of multi-story and multi bays of three sample structures has been constructed. The reduced order model of structure with holding the dominant and effective Gramians in the balanced state-space realization has been achieved for easy and safe design of the optimal control forces applied to the structure. Some easy selective control algorithms based on the Optimal-Stochastic control theories such as LQG, DLQRY and modified sliding mode control has been programmed with the simulation control sequences. Some real features of accurate control system such as time delay and noise signals in earthquake time histories and also measurement sensors are considered in illustrative simulation models. These models can be analyzed under either various intensity of corresponding earthquakes or desired random excitations passed through the suitable filters providing stochastic parameters of earthquake disturbances. This control procedure will be shown to be very efficient suppressing all the severities and difficulties may arise in design of a multi-objective optimal control system. The obtained results illustrate the feasibility and applicability of the proposed stochastic optimal control design of active control force providing a stable and energy-saving control strategy for tall building structures.
S. Soudmand, M. Ghatee, S. M. Hashemi,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (12-2013)
Abstract

This paper proposes a new hybrid method namely SA-IP including simulated annealing and interior point algorithms to find the optimal toll prices based on level of service (LOS) in order to maximize the mobility in urban network. By considering six fuzzy LOS for flows, the tolls of congested links can be derived by a bi-level fuzzy programming problem. The objective function of the upper level problem is to minimize the difference between current LOS and desired LOS of links. In this level, to find optimal toll, a simulated annealing algorithm is used. The lower level problem is a fuzzy flow estimator model with fuzzy link costs. Applying a famous defuzzification function, a real-valued multi-commodity flow problem can be obtained. Then a polynomial time interior point algorithm is proposed to find the optimal solution regarding to the estimated flows. In pricing process, by imposing cost on some links with LOS F or E, users incline to use other links with better LOS and less cost. During the iteration of SA algorithm, the LOS of a lot of links gradually closes to their desired values and so the algorithm decreases the number of links with LOS worse than desirable LOS. Sioux Falls network is considered to illustrate the performance of SA-IP method on congestion pricing based on different LOS. In this pilot, after toll pricing, the number of links with LOS D, E and F are reduced and LOS of a great number of links becomes C. Also the value of objective function improves 65.97% after toll pricing process. It is shown optimal toll for considerable network is 5 dollar and by imposing higher toll, objective function will be worse.
M. Abbasi, A. H. Davaei Markazi,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (3-2014)
Abstract

An important factor in the design and implementation of structural control strategies is the number and placement of actuators. By employing optimally-located actuators, the effectiveness of control system increases, while with an optimal number of actuators, an acceptable level of performance can be achieved with fewer actuators. The method proposed in this paper, simultaneously determines the number and location of actuators, installed in a building, in an optimal sense. In particular, a genetic algorithm which minimizes a suitably defined structural damage index is introduced and applied to a well-known nonlinear model of a 20-story benchmark building. It is shown in the paper that an equal damage protection, compared to the work of other researchers, can be achieved with fewer numbers of optimally placed actuators. This result can be important from economic point of view. However, the attempt to minimize one performance index has negative effect on the others. To cope with this problem to some extent, the proposed genetic methodology has been modified to be applied in a multi-objective optimization problem.
A. Gholizad, P. Kamrani Moghaddam,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (3-2014)
Abstract

High performance and reliability of refurbish able knee braced steel frames has been confirmed in previous researches trying to get an optimal design for its configuration. Buckling of diagonal member which affects the hysteretic behavior of KBF under cyclic loadings has not been foreseen in previous evaluations of this system. This deficiency can be improved by utilization of adjustable rotary friction damper device (FDD) as knee element. Diagonal element buckling can be prevented considering a suitable value for FDD sliding threshold moment Mf. Lower values of Mf Lower energy dissipation rate in FDD and this leads to an optimization problem. Nonlinear time history analyses have been performed in addition to lateral cyclic loading analyses to evaluate the response of single story KBF subjected to seismic excitation. Optimal Mf in FDD has been chosen according to these analyses results. Roof displacement and acceleration, base shear and diagonal element’s buckling status have been compared in optimally designed KBF and FDD utilized KBF (FKBF) with different configurations. Nonlinear dynamic analyses have been performed for one, four, eight and twelve story frames under different seismic records with several PGAs. More than 60% displacement response reduction has been earned for the FKBF without considerable increase in base shear.
A. Kaveh, M. Maniat,
Volume 12, Issue 2 (6-2014)
Abstract

It is well known that damaged structural members may alter the behaviour of the structures considerably. Careful observation of these changes has often been viewed as a means to identify and assess the location and severity of damages in structures. Among the responses of a structure, natural frequencies and natural modes are both relatively easy to obtain and independent from external excitation, and therefore, can be used as a measure of the structural behaviour before and after an extreme event which might have led to damage in the structure. This paper applies Charged System Search algorithm to the problem of damage detection using vibration data. The objective is to identify the location and extent of multi-damage in a structure. Both natural frequencies and mode shapes are used to form the required objective function. To moderate the effect of noise on measured data, a penalty approach is applied. Varity of numerical examples including beams, frames and trusses are examined. The results show that the present methodology can reliably identify damage scenarios using noisy measurements and incomplete data.
M. Fazlavi, E. Haghshenas,
Volume 13, Issue 1 (3-2015)
Abstract

In this paper we are going to show the importance of mode identification in microtremor array analysis. The idea come from four concentric ambient noise array recordings with aperture 100 to 1000 meters, performed in southern urban area of Tehran near the shrine of Imam Khomeini. These measurements were part of a comprehensive research project with the aim of determination of deep shear wave velocity model of Tehran alluvial deposits. Using appropriate signal processing techniques, including array processing methods as well as classical and time-frequency horizontal/vertical spectral ratio, the dispersion curves of surface waves, fundamental resonance frequency and Ellipticity of Rayleigh waves, were extracted. In the final step, the shear wave velocity profile of the site was determined by joint inversion of all of these attributes. The results show 2 different energetic trends in dispersion curves, for arrays of aperture 200 and 400 meters that one of them is coincide with 100m aperture array. For array with aperture 1000m any clear trend of energy could be observed because of deficiency of energy in low frequency. The inversion of data obtained by 100m aperture array alone, assuming the dispersion curve as fundamental mode (a common procedure in urban area) result in shear wave velocity that is not match with existing geological information. Performing the inversion, assuming 2 energetic trends, observed for larger arrays one as fundamental mode and another as mode 1 of Rayleigh waves, can modify significantly the shear wave velocity profile in accordance with existing geological and geotechnical information. This study show the importance of extracting of correct dispersion curves with detecting fundamental and higher modes, using array measurement with various aperture at one place to obtain more realistic shear wave velocity profile.
Yeon Yeu, Youngseok Kim, Dongwook Kim,
Volume 14, Issue 7 (10-2016)
Abstract

Pile penetration and rebound amount measurements during pile driving are important in analysis of penetration and bearing characteristics of piles and for assurance of pile installation quality. Traditional manual measurement of penetration and rebound of piles exposes engineers under unfavorable environment of injury risk and significant vibration and noise. To improve accuracy of pile penetration and rebound measurements and to ensure safety of engineers during pile driving, the close-range photogrammetry approach was implemented. For the track of three-dimensional spatial information of one point on the pile during driving, a series of stereo pair images of the point attached on a pile is required using more than two camera systems at different locations. In this study, two charge coupled device cameras were used to obtain stereo images. Robust measurements and reliable results can be guaranteed by the constrained geometry of close-range photogrammetry. From the field implementation, it was found that the newly developed pile penetration and rebound measurement system is accurate and safe.



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