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Showing 3 results for Network Design

Sh. Afandizadeh, H. Khaksar, N. Kalantari,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (3-2013)
Abstract

In this paper, a new approach was presented for bus network design which took the effects of three out of four stages of the bus planning process into account. The presented model consisted of three majors steps 1- Network Design Procedure (NDP), 2- Frequency Determination and Assignment Procedure (FDAP), and 3- Network Evaluation Procedure (NEP). Genetic Algorithm (GA) was utilized to solve this problem since it was capable of solving large and complex problems. Optimization of bus assignment at depots is another important issue in bus system planning process which was considered in the presented model. In fact, the present model was tested on Mandl’s bus network which was a benchmark in Swiss network and was initially employed by Mandl and later by Baaj, Mahmassani, Kidwai, Chakroborty and Zhao. Several comparisons indicated that the model presented in this paper was superior to the previous models. Meanwhile, none of the previous approaches optimized depots assignment. Afterwards, sensitivity analysis on GA parameters was done and calculation times were presented. Subsequently the proposed model was evaluated thus, Mashhad bus network was designed using the methodology of the presented model.
A. Shariat Mohaymany, M. Babaei,
Volume 11, Issue 1 (3-2013)
Abstract

Since the 1990’s, network reliability has been considered as a new index for evaluating transportation networks under uncertainty. A large number of studies have been revealed in the literature in this field, which are mostly dedicated to developing relevant measures that can be utilized for the evaluation of vulnerable networks under different sources of uncertainty, such as daily traffic flow fluctuations, natural disasters, weather conditions, and so fourth. This paper addresses the resource allocation problem in vulnerable transportation networks, in which multiple performance reliability measures should be met at their desired levels, while the overall cost of upgrading links’ performances should be minimized simultaneously. For this purpose, a new approach has been considered to formulate the two well-known performance measures, connectivity and capacity reliability, along with their application in a bi-objective nonlinear mixed integer goal programming model. In order to take into account the uncertain conditions of supply, links’ capacities have been assumed to be random variables and follow normal distribution functions. A computationally efficient method has been developed that allows calculating the network-wise performance indices simply by means of a set of functions of links’ performance reliabilities. Using this approach, as the performance reliability of links are themselves functions of the random links’ capacities, they can be simply calculated through numerical integration. To achieve desirable levels for both connectivity reliability and capacity reliability (as network-wise performance reliability measures) two distinct objectives have been considered. One of the objectives seeks to maximize each of the measures regardless of what is happening to the other objective function which minimizes the budget. Since optimization models with two conflicting objectives cannot be solved directly, the well-known goal attainment multi-objective decision-making (MODM) approach has been adapted to formulate the model as a single objective model. Then the resultant single objective model has been solved through the generalized gradient method, which is a straightforward solution algorithm coded in existing commercial software such as MATLAB programming software. To show the applicability of the proposed model, numerical results are provided for a simple network. Also, to show the sensitiveness of the model to decision maker’s direction weights, the results of sensitivity analysis are presented..
S. Soudmand, M. Ghatee, S. M. Hashemi,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (12-2013)
Abstract

This paper proposes a new hybrid method namely SA-IP including simulated annealing and interior point algorithms to find the optimal toll prices based on level of service (LOS) in order to maximize the mobility in urban network. By considering six fuzzy LOS for flows, the tolls of congested links can be derived by a bi-level fuzzy programming problem. The objective function of the upper level problem is to minimize the difference between current LOS and desired LOS of links. In this level, to find optimal toll, a simulated annealing algorithm is used. The lower level problem is a fuzzy flow estimator model with fuzzy link costs. Applying a famous defuzzification function, a real-valued multi-commodity flow problem can be obtained. Then a polynomial time interior point algorithm is proposed to find the optimal solution regarding to the estimated flows. In pricing process, by imposing cost on some links with LOS F or E, users incline to use other links with better LOS and less cost. During the iteration of SA algorithm, the LOS of a lot of links gradually closes to their desired values and so the algorithm decreases the number of links with LOS worse than desirable LOS. Sioux Falls network is considered to illustrate the performance of SA-IP method on congestion pricing based on different LOS. In this pilot, after toll pricing, the number of links with LOS D, E and F are reduced and LOS of a great number of links becomes C. Also the value of objective function improves 65.97% after toll pricing process. It is shown optimal toll for considerable network is 5 dollar and by imposing higher toll, objective function will be worse.

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