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Showing 8 results for Limit Equilibrium

Mahin Roosta R., Sadaghyani M.h., Pak A.,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (9-2005)
Abstract

Existence of discontinuities causes higher deformability and lower strength in rock masses. Thus joints can change the rock mass behaviour due to the applied loads. For this reason properties and orientation of the joint sets have a great effect on the stability of rock slopes. In this paper, after introducing some numerical methods for evaluating the factor of safety for the stability of slopes, stability of jointed rock slopes in the plane strain condition is investigated with the strength reduction technique this method is modified and applied in the multilaminate framework. First of all, stability of one homogeneous rock slope is investigated and compared with the limit equilibrium method. Then stability of a layered rock slope is analyzed with some modifications in the strength reduction technique. Effects of orientation, tensile strength and dilation of layered joint sets on the factor of safety and location of the sliding block are explained.
A. Ghanbari, M. Ahmadabadi,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (6-2010)
Abstract

Inclined retaining walls with slopes less than perpendicular are appropriate candidates in several

engineering problems. Yet, to the knowledge of authors, only a few analytical solution for calculation of active earth

pressure on such walls, which will be usually smaller than the same pressure on vertical ones, has been presented

neither in research papers nor in design codes. Considering limit equilibrium concept in current research, a new

formulation is proposed for determination of active earth pressure, angle of failure wedge and application point of

resultant force for inclined walls. Necessary parameters are extracted assuming the pseudo-static seismic coefficient

to be valid in earthquake conditions. Moreover, based on Horizontal Slices Method (HSM) a new formulation is

obtained for determining the characteristics of inclined walls in granular and or frictional cohesive soils. Findings of

present analysis are then compared with results from other available methods in similar conditions and this way, the

validity of proposed methods has been proved. Finally according to the results of this research, a simplified relation

for considering the effect of slope in reduction of active earth pressure and change in failure wedge in inclined

retaining walls has been proposed.


F. Askari, A. Totonchi, O. Farzaneh,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (6-2012)
Abstract

Presented is a method of three-dimensional stability analysis of convex slopes in plan view based on the Lower-bound theorem of
the limit analysis approach. The method’s aim is to determine the factor of safety of such slopes using numerical linear finite
element and lower bound limit analysis method to produce some stability charts for three dimensional (3D) homogeneous convex
slopes. Although the conventional two and three dimension limit equilibrium method (LEM) is used more often in practice for
evaluating slope stability, the accuracy of the method is often questioned due to the underlying assumptions that it makes. The
rigorous limit analysis results in this paper together with results of other researchers were found to bracket the slope stability
number to within ±10% or better and therefore can be used to benchmark for solutions from other methods. It was found that using
a two dimensional (2D) analysis to analyze a 3D problem will leads to a significant difference in the factors of safety depending
on the slope geometries. Numerical 3D results of proposed algorithm are presented in the form of some dimensionless graphs which
can be a convenient tool to be used by practicing engineers to estimate the initial stability for excavated or man-made slopes


C. Vieira,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (1-2014)
Abstract

This paper presents a simplified approach to estimate the resultant force, which should be provided by a retention system, for the equilibrium of unstable slopes. The results were obtained with a developed algorithm, based on limit equilibrium analyses, that assumes a two-part wedge failure mechanism. Design charts to obtain equivalent earth pressure coefficients are presented. Based on the results achieved with the developed computer code, an approximate equation to estimate the equivalent earth pressure coefficients is proposed. Given the slope angle, the backslope, the design friction angle, the height of the slope and the unit weight of the backfill, one can determine the resultant force for slope equilibrium. This simplified approach intends to provide an extension of the Coulomb earth pressure theory to the stability analyses of steep slopes and to broaden the available design charts for steep reinforced slopes with non-horizontal backslopes
S. N. Moghaddas Tafreshi, T. Nouri. A,
Volume 12, Issue 2 (4-2014)
Abstract

This paper presents a simple solution based on the limit equilibrium of sliding soil wedge of reinforced backfill subjected to the horizontal acceleration in the framework of the pseudo-static method. In particular, contrary to most studies on the reinforced retaining wall, the solution proposed in this study, takes into account the effect of the uniform surcharge on the reinforced backfill soil and of its distance from the face of the wall. The results are investigated in dimensionless form of the maximum reinforcement required strength (Kmax), the dimension of the sliding wedge (Lc/H), and the factor of safety (FS). Compared to the reinforced backfill without surcharge, the presence of surcharge over the reinforced backfill and of its distance from the top of the backfill have significant effects on the stability of the system. For a fixed surcharge, a minimum distance of surcharge exists for which the presence of the surcharge does not affect the solution and the failure mechanism is that corresponding to the case of system with no surcharge. A detailed design example is included to illustrate usage of proposed procedures. Comparisons of the present results with available results show a favorable agreement.
O. Farzaneh, F. Askari, J. Fatemi,
Volume 12, Issue 4 (12-2014)
Abstract

AWT IMAGEPresented is a method of two-dimensional analysis of the active earth pressure due to simultaneous effect of both soil weight and surcharge of strip foundation. The study’s aim is to provide a rigorous solution to the problem in the framework of upper-bound theorem of limit analysis method in order to produce some design charts for calculating the lateral active earth pressure of backfill when loaded by a strip foundation. A kinematically admissible collapse mechanism consisting of several rigid blocks with translational movement is considered in which energy dissipation takes place along planar velocity discontinuities. Comparing the lateral earth forces given by the present analysis with those of other researchers, it is shown that the results of present analysis are higher (better) than other researchers’ results. It was found that with the increase in AWT IMAGE, the proportion of the strip load (q) which is transmitted to the wall decreases. Moreover, Increasing the friction between soil and wall ( AWT IMAGE) will result in the increase of effective distance ( AWT IMAGE). Finally, these results are presented in the form of dimensionless design charts relating the mechanical characteristics of the soil, strip load conditions and active earth pressure.


M. Hajiazizi, Eng. A. R. Mazaheri,
Volume 13, Issue 1 (3-2015)
Abstract

Stabilization of earth slopes with various proposed methods is one of the important concerns of geotechnical engineering. In this practice, despite numerous developments, design conservativeness and high costs of stabilization are the issues yet to be addressed. This paper not only deals with pile location optimization but also studies the effects of the pile length by using line segments slip surface (non-circular). Taking into account the line segments slip surface in stabilization of earth slopes is a new topic which has been addressed in this paper. The line segments slip surface is actual slip surface and for determining the pile location it can lead to the actual length of the pile. The line segments critical slip surface is obtained by using the Alternating Variable Local Gradient (AVLG) optimization method. AVLG is an approach in optimization process and it is based on the Univariate method. The line segments form the initial and critical slip surface. Pile improper installation and inadequate length not only fails to increase the factor of safety, but also reduces it. The analyses are performed using the limit equilibrium (LE) method. Results of these analyses are acceptable and are properly consistent with the results obtained by other researchers.
Xilin Lu,
Volume 15, Issue 6 (9-2017)
Abstract

This paper presents numerical and theoretical studies on the stability of shallow shield tunnel face found in cohesive-frictional soil. The minimum limit support pressure was determined by superposition method; it was calculated by multiplying soil cohesion, surcharge load, and soil weight by their corresponding coefficients. The varying characteristics of these coefficients with soil friction angle and tunnel cover-to-diameter ratio were obtained by wedge model and numerical simulation. The face stability of shallow shield tunnel with seepage was studied by deformation and seepage coupled numerical simulation; the constitutive model used in the analysis was elastic-perfectly plastic Mohr–Coulomb model. The failure mode of tunnel face was shown related to water level. By considering the effect of seepage on failure mode, the wedge model was modified to calculate the limit support pressure under seepage condition. The water head around the tunnel face was fitted by an exponential function, and then an analytical solution to the limit support pressure under seepage condition was deduced. The variations in the limit support pressure on strength parameters of soil and water lever compare well with the numerical results. The modified wedge model was employed to analyze the tunnel face stability of Qianjiang cross-river shield tunnel. The influence of tide on the limit support pressure was obtained, and the calculated limit support pressure by the modified wedge model is consistent with the numerical result.



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