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Showing 14 results for Lime

M. Naderi,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (3-2005)

Having observed the costly failures of different cutoff walls, that had been constructed according to the mix design specified by reputable consultants in Iran, a research programme was conducted to study the effects of constituent materials on the properties of plastic concrete. The main properties, such as compressive strength, biaxial and triaxial strains, permeability, and modulus of elasticity have been investigated using different mixes, obtained from prototype production line plant, situated on site, because it was realized that the site production line and the systems employed have major effects on the properties of plastic concrete. Statistical analysis of the results, revealed the coefficients of influence of main constituent materials of plastic concrete namely cement, bentonite, aggregate and water on its compressive strength and modulus of elasticity. Having realized the cancelling effects of bentonite and aggregates on the measured properties, some equations relating the quantities of cement and water to the compressive strength and modulus of elasticity are introduced. Effects of clay and hydrated lime powder, as fillers were also investigated leading to the proposal of limits for their safe and economic use. Since most of the cutoff walls are buried structures, failure strains under both uniaxial and triaxial tests, with values of cohesion and internal friction, are also presented in this paper.
Mahmood R. Abdi, Ali Parsapajouh, Mohammad A. Arjomand,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (12-2008)

Clay soils and their related abnormal behavior such as excessive shrinkage, swelling, consolidation settlement and cracking on drying has been the subject of many investigations. Previous studies mainly evaluated the effects of additives such as lime, cement and sand on these characteristics. Initial results indicated that the soil characteristics were improved. However, reportedly in many cases, these additives resulted in a decrease in plasticity and increase in hydraulic conductivity. As a result, there has been a growing interest in soil/fiber reinforcement. The present investigation has focused on the impact of short random fiber inclusion on consolidation settlement, swelling, hydraulic conductivity, shrinkage limit and the development of desiccation cracks in compacted clays. To examine the possible improvements in the soil characteristics, samples consisting of 75% kaolinite and 25% montmorillonite were reinforced with 1, 2, 4 and 8 percent fibers as dry weight of soil with 5, 10 and 15mm lengths. Results indicated that consolidation settlements and swelling of fiber reinforced samples reduced substantially whereas hydraulic conductivities increased slightly by increasing fiber content and length. Shrinkage limits also showed an increase with increasing fiber content and length. This meant that samples experienced much less volumetric changes due to desiccation, and the extent of crack formation was significantly reduced.
A. Allahverdi, E. Najafi Kani,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2010)

Fast set and high early strength cements containing calcium fluoroaluminate phase (C11A7CaF2) are usually produced by sintering a proportioned raw mix from calcareous and argillaceous components as the main raw materials, at reduced temperatures about 1330 °C. In this work, the possibility of utilizing natural pozzolan as the argillaceous component in the cement raw mix and in order to decrease the sintering temperature of fast set and high early strength cement clinker containing C11A7CaF2 phase has been investigated. The results reveal that the sintering temperature can be reduced to temperatures as low as 1270 °C by utilizing a suitable natural pozzolan and improving the mix burnability. The experimental results confirm the possibility of achieving final setting times as low as 10 min and 3-day compressive strengths as high as 57 MPa

Malik Shoeb Ahmad, S. Salahuddin Shah,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2010)

 Roadways have a high potential for utilization of large volume of the fly ash stabilized mixes. In this study, an attempt has been made to investigate the use of Class F fly ash mixed with lime precipitated electroplating waste sludge–cement as a base material in highways. A series of tests were performed on specimens prepared with fly ash, cement and lime precipitated waste sludge. California bearing ratio (CBR) tests were conducted for 70%-55%fly ash, 8%cement, and 30%-45%waste sludge combinations. Results show that the load bearing strength of the mix is highly dependent on the waste sludge content, cement as well as curing period. The CBR value of fly ash mixed with electroplating waste sludge and cement has been increased to manifold and results the reduction in the construction cost of the pavement. The study also encourages the use of two potentially hazardous wastes for mass scale utilization without causing danger to the environment, vegetation, human and animal lives. 

Mahmoud Reza Abdi,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (6-2011)

The use of various slags as by-products of steel industry is well established in civil engineering applications. However, the use

of BOS slag in the area of soil stabilization has not been fully researched and developed despite having similar chemical

composition and mineralogy to that of Portland cement. This paper reports on efforts to extend the use of BOS slag to soil

stabilization by determining possible beneficial effects it may have on compressive strength and durability. Results of laboratory

tests conducted on kaolinite samples stabilized with lime and treated with various percentages of BOS slag are presented. Tests

determined strength development of compacted cylinders, moist cured in a humid environment at 35° C and durability by freezing

and thawing method. Results showed that additions of BOS slag to kaolinite samples singularly or in combination with lime

increased unconfined compressive strength and durability. These characteristics were significantly enhanced by the concurrent

use of lime and BOS slag for stabilization of kaolinite.

Khelifa Harichane, Mohamed Ghrici, Said Kenai,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (6-2011)

When geotechnical engineers are faced with cohesive clayey soils, the engineering properties of those soils may need to be

improved to make them suitable for construction. The aim of this paper is to study the effect of using lime, natural pozzolana or

a combination of both on the geotechnical characteristics of two cohesive soils. Lime or natural pozzolana were added to these

soils at ranges of 0-8% and 0-20%, respectively. In addition, combinations of lime-natural pozzolana were added at the same

ranges. Test specimens were subjected to compaction tests and shear tests. Specimens were cured for 1, 7, 28 and 90 days after

which they were tested for shear strength tests. Based on the experimental results, it was concluded that the combination limenatural

pozzolana showed an appreciable improvement of the cohesion and internal friction angle with curing period and

particularly at later ages for both soils.

S. Bakhtiyari, A. Allahverdi, M. Rais-Ghasemi, A. A. Ramezanianpour, T. Parhizkar, B. A. Zarrabi,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (9-2011)

Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) specimens with limestone (L) and quartz (Q) powders were formulated. The influence of the type

of the powder on the properties of fresh and hardened concrete was evaluated. Dense packing theories were used for mix design

of samples. The equation of Fuller and Thompson for particle size distribution (PSD) of aggregates was modified with considering

fine particles and a proper PSD curve was obtained for SCC. Experimental results showed that this method needs use of less

powder content and results in higher strength/cement ratio compared to traditional mixing methods. No significant difference was

observed between the compressive strengths of specimens containing limestone (L-specimens) and quartz (Q-specimens) powders,

with similar proportions of materials. The residual compressive strength of specimens was examined at 500°C and contradictory

behaviors were observed. One Q-specimen suffered from explosive spalling, while no spalling was occurred for L-specimens. On

the other hand, the residual strength of remained Q-specimens showed considerable increase compared to L-specimens. The results

show the necessity for more detailed investigations considering different effective parameters.

D. Galan, M. Marchamalo, R. Martinez-Marin, J. A. Sanchez-Sobrino,
Volume 11, Issue 2 (6-2013)

New advances in geomatics and communications technologies are enabling the development of Automated Auscultation System for structure monitoring. In particular, Differential GPS (DGPS) technique allows real-time monitoring of structures with millimetre accuracy after an appropriate mathematical treatment. The results of real-time DGPS monitoring of a pilot dam over 15 months are presented and compared with the results of pendulums and angular collimation. DGPS monitoring was established to control two points at the top of the dam with reference to an external and stable station. Communications were critical, evolving from initial GPRS connections to more reliable ASDL line in the last months. Real-time DGPS positions were filtered to reach millimetric accuracy through Kalman filter. Two configurations of the filter were tested, one more adapted to predictable and uniform velocity deformations (low frequency) and another more suitable for sudden and large movements (high frequency). Root mean square errors were calculated taking pendulums as a reference. Results show that both DGPS and angular collimation allow monitoring with millimetric accuracy. In the last period, where communications with processing server were stable, a global accuracy of 1.44 and 1.86 mm was reached for real-time DGPS monitoring. RINEX post-processing yielded millimetric results, validating real-time observations. We can affirm that the DGPS system is very useful for dam auscultation and safety as it detects adequately absolute deformations, being a complement to existing methods which should be considered in new safety plans.
A. H. Eghbali, K. Fakharian,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (1-2014)

Portland cement can be mixed with sand to improve its mechanical characteristics. Many studies are reported in literature on this topic, but the effect of principal stress rotation has not been investigated yet. Considering the inherent anisotropy of most sands, it is not clear whether the added cement shall contribute to equal increase in strength and stiffness at vertical and horizontal directions or not. Furthermore, it is not well understood how the cement as an additive in non-compacted (loose) sand compared to compacted (dense) sand without cement, contribute to improving the material behavior in undrained condition such as limiting the deformations and the liquefaction potential. In this research, undrained triaxial and simple shear tests under different stress paths are carried out on different mixtures of Portland cement (by adding 1.5, 3 and 5 percent) with clean sand to investigate the effect of principal stress rotations. The triaxial test results revealed that the cement mixture reduces the anisotropy, while it improves the mixture mechanical properties compared to compacted sand without cement. The results of the simple shear tests validated the triaxial test results and further clarified the effect of the  parameter or rotation of principal stresses on the behavior of cemented sand mixtures.
A. Allahverdi, M. Mahinroosta,
Volume 12, Issue 4 (12-2014)

It was found out that the logarithmic models fit the cement–slag blend systems well. In the present study, based on the experimental results, a logarithmic model has been developed to predict the compressive strength of chemically activated high phosphorous slag content cement. Mixes of phosphorous slag (80 wt.%), Portland cement (14 wt.%) and compound chemical activator (6 wt.%) were prepared at different Blaine finenesses using a laboratory ball mill. Compressive strengths of mortar specimens cured in lime-saturated water were measured at different curing times. Mathematical model was prepared in terms of curing time and water-to-cement ratio as independent variables and compressive strength as dependent variable. The comparisons between the model reproductions and the experimentally obtained results confirm the applicability of the presented model.
B.a. Mir,
Volume 13, Issue 3 (12-2015)

Fly ash is one of the most plentiful and versatile of the industrial by-products. At present, nearly 150 million tonnes of fly ash is being generated annually in India posing dual problem of environmental pollution and difficulty in disposal. This calls for establishing strategies to use the same effectively and efficiently. However, it is only in geotechnical engineering applications such as the construction of embankments/dykes, as back fill material, as a sub-base material etc., its large-scale utilization is possible either alone or with soil. Soil stabilization can be achieved by various means such as compaction, soil replacement, chemical improvement, earth reinforcement etc. Usually, in the case of clay soils, chemical improvement is commonly most effective since it can strengthen the soil, to remove its sensitivity both to water and its subsequent stress history. Among chemical means or additives, fly ash/lime provides an economic and powerful means of improvement, as demonstrated by the significant transformation that is evident on mixing with heavy clay. In the present investigation, different percent fly ashes (10%, 20%, 40%, 60% & 80%) were added to a highly expansive soil from India by dry weight of the natural soil, and subjected to various tests. The important properties that are necessary for using fly ash in many geotechnical applications are index properties, compaction characteristics, compressibility characteristics, permeability and strength. Based on test results, it has been found that using fly ash for improvement of soils has a two-fold advantage. First, to avoid the tremendous environmental problems caused by large scale dumping of fly ash and second, to reduce the cost of stabilization of problematic/marginal soils and improving their engineering properties for safe construction of Engineering Structures. 

N. Kaid, M. Cyr, H. Khelafi,
Volume 13, Issue 4 (12-2015)

The paper presents the characterisation of an Algerian natural pozzolan (NP) intended to for use in cement-based materials. The experimental programme was based on different tests on paste and mortar. The pozzolanic activity was assessed by the means of lime consumption over time of mixtures of lime-pozzolan (75% NP and 25% Ca(OH)2, water-binder ratio of 0.45). The degree of reactivity was assessed by observing the crystallographic changes (XRD) and lime consumption (TG) up to 1 year of hydration. The effect of NP on cement-based mixtures was based on the measurement of the water demand and setting time of pastes, and on the compressive strength of mortars, up to one year. The replacement rates of cement by pozzolan were 5, 10 and 15%. A superplasticizer was used (0, 1, 2 and 3% of the binder mass). A calculation of the carbon footprint was investigated in order to assess if the natural pozzolan could be considered as eco-efficient when used in replacement of the clinker. The results showed that NP had a medium pozzolanic reactivity and with a medium-low silica content. The use of NP usually led to a small increase in the water/binder ratio (up to 10%) to maintain constant workability. The setting time was also increased by around 20%. Nevertheless, strength tests showed that the pozzolan had sufficient activity to counteract the water demand, since long-term compressive strength of the binary system (cement + pozzolan) were higher than those of cement alone. The use of NP in replacement of clinker involves a reduction in CO2 emissions for transport up to 1800 km, which is compatible with sustainable development. The results are most promising from both a performance-based and an environmental point of view

Suresh Prasad Singh, Meena Murmu,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (6-2017)

This paper outlines the effects of curing conditions on the strength and hydration products of lime activated slag cement. The slag cement was prepared by activating the ground granulated blast furnace slag with lime and plaster of Paris. The curing of mortar specimens was done at temperatures of 270, 450,600,750C and the compressive strength of specimens were determined after curing periods of 3,7, 28, 56 and 90days. The curing temperature is found to influence both the early and later age strengths. For the present test conditions the highest 90days compressive strength was found to be 47.63MPa for the specimen cured at temperature of 600C. Further, the developed strength in mortar specimens were correlated with the hydration products and microstructure using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope results. Generalized reduced gradient technique is adopted to find the optimum curing temperature for the given raw material composition and this is found to vary marginally on curing period. 

Ali Allahverdi, Mostafa Mahinroosta, Shima Pilehvar,
Volume 15, Issue 5 (7-2017)

Compressive strength is as one of the most important properties of concrete and mortar that its measurement may be necessary at both early and later ages. Prediction of compressive strength by a proper model is a fast and cost-effective way for evaluating cement quality under various curing conditions. In this paper, a logarithmic model based on the results of an experimental work conducted to investigate the effects of curing time and temperature on the compressive strength development of chemically activated high phosphorous slag content cement has been presented. This model is in terms of curing time and temperature as independent variables and compressive strength as dependent variable. For this purpose, mortar specimens were prepared from 80 wt.% phosphorous slag, 14 wt.% Portland cement, and 6 wt.% compound chemical activator at Blaine fineness of 303 m2/kg. The specimens were cured in lime-saturated water under temperatures of 25, 45, 65, 85 and 100 ºC in oven. The model has two adjustable parameters for various curing times and temperatures. Modeling has been done by applying dimensionless insight. The proposed model can efficiently predict the compressive strength of this type of high phosphorous slag cement with an average relative error of less than 4%.

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