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Showing 53 results for Land

Asghari K.,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (12-2003)

The solution of shallow-water equation for a two-dimensional .simulation of overland /low for an actual watershed, is presented. The Petorv-Galerkin weighted residual method is used to overcome spurious oscillations inflow depth. For modeling overland flow over complex topography and variable surface, ct pre and postprocessor was developed to utilize the Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN) model and to generate finite element mesh. Close agreement of the model with measured data is obtained. This model can be used to better analyze the influence of varying surface roughness and topography on overland flow characteristics, including distribution of flow depth and velocity (is well as resulting hydrographs. Detailed spatial and temporal output parameters provide a basis fur further study of the patterns of soil erosion and evaluation of runoff natural slopes.
Asghari K.,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (12-2003)

The solution of shallow-water equation for a two-dimensional .simulation of overland /low for an actual watershed, is presented. The Petorv-Galerkin weighted residual method is used to overcome spurious oscillations inflow depth. For modeling overland flow over complex topography and variable surface, ct pre and postprocessor was developed to utilize the Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN) model and to generate finite element mesh. Close agreement of the model with measured data is obtained. This model can be used to better analyze the influence of varying surface roughness and topography on overland flow characteristics, including distribution of flow depth and velocity (is well as resulting hydrographs. Detailed spatial and temporal output parameters provide a basis fur further study of the patterns of soil erosion and evaluation of runoff natural slopes.
Saffar Zadeh M., Asadi M.b.,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2004)

In this research, the Integrated Noise Model (INM), has been calibrated to perform the noise pollution evaluation in the vicinity of Mehrabad International Airport (MIA). First a conceptual model was developed to analyze the compatibility of airport noise with the land use based on the most widely accepted noise pollution standards. Second, the data generated from the INM package was compared with real data acquired from the test stations positioned around airport. Finally, the outputs of the calibrated model was compared with the noise pollution standards. The results show that more than 70 percent of the land use in the vicinity of airport are not compatible with the accepted noise levels. The generated noise contours was superimposed on the digital map of the city and the areas which violated the permitted levels was recognized. Moreover, the more noise sensitive facilities such as hospitals, schools, and residential units can be positioned in areas which have the permitted noise levels. The model and the procedure can be used to design new airports. Noise evaluation of existing operational airports can be performed by the model developed in this research.
Mehrdad M.a., Neshaei M.a.l.,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (9-2004)

Seawalls are commonly constructed to prevent landward erosion of the shoreline and to maintain the configuration of the area behind them against wave action. In order to consider the effect of seawalls on surf zone hydrodynamics, experiments have been performed at laboratory model scale on partially reflective seawalls located in the surf zone. The main objectives of these experiments were to undertake a quantitative comparison of near-bed velocities in two cases (i.e. with and without the reflective structure). The presence of a reflective structure and the influence of reflected waves result in significant changes in the mean flow and the near-bed horizontal velocities in the surf zone. The latter is illustrated by comparing the probabilistic properties of velocities measured with and without a reflective structure. In this paper, a semi-empirical approach based on the measured probability density functions of near-bed horizontal velocities, is presented to predict the short-term response of a partially reflective seawall to random wave attack. The results obtained from the model and comparison with the experimental results, which have been reported previously are promising and encouraging for further developments of the preliminary model.
Saleh Zadeh H., Ghazanfari E.,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2004)

To study the behavior of carbonate sands parametrically, some monotonic triaxial testswere carried out on Kish carbonate sand. The sample was provided from Kish Island beach. Inorder to examine the effect of density and confining pressure, samples in loose and dense stateswere tested under different confining pressures. For studying the effect of drainage andconsolidation, different stress paths were followed. Also to study the effect of particle crushing indrained tests all samples were graded before and after testing. Comparison between loose anddense samples in both drained and undrained tests showed that with increasing confiningpressure, the reduction in shear resistance in loose samples is less than dense samples and theincrement rate of particle crushing in loose samples is more than dense samples. In the range oflow confining pressures both loose and dense samples showed dilation response. With increasingconfining pressure, the loose samples tended to exhibit contraction and the rate of dilation indense samples reduced. Because recovering undisturbed sample of carbonate sediments is veryhard or even impossible so the effect of soil disturbance is not studied in this research.
Mahmoud Saffarzadeh, Maghsoud Pooryari,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (6-2005)

This paper specifies the relationship among various factors contributing to road accidents including geometrical design characteristics, environmental and traffic specifications, by multiple regression analysis. The main objective of this paper is identification of problems associated with the safety issue of road networks by application of accident prediction models. Data from previous accidents were used to develop the models. Results of this study showed that the rate of road accidents is to a large extent dependent on the rate of traffic volume. Type of road and land-use are other important factors influencing the number and intensity of accidents. The mountainous roads in this respect require special attention regarding their safety factors. The quantitative rate of road safety upgrading has also been specified by adding traffic lanes in road networks.
Saleh Zadeh H., Procter D.c., Merrifield C.m.,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (9-2005)

The unique behaviour of carbonate materials under shear loading has stimulated in investigating of their geological and engineering properties.Carbonate soils composed of calcium or other carbonates and most abundant in tropical marine environments are of interest from geotechnical view, especially for offshore engineers engaged with Fossil-based fuel exploitation. This was initiated in the early 1960's, when the first offshore borings in the Persian Gulf identified layers of calcarenite and thick layers of sand containing visible shell fragments.For the purpose of exploiting gas and oil resources in hot and temperate climates (e.g. Persian Gulf) off-shore structures have been placed on carbonate soils. The carbonate sediments are high crushable compared with low crushable sediments such as quartzic soils.To examine the crushability of these problematic sediments a series of monotonic compression, extension and post-cyclic triaxial tests under different densities and confining pressures was carried out to study the crushing behaviour of "Rock" carbonate sand obtained from Cornwall, England.It was shown that crushing coefficient decreases with increasing in maximum principal effective stress ratio for both loose and dense states. It seems that for skeletal carbonate sand maximum and minimum dry densities will be changed during shearing loading. In other words, even though the sample has experienced an increase in density, it may also have experienced a reduction in relative density.
A. Yeganeh Bakhtiary, A. Ghaheri, R. Valipour,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (3-2007)

Determination of allowable free span length plays a crucial role in design of offshore pipelines. The seabed intervention cost and safety of an offshore pipelines project are largely influenced by pipelines free spanning during the project life time. Different criteria are proposed by both the current designing guidelines and researchers there is however lack of comprehensive assessment of independent parameters affects the design length of free span. In this note, it is intended to investigate the effects of seabed formation along with axial force on Natural Frequency of offshore pipelines. Based on this assessment a new simple formula is proposed. Finally, to evaluate the result of this study, the allowable free span length of Qeshem Island pipelines is calculated as a case study and compared with those of the DNV (1998) and ABS (2001) guidelines and the modal analysis.
Mahmoud Hassanlourad, Hosein Salehzadeh, Habib Shahnazari,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (6-2008)

In this paper shear behavior of two calcareous sands having different physical properties are

investigated using drained and undrained triaxial tests. The investigated sands are obtained from two different

zones located in Persian Gulf, Kish Island and Tonbak region. Analysis based on energy aspects show that

friction angle in these soils, having crushable particles, is formed of three components: substantial internal

friction angle, dilation and particle breakage angle. Dilation component is available in the two investigated

sand. Particle breakage component is a function of grains hardness, structure and geometry shape. Particles

breakage decreases the volume of sample during drained tests and creates positive pore water pressure during

undrained tests. Two investigated sands show different amount of dilation and particle breakage under similar

conditions. Simultaneous dilation and particles crushing and different amount of them result in different shear

behavior of the two studied sands. Energy aspects are used to determine the effect of particle crushing on the

shear strength. There is a suitable compatibility between relative breakage of grains and consumed energy

ratio for particle breakage.

Shahriar Afandizadeh, Morteza Araghi,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (12-2008)

M.h. Vahidnia, A.a. Alesheikh, A. Alimohammadi, F. Hosseinali,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (9-2009)

Landslides are major natural hazards which not only result in the loss of human life but also cause economic burden on the society. Therefore, it is essential to develop suitable models to evaluate the susceptibility of slope failures and their zonations. This paper scientifically assesses various methods of landslide susceptibility zonation in GIS environment. A comparative study of Weights of Evidence (WOE), Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), Artificial Neural Network (ANN), and Generalized Linear Regression (GLR) procedures for landslide susceptibility zonation is presented. Controlling factors such as lithology, landuse, slope angle, slope aspect, curvature, distance to fault, and distance to drainage were considered as explanatory variables. Data of 151 sample points of observed landslides in Mazandaran Province, Iran, were used to train and test the approaches. Small scale maps (1:1,000,000) were used in this study. The estimated accuracy ranges from 80 to 88 percent. It is then inferred that the application of WOE in rating maps’ categories and ANN to weight effective factors result in the maximum accuracy.
P. Alimohammadi, N. Shariatmadari, M.a. Abdoli, H. Ghiasinejad, A. Mansouri,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (6-2010)

Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model is one of the most accepted tools to simulate

the hydrological attributes of landfills. Although some major deviations from real values has been reported about the

calculated results for leachate generation by HELP model but other researchers and/or engineers in practice have

used it in some places to estimate amount of leachate produced in the landfills. On the Other hand this model is

elaborated and mainly used in developed countries with the waste having low moisture content and also in climatic

conditions with high precipitation. This research investigated the applicability of the model in arid areas, by

construction of two 30m× 50m (effective horizontal length) test cells in Kahrizak landfill (longitude=51°, 20',

latitude= 35° 27' degrees), and monitoring the real leachate generation from each one. A set of field capacity and

saturated water conductivity tests were also performed to determine basic hydrologic properties of municipal waste

landfilled. A comparison was made between values calculated by HELP model and recorded values, shows that a

prediction of leachate on annual basis can be done by HELP model with acceptable accuracy but when the infiltration

of water to waste body increases due to leachate production, the model intents to underestimate water storage capacity

of the landfill, which lead to deviation of calculated values from real ones.

S. Malaikrisanachalee, H. Vathananukij,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (3-2011)

Java is an object-oriented program that has abundant open-source libraries for application development and 3D model rendering. Spatial database is the database that can efficiently store and manage geographic information data though various spatial data management techniques. This paper explores the rationale of coupling java with spatial database to develop an effective platform for future Building Information Modeling (BIM) application. The paper methodically presents the prototype system integration design to demonstrate how the system can be developed. The paper also meticulously presents the logical and physical data models in designing optimum BIM database for a reinforced concrete building. An 8-storey reinforced concrete building was used as an implementation case study to validate the proposed prototype system design and investigates the implementation issues. The outcome shows that not only the proposed prototype system offers technological advantages over the traditional BIM applications, its open-source solution can also overcome the financial constraint that currently inhibits the implementation of BIM especially for medium and small enterprises.

Mahmoud Reza Abdi,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (6-2011)

The use of various slags as by-products of steel industry is well established in civil engineering applications. However, the use

of BOS slag in the area of soil stabilization has not been fully researched and developed despite having similar chemical

composition and mineralogy to that of Portland cement. This paper reports on efforts to extend the use of BOS slag to soil

stabilization by determining possible beneficial effects it may have on compressive strength and durability. Results of laboratory

tests conducted on kaolinite samples stabilized with lime and treated with various percentages of BOS slag are presented. Tests

determined strength development of compacted cylinders, moist cured in a humid environment at 35° C and durability by freezing

and thawing method. Results showed that additions of BOS slag to kaolinite samples singularly or in combination with lime

increased unconfined compressive strength and durability. These characteristics were significantly enhanced by the concurrent

use of lime and BOS slag for stabilization of kaolinite.

Ali Pak, Zahra Zahmatkesh,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (6-2011)

Geotextiles are one of the most widely used synthetic materials in filtration and drainage applications. Since in real

applications, geotextiles are subjected to various hydraulic gradients and confining stresses, hydraulic behavior of geotextiles

under different circumstances is of great practical importance. In this study filtration and drainage properties of several

nonwoven needle-punched geotextiles with different properties and unit mass per area of 200g/m2, 400g/m2, 500g/m2 and

800g/m2, under various confining stresses and hydraulic gradients, were studied using standard permittivity

and transmissivity equipments. Prepared samples were subjected to hydraulic heads in the range of 10cm to 60cm and

confining stresses up to 1000kPa and their hydraulic behavior was investigated accordingly. In this study the flow regime

through the geotextile fibers and also the anisotropic behavior of geotextile permeability were investigated. The results show

that transmissivity will decrease exponentially with increasing the normal stress until a residual value is reached, and

permittivity and transmissivity coefficients were seen to decrease with increasing the hydraulic gradient. The flow regime has

found to be non-turbulent in all cases.The Geotextile hydraulic behavior is of great usage in the design of landfill covers,

design of embankments and irrigation structures drainage systems, and in the design of protection systems in river


Nader Shariatmadari , Marzieh Salami, Mehran Karimpour Fard,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (6-2011)

The main task in the design and construction of impermeable liners in landfills is to block the migration of pollutants to the groundwater

systems or to reduce its rate to a reasonable amount. That is why environmental regulations force governments to construct engineered

waste dumps for waste management purposes. These liners are exposed to various types of chemical, biological, and physical processes

and are affected by the leachate which is produced from decomposition of waste materials accompanying methane gas. The leachate

includes a lot of components such as water and different types of salts. For this reason, the geotechnical characteristics of clay liners

which are evaluated in laboratories using distilled water or tap water might be far different from the representative sample of the in-situ

conditions. There are some evidences regarding the effect of these salts on the physical and mechanical properties of clay barriers which

could affect the long-term performance of these liners. Since the main criterion for impermeable bottom liners in landfills is their

hydraulics conductivity, the increase of this parameter could have a considerable environmental impact. This paper embraces the results

of a recent study on the effect of three inorganic salts, NaCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2 on some geotechnical properties of a common used clay

soil in impermeable bottom barrier in Kahrizak landfill, the main waste disposal center of the Tehran Metropolitan. Also the effect of

bentonite content by adding different percentage of this special clay mineral, 10 and 20 percent, on these properties was investigated.

Laboratory tests like liquid limit, compaction, 1D consolidation and free swell tests were performed for this purpose. Results indicated

that all of these salts could have a considerable effect on the geotechnical properties of the mixtures. The main reason of such effects is

the changes which occur in diffuse double layer of clay particles.

M. Hassanlourad, H. Salehzadeh, H. Shahnazari,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (12-2011)

The effects of cementation and the physical properties of grains on the shear behavior of grouted sands are investigated in this

paper. The consolidated-undrained triaxial shear behavior of three grouted carbonate sands with different physical properties,

including particle size distribution, particle shape and void ratio, was studied. Two sands were obtained from the north shores

of the Persian Gulf, south of Iran, called Hormoz and Kish islands sands, and one sand was obtained from the south beaches

of England and called Rock beach sand. The selected sands were grouted using a chemical grout of sodium silicate and tested

after one month of curing. Test results showed that the effect of bonding on the shear behavior and strength depends on the bond

strength and confining pressure. In addition, the shear behavior, yield strength and shear strength of grouted sands under

constant conditions, including the initial relative density, bonds strength, confining pressure and loading, were affected by the

physical properties of the sands. Furthermore, the parameters of the Mohr-Coulomb shear strength failure envelope, including

the cohesion and internal friction angle of grouted sands under constant conditions, were affected by the physical properties

and structure of the soils.

A. R. Shokoohi, B. Saghafian,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (3-2012)

In almost all of the present mathematical models, the upstream subbasins, with overland flow as the dominant type of flow, are

simulated as a rectangular plane. However, the converging plane is the closest shape to an actual upstream subbasin. The

intricate nature of the governing equations of the overland flow on a converging plane is the cause of prolonged absence of an

analytical or semi analytical solution to define the rising limb of the resulted hydrograph. In the present research, a new

geomorphologic semi analytical method was developed that tries to establish a relationship between the parallel and converging

flows to reduce the complexity of the equations. The proposed method uses the principals of the Time Area method modified to

apply the kinematic wave theory and then by applying a correction factor finds the actual discharge. The correction factor, which

is based on the proportion of the effective drained area to the analytically calculated one, introduces the convergence effect of

the flow in reducing the potentially available discharge in a parallel flow. The proposed method was applied to a case study and

the result was compared with that of Woolhiser's numerical method that showed the reliability of the new method.

A. Eslami, M. Veiskarami, M. M. Eslami,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (6-2012)

It has been realized that the raft (mat) foundations are capable of bearing very large loads when they are assisted with a pile
group. The contribution of both raft and piles to carry the surcharge loads is taken into account, considering the stiffness and
strength of involved elements in the system, i.e. piles, raft and surrounding soil. The piles are usually required not to ensure the
overall stability of the foundation but to act as settlement reducers. There is an alternative design in which, the piles are nonconnected
from the raft to reduce the settlement, which are then known to be "settlement reducer non-connected piles" to increase
the system stiffness. In this paper, two and three dimensional finite element analysis of connected and non-connected pile-raft
systems are performed on three case studies including a 12-storey residential building in Iran, a 39-storey twin towers in
Indonesia, and the Messeturm tower, 256m high, in Frankfurt, Germany. The analyses include the investigation of the effect of
different parameters, e.g. piles spacing, embedment length, piling configuration and raft thickness to optimize the design. The role
of each parameter is also investigated. The parametric study results and comparison to a few field measurements indicate that
by concentrating the piles in the central area of the raft foundation the optimum design with the minimum total length of piles is
achieved, which is considered as control parameter for optimum design. This can be considered as a criterion for project cost
efficiency. On the other hand, non-connected piled-raft systems can significantly reduce the settlements and raft internal bending
moments by increasing the subsoil stratum stiffness. Finally, the comparison indicates that simple and faster 2D analysis has
almost similar results to the time consuming and complicated 3D analysis.

I. Hosseinzadeh Attar, K. Fakharian,
Volume 11, Issue 2 (11-2013)

Pile foundations are frequently used in industrial projects in southwest lowlands of Iran. Although high setup of shaft resistance

is usually reported in the area, no reliable formulation or guidelines are available for considering the increased capacity in design

applications. Therefore, the pile design practices are usually not optimized. The main objective of this paper is presenting a site

specific formulation for setup effects of a utility plant in southwest Iran in which a good database of prestressed concrete driven

piles is available. Fajr-II Petrochemical site in PetZone of Mahshahr accommodating a utility plant is selected as the database of

the current study. The setup factor (A) and the reference time (t0) are evaluated through processing of a relatively large database

of this well-supervised piling project. As the main portion of variations of driven piles capacity with time is related to shaft, only

shaft resistance variations are considered in this research. The shaft capacity variations are derived from signal matching analysis

on PDA tests. Reliability of PDA tests has been confirmed through comparing with the static load test results. Influence of driving

the surrounding piles on setup factor is also investigated. The results show that the average setup factor (A) and the reference time

(t0) of 0.30 and 0.01 day, respectively, are proper values for estimating the long term capacity in this region. Evaluation of the

results indicates that driving 8 piles around the test pile has increased the “A” factor average of 40% resultingin increase of the

shaft capacity about 19% in one month and 22% in one year, in comparison with the tested piles with no surrounding piles driven.

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