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Showing 22 results for Dynamic Analysis

Kimiaei M., Shayanfar M.a., Hesham Ei Naggar M., Agha Kouchak A.a.,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2004)

The seismic response of pile-supported offshore structures is strongly affected by the nonlinear behavior of the supporting piles. Nonlinear response of piles is the most important source of potentially nonlinear dynamic response of offshore platforms due to earthquake excitations. It is often necessary to perform dynamic analysis of offshore platforms that accountsfor soil nonlinearity, discontinuity condition at pile soil interfaces, energy dissipation through soil radiation damping and structural non linear behaviors of piles.In this paper, an attempt is made to develop an inexpensive and practical procedure compatible with readily available structural analysis software for estimating the lateral response of flexible piles embedded in layered soil deposits subjected to seismic loading. In the proposed model a BNWF (Beam on Nonlinear Winkler Foundation) approach is used consisting of simple nonlinear springs, dash pots and contact elements. Gapping and caving-in conditions at the pile-soil interfaces are also considered using special interface elements. This model was incorporated into a Finite Element program (ANSYS), which was used to compute the response of laterally excited piles. A linear approach was used for seismic free field ground motion analysis. The computed responses compared well with the Centrifuge test results.This paper deals with the effects of free field ground motion analysis on seismic non linear behavior of embedded piles. Different parts of a BNWF (Beam on Nonlinear Winkler Foundation) model, together with quantitative and qualitative findings and conclusions for dynamic nonlinear response of offshore piles, are discussed and addressed in detail. The proposed BNWF model (only using the existing features of the available general finite element software) could easily be implemented in a more comprehensive model of nonlinear seismic response analysis of pile supported offshore platforms.
Ghodrati Amiri G., Sedighi S.,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (12-2004)

In the past decade design procedure changed to �performance-based design� from�force-based design�, by this mean many researchers focused on nonlinear static analysis (NSA)and the procedure named �PUSHOVER�. Advantages of this method are defining the inelasticbehavior of structure without nonlinear dynamic analysis (NDA) effort and also defining plastichinges formation in critical elements, and the order of formed plastic hinges. In spite of these goodadvantages NSA is limited to short and planar structures and application of that in tall andtorsionaly asymmetric structures may yield unreliable results.In this study reliability of NSA is investigated by performing both nonlinear static and dynamicanalysis on six 2D moment resisting concrete frames. Non linear dynamic analysis has been doneby the suggested method in FEMA356 guideline called �Target Displacement Method�. A groupof 4 different lateral increasing loads were used in pushover analysis and 3 different groundmotions were applied in NDA. Results indicate that same responses can be obtained by performingNSA, but errors will be increased by frames height increment.
H. Behbahani, S.a. Sahaf,
Volume 5, Issue 3 (9-2007)

The available methods for predicting mechanical characteristics of pavement layers are categorized into two general groups, Destructive and Non-destructive. In destructive method, using coring and pavement subgrade and performing necessary experiments on them, the quantities of layers properties will be identified. In Non-destructive method, the attained deflection is measured by applying the loading on pavement surface using equipments such as FWD which charges the impact dynamic load, and the mechanical characteristics of pavement layers are determined using back calculations. The procedure of conducting these calculations is that by knowing the thickness of the pavement layers and assuming the initial amounts for mechanical characteristics of the layer, the attained deflection at the desired points on the pavement surface will be calculated. Then, new figures are assumed for the characteristics of layers in a reattempt and calculations are repeated again. This trial and error is continued until the produced basin deformations from the calculations with true value, differs in an acceptable range. Using this method may have no accurate and single answer, since the various compositions of layers characteristics can produce similar deformations in different points of pavement surface. In this article, using an innovative method, a measurement is taken in constructing and introducing a mathematical model for determining the elastic module of surface layer using deflections attained from FWD loading equipment. The procedure is such that by using dynamic analysis software of finite elements like ABAQUS and ANSYS, the deformation of corresponding points on the surface of the pavement will be attained by FWD loading equipment. This analysis will be performed on a number of pavements with different thicknesses and different layers properties. The susceptibility analysis of different points deformations show, which will be performed as a result of the change of properties and layers thicknesses. Using this artificial data base as well as deflection basin parameters (DBP), a measurement will be taken toward constructing a regression model for determination of asphalt layer model, i.e. Eac =f(DBP) function shall be attained. To achieve the maximum correlation coefficient, an attempt is made to use the parameters of deformations basin which has the most susceptibility in changing asphalt layer module.
A. Kaveh, M. Najimi,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (9-2008)

In this paper, the Rayleigh's quotient and the inverse vector iteration method are presented. The latter approach helps to obtain the natural frequencies and mode shapes of a structure. Inverse vector iteration method with shifting enables to determine the higher modes. Some basic theorems of linear algebra are presented and extended to study the free vibration of structures. The variation theorems are presented for predicting the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the modified structures. These theorems reduce the number of cycles of the iterations used for calculating the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the modified structures. Finally, an example is solved to show the ability of the present approach.
M. Miraboutalebi, F. Askari, O. Farzaneh,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (12-2011)

In this paper, the effect of bedrock inclination on seismic performance of slopes is investigated. The study was conducted based

on dynamic analysis of different slopes, evaluation of the earthquake acceleration in sliding mass, and calculating the

permanent displacement of the slope, using Newmark sliding block. The investigation indicates that variation of the bedrock

inclination may cause the acceleration magnitude and the displacement in the sliding mass to reach to their maximum level.

This may happen in conditions that the mean period of the acceleration time history on failure surface (Tmt) and the

predominant period of the slope (Ts ) are close to each other. Typical results are presented and discussed. A two dimensional

model of a typical slope was considered and conducting dynamic analyses, the slope performance was studied for different

geometries, strength parameters and shear wave velocities. Such a performance has been studied by assessing the record of

acceleration in sliding mass (the mass above the critical sliding surface) and calculating the slope displacement using Newmark

method. It is shown that neglecting the effect of bedrock inclination, would lead to non-real results in assessing the seismic slope


A. Hassanipour, A. Shafiee, M.k. Jafari,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (12-2011)

Shear modulus and damping ratio are important input parameters in dynamic analysis. A series of resonant column tests was

carried out on pure clays and sand-clay mixtures prepared at different densities to investigate the effects of aggregate content,

confining stress, void ratio and clay plasticity on the maximum shear modulus and minimum damping ratio. Test results revealed

an increase in the maximum shear modulus of the mixture with the increase in sand content up to 60%, followed by a decrease

beyond this value. It was also found that the maximum shear modulus increases with confining stress, and decreases with void

ratio. In addition, minimum damping ratio increases with sand content and clay plasticity and decreases with confining stress.

Finally, on the basis of the test results, a mathematical model was developed for the maximum shear modulus.

F.r. Rofooei, M. R. Mirjalili, N. K. A. Attari,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (12-2012)

The nonlinear static procedures (NSPs) proposed by design codes do not lead to reliable results especially for tall buildings.

They generally provide inconsistent estimates of inelastic seismic demands, especially for the top floors due to their inabilities in

considering the higher modes effects. In this paper, a new enhanced pushover procedure is proposed which is based on the

envelope of the structural responses resulting from two separate pushover analyses as a combination rule. Also, the suggested

pushover analyses are performed using a newly proposed modal load pattern, i.e., the Modal Spectra Combination (MSC), and

the ASCE41-06 required first mode load pattern. The MSC load pattern is consisted of a number of mode shapes combined with

appropriate weighting factors that depend on their modal participation factors, modal frequencies and design spectral values. A

number of 2-D steel moment resisting frame models with different number of stories are used to investigate the efficiency of the

proposed method. The inter-story drifts and the maximum plastic beam moment and curvature responses are used as a measure

to compare the results obtained from the nonlinear time-history analyses (NL-THA) and some other NSPs. The results obtained

through rigorous nonlinear dynamic analyses show that the application of the proposed method leads to acceptable results for

steel MRF systems in comparison to other available enhanced NSPs. The OpenSees program is used for numerical analysis.

F. Khoshnoudian, O. Nozadi,
Volume 11, Issue 2 (6-2013)

It has been pointed out the static lateral response procedure for a base-isolated structure proposed in International Building Code (IBC) somewhat overestimates the seismic story force. That is why in the current paper, vertical distribution of base shear over the height of isolated structures considering higher mode effects under near field earthquakes is investigated. Nonlinear behavior of isolation systems cause variation of frequencies transmitted to the superstructure and consequently higher modes effects should be considered. In this study base shear distribution obtained from nonlinear dynamic analysis is compared with that achieved from IBC for assessment of the international building code. This investigation has been conducted in two parts, in order to have an appropriate base shear distribution formula for isolated structures under near field earthquakes. In the first part using three first mode shapes of isolated structure and introducing coefficient corresponding to each mode, extracted from nonlinear dynamic analysis under near field earthquakes, a new formula has been derived. In the second part, the mode shape coefficients have been obtained theoretically and consequently a new base shear distribution over the height of isolated structures including the isolation system properties under near field ground motions was proposed.
H. Shakib, Gh. R. Atefatdoost,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (3-2014)

An approach was formulated for the nonlinear analysis of three-dimensional dynamic soil-structure interaction (SSI) of asymmetric buildings in time domain in order to evaluate the seismic response behavior of torsionally coupled wall-type buildings. The asymmetric building was idealized as a single-storey three-dimensional system resting on different soil conditions. The soil beneath the superstructure was modeled as nonlinear solid element. As the stiffness of the reinforced concrete flexural wall is a strength dependent parameter, a method for strength distribution among the lateral force resisting elements was considered. The response of soil-structure interaction of the system under the lateral component of El Centro 1940 earthquake record was evaluated and the effect of base flexibility on the response behavior of the system was verified. The results indicated that the base flexibility decreased the torsional response of asymmetric building so that this effect for soft soil was maximum. On the other hand, the torsional effects can be minimized by using a strength distribution, when the centre of both strength CV and rigidity CR is located on the opposite side of the centre of mass CM, and SSI has no effect on this criterion.
M. Abbasi, A. H. Davaei Markazi,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (3-2014)

An important factor in the design and implementation of structural control strategies is the number and placement of actuators. By employing optimally-located actuators, the effectiveness of control system increases, while with an optimal number of actuators, an acceptable level of performance can be achieved with fewer actuators. The method proposed in this paper, simultaneously determines the number and location of actuators, installed in a building, in an optimal sense. In particular, a genetic algorithm which minimizes a suitably defined structural damage index is introduced and applied to a well-known nonlinear model of a 20-story benchmark building. It is shown in the paper that an equal damage protection, compared to the work of other researchers, can be achieved with fewer numbers of optimally placed actuators. This result can be important from economic point of view. However, the attempt to minimize one performance index has negative effect on the others. To cope with this problem to some extent, the proposed genetic methodology has been modified to be applied in a multi-objective optimization problem.
A. Gholizad, P. Kamrani Moghaddam,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (3-2014)

High performance and reliability of refurbish able knee braced steel frames has been confirmed in previous researches trying to get an optimal design for its configuration. Buckling of diagonal member which affects the hysteretic behavior of KBF under cyclic loadings has not been foreseen in previous evaluations of this system. This deficiency can be improved by utilization of adjustable rotary friction damper device (FDD) as knee element. Diagonal element buckling can be prevented considering a suitable value for FDD sliding threshold moment Mf. Lower values of Mf Lower energy dissipation rate in FDD and this leads to an optimization problem. Nonlinear time history analyses have been performed in addition to lateral cyclic loading analyses to evaluate the response of single story KBF subjected to seismic excitation. Optimal Mf in FDD has been chosen according to these analyses results. Roof displacement and acceleration, base shear and diagonal element’s buckling status have been compared in optimally designed KBF and FDD utilized KBF (FKBF) with different configurations. Nonlinear dynamic analyses have been performed for one, four, eight and twelve story frames under different seismic records with several PGAs. More than 60% displacement response reduction has been earned for the FKBF without considerable increase in base shear.
M. Bastami, M. Hajihasani,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (3-2014)

Dynamic analysis of the seismic performance of power substation equipment is time-consuming, expensive and uses responses that are sensitive to ground motion. This research proposes a method to derive input waves for dynamic analysis in place of original records from seismic events in Iran. In this study, a power transformer, current transformer, circuit breaker and disconnect switch are analyzed using fifty records from the far-field and near-field earthquake ground motions. Statistical analysis is done on the maximum acceleration and displacement responses to obtain their pushover curves. Sinusoidal waves were created using the fundamental frequencies of the equipments and PGA of 0.1g through 0.5 g as the amplitude. The results are compared with the original records and show that the proposed input waves provide a reasonable fit for an extensive range of near-field and far-field ground motion results.
A. R. Habibi, Keyvan Asadi,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (3-2014)

Setback in elevation of a structure is a special irregularity with considerable effect on its seismic performance. This paper addresses multistory Reinforced Concrete (RC) frame buildings, regular and irregular in elevation. Several multistory Reinforced Concrete Moment Resisting Frames (RCMRFs) with different types of setbacks, as well as the regular frames in elevation, are designed according to the provisions of the Iranian national building code and Iranian seismic code for the high ductility class. Inelastic dynamic time-history analysis is performed on all frames subjected to ten input motions. The assessment of the seismic performance is done based on both global and local criteria. Results show that when setback occurs in elevation, the requirements of the life safety level are not satisfied. It is also shown that the elements near the setback experience the maximum damage. Therefore it is necessary to strengthen these elements by appropriate method to satisfy the life safety level of the frames.
M. Afzalirad, M. Kamalian, M. K. Jafari, A. Sohrabi-Bidar,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (1-2014)

In this paper, an advanced formulation of time-domain, two-dimensional Boundary Element Method (BEM) with material damping is presented. Full space two-dimensional visco-elastodynamic time-convoluted kernels are proposed in order to incorporate proportional damping. This approach is applied to carry out site response analysis of viscoelastic topographic structures subjected to SV and P incident waves. Seismic responses of horizontally layered site, semi-circular canyons, slope topography and ridge sections subjected to these incident waves are analyzed in order to demonstrate the accuracy of the kernels and the applicability of the presented viscoelastic boundary element algorithm. The results show an excellent agreement with recent published results obtained in frequency domain. Also, the effects of different material damping ratios on site response are investigated.
S. F. Eftekharzadeh, A. Khodabakhshi,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (9-2014)

The previous studies show that a high percentage of traffic accidents take place in two-lane rural highways and most of which happen at horizontal curves. Meanwhile the horizontal alignment is often subject to hard topographic conditions where because of economic aspects designers are forced to design horizontal curves at grades. Vertical angle of longitudinal slope reduces the normal force of vehicle on road and friction force in tire-pavement surface will decrease. This leads to a lack of sufficient driver control over the vehicle especially if the curve with small radius is located at downgrade. In this paper, the suitability of operating speed and lateral friction coefficient as geometric design criteria for horizontal curves in downgrades are studied with regard to traffic safety and vehicle stability. The investigation of speed reduction of the vehicles running on a horizontal curve at downgrade as a response of driver behavior and the use of friction ellipse theory give the available friction coefficient. Whereas the dynamic analysis of forces applied on the vehicle in curve which is located at downgrade if combined with operating speed results in the required coefficient of lateral friction. Finally, a comparison of these two parameters based on safety evaluation criteria gives an estimation of actual safety level in designing horizontal curve at downgrades with regard to AASHTO’s data in horizontal curve design.
L. Kalani Sarokolayi, B. Navayi Neya, Javad Vaseghi Amiri,
Volume 13, Issue 1 (3-2015)

This study focuses on non-linear seismic response of a concrete gravity dam subjected to translational and rotational correlated components of ground motions including dam-reservoir interaction. For this purpose rotational components of ground motion is generated using Hong Non Lee improved method based on corresponding available translational components. The 2D seismic behavior of the dam concrete is taken into account using nonlinear fracture mechanics based on the smeared- crack concepts and the dam-reservoir system are modeled using Lagrangian-Lagrangian approach in finite element method. Based on presented formulation, Pine Flat concrete gravity dam is analyzed for different cases and results show that the rotational component of ground motion can increase or decrease the maximum horizontal and vertical displacements of dam crest. These results are dependent on the frequency of dam-reservoir system and predominant frequencies of translational and rotational components of ground motion.
R. Tarinejad, S. Pirboudaghi,
Volume 13, Issue 2 (6-2015)

It is well-known that dam-reservoir interaction has significant effects on the response of dams to the earthquakes. This phenomenon should be considered more exactly in the seismic design of dams with a rational and reliable dynamic analysis method. In this research, seismic analysis of the dam-reservoir is studied as a wave propagation problem by using Legendre Spectral element method (SEM). The special FEM and SEM codes are developed to carry out the seismic analysis of the dam-reservoir interaction system. The results of both SEM and FEM models are compared considering the accuracy and the time consumption of the analysis. Attractive spectral convergence of SEM is obtained either by increasing the degree of the polynomials in the reservoir or by the number of elements of dam. It is shown that all boundary conditions of the reservoir domain in the SEM are evaluated by the exact diagonal matrices. The SEM leads to the diagonal mass matrix for both dam and reservoir domains. The stiffness matrices obtained from the SEM are more sparse than the corresponding stiffness matrices in the FEM consequently the SEM needs a significant less time consumption of the analysis.

M. Mahmoudi, T. Teimoori, H. Kozani,
Volume 13, Issue 4 (12-2015)

The current building codes provide limited prescriptive guidance on design for protection of buildings due to progressive collapse. Progressive collapse is a situation in which a localized failure in a structure, caused by an abnormal load, such as explosions or other happenings. Three procedures, often employed for determination of the structural response during progressive collapse i.e. linear static procedure (LSP), nonlinear static (NSP) and nonlinear dynamic (NDP) analyses. In nonlinear static analysis, a force-based method is applied and the structure is pushed down to the target force. In this research, a new displacement-based method will be proposed for nonlinear static analysis. In displacement-based method, the structure is pushed down to target displacement instead of target force (similar to the one in seismic pushover analysis). To make a nonlinear static analysis, instead of increasing the load around the area of the removed column, a maximum displacement is calculated and the upper node of the removed column is pushed up to target displacement. Here, to determine the target displacement, results from nonlinear dynamic and linear static analyses are compared. This paper tries to present a formula to calculate the target displacement using the linear static rather than the nonlinear dynamic analysis. For this reason, 3 buildings with 3, 5 and 10 stories have been seismically designed and studied. The results show that, this method is much more accurate in comparison to the recommended approach in current codes. Also, this method does not have the limitations of force-based nonlinear static analysis.

Mohsen Gerami, Ali Kheyroddin, Abbas Sivandi-Pour,
Volume 14, Issue 1 (1-2016)

Steel-concrete hybrid systems are used in buildings, in which a steel structure has been placed on a concrete structure to make a lighter structure and have a faster construction. Dynamic analysis of hybrid structures is usually a complex procedure due to various dynamic characteristics of each part, i.e. stiffness, mass and especially damping. Dynamic response of hybrid structures has some complications. One of the reasons is the different stiffness of the two parts of structure and another reason is non-uniform distribution of materials and their different features such as damping in main modes of vibration. The available software is not able to calculate damping matrices and analyze these structures because the damping matrix of these irregular structures is non-classical. Also an equivalent damping should be devoted to the whole structure and using the available software. In the hybrid structures, one or more transitional stories are used for better transition of lateral and gravity forces. In this study, an equation has been proposed to determining the equivalent uniform damping ratio for hybrid steel-concrete buildings with transitional storey(s). In the proposed method, hybrid buildings are considered to have three structural systems, reinforced concrete, transitional storey and steel. Equivalent uniform damping ratio is derived by means of a semi-empirical error minimization procedure.

Mahnoosh Biglari, Iman Ashayeri, Mohammad Bahirai,
Volume 14, Issue 6 (9-2016)

In this article, general procedures for vulnerability assessment and retrofitting of a generic seismically designed bridge are outlined and the bridge’s damage criteria for blast resistance are explained. The generic concrete bridge is modeled and analyzed with the finite element technique implemented in ANSYS LS-DYNA environment and explosion threats are categorized into three main levels. Uncoupled dynamic technique is adopted to apply the blast loads on the bridge structure, damage and performance levels are resulted based on quantitatively verified damage mechanisms for the bridge members. The results show that, amongst different loading scenarios, the explosions that happen under deck are more critical comparing to blasts initiating from over deck sources. Furthermore, two retrofitting methods 1) concrete filled steel tube (CFST) and 2) concrete jacket are applied on the bridge columns. The program AUTODYN is used with coupled dynamic analysis of a column to compare the effectiveness of each method. Afterward, more efficient method for a column is applied to the whole bridge and its efficiency is revaluated. It is shown that CFST can decrease concrete spall, scabbing, rotation, displacements and shear forces more than the concrete jacket. Considering the proposed damage and performance levels, the bridge retrofitted with CFST reacts with lower damage level and higher performance level to blast loads.

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