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Showing 7 results for Deviatoric Stress

S.n. Moghaddas Tafreshi, A. Asakereh,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (12-2007)

Conventional investigations on the behavior of reinforced and unreinforced soils are often investigated at the failure point. In this paper, a new concept of comparison of the behavior of reinforced and unreinforced soil by estimating the strength and strength ratio (deviatoric stress of reinforced sample to unreinforced sample) at various strain levels is proposed. A comprehensive set of laboratory triaxial compression tests was carried out on wet (natural water content) non-plastic beach silty sand with and without geotextile. The layer configurations used are one, two, three and four horizontal reinforcing layers in a triaxial test sample. The influences of the number of geotextile layers and confining pressure at 3%, 6%, 9%, 12% and 15% of the imposed strain levels on sample were studied and described. The results show that the trend and magnitude of strength ratio is different for various strain level. It implies that using failure strength from peak point or strength corresponding to the axial-strain approximately 15% to evaluate the enhancement of strength or strength ratio due to reinforcement may cause hazard and uncertainty in practical design. Hence, it is necessary to consider the strength of reinforced sample compared with unreinforced sample at the imposed strain level. Only one type of soil and one type of geotextile were used in all tests.
M.a. Khan, A. Usmani, S.s. Shah, H. Abbas,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (6-2008)

In the present investigation, the cyclic load deformation behaviour of soil-fly ash layered system is

studied using different intensities of failure load (I = 25%, 50% and 75%) with varying number of cycles (N =

10, 50 and 100). An attempt has been made to establish the use of fly ash as a fill material for embankments of

Highways and Railways and to examine the effect of cyclic loading on the layered samples of soil and fly ash.

The number of cycles, confining pressures and the intensity of loads at which loading unloading has been

performed were varied. The resilient modulus, permanent strain and cyclic strength factor are evaluated from

the test results and compared to show their variation with varying stress levels. The nature of stress-strain

relationship is initially linear for low stress levels and then turns non-linear for high stress levels. The test

results reveal two types of failure mechanisms that demonstrate the dependency of consolidated undrained

shear strength tests of soil-fly ash matrix on the interface characteristics of the layered soils under cyclic

loading conditions. Data trends indicate greater stability of layered samples of soil-fly ash matrix in terms of

failure load (i) at higher number of loading-unloading cycles, performed at lower intensity of deviatoric stress,

and (ii) at lower number of cycles but at higher intensity of deviatoric stress.

H. Shahnazari, M. A. Shahin, M. A. Tutunchian,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (1-2014)

Due to the heterogeneous nature of granular soils and the involvement of many effective parameters in the geotechnical behavior of soil-foundation systems, the accurate prediction of shallow foundation settlements on cohesionless soils is a complex engineering problem. In this study, three new evolutionary-based techniques, including evolutionary polynomial regression (EPR), classical genetic programming (GP), and gene expression programming (GEP), are utilized to obtain more accurate predictive settlement models. The models are developed using a large databank of standard penetration test (SPT)-based case histories. The values obtained from the new models are compared with those of the most precise models that have been previously proposed by researchers. The results show that the new EPR and GP-based models are able to predict the foundation settlement on cohesionless soils under the described conditions with R2 values higher than 87%. The artificial neural networks (ANNs) and genetic programming (GP)-based models obtained from the literature, have R2 values of about 85% and 83%, respectively which are higher than 80% for the GEP-based model. A subsequent comprehensive parametric study is further carried out to evaluate the sensitivity of the foundation settlement to the effective input parameters. The comparison results prove that the new EPR and GP-based models are the most accurate models. In this study, the feasibility of the EPR, GP and GEP approaches in finding solutions for highly nonlinear problems such as settlement of shallow foundations on granular soils is also clearly illustrated. The developed models are quite simple and straightforward and can be used reliably for routine design practice.
Farzin Kalantary, Javad Sadoghi Yazdi, Hossein Bazazzadeh,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (7-2014)

In comparison with other geomaterials, constitutive modeling of rockfill materials and its validation is more complicated. This is principally due to the existence of more intricate phenomena such as particle crushing, as well as laboratory test limitations. These issues have necessitated developing more complex constitutive models, with many parameters. Regardless of the type of model, the calibrations of the parameters in such models are considered as one of the most important and challenging steps in the application of the model. Therefore, the need for comprehensive and rapid methods for evaluation of optimum parameters of the models is deemed necessary. In this paper, a Neuro-Fuzzy model in conjunction with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is used for calibration of the twelve parameters of Hierarchical Single Surface (HISS) constitutive model based on the Disturbed State Concept (DSC). The Neuro-fuzzy system is used to provide a high-degree nonlinear regression model between the deviatoric stress and volumetric strain versus axial strain that has been obtained from consolidated drained large scale tri-axial tests on rockfill materials. The model parameters are determined in an iterative optimized loop with PSO and ANFIS such that the equations of DSC/HISS are simultaneously satisfied. Material data used in this study are gathered from the results of large tri-axial tests for two rockfill dams in Iran. It is shown that the proposed method has higher accuracy and more importantly its robustness is exhibited through test predictions. The achieved improvement is substantiated in a comparison with the more widely used "Least-Square" method.
Mr. Mehdi Goorani, Dr. Amir Hamidi,
Volume 13, Issue 2 (6-2015)

This paper presents a model for prediction of the mechanical behavior of sand-gravel mixtures using generalized plasticity and critical state concepts. Proposed model is based on the difference between critical state lines of sand and sand-gravel mixture in e-Lnp' plane. A generalized plasticity model is considered as the base model for sandy soil. Its state parameter, dilation rate and hardening function are modified to involve the effects of gravel particles on the behavior of mixture. Gravel content is considered as a physical parameter for determination of four new added parameters of the model. Verification of the proposed model performed considering four sets of experiments conducted by different researchers on poorly graded sand-gravel mixtures. According to the results, proposed model provides satisfactory qualitative and quantitative predictions of the behavior of sand-gravel mixture. Stress- strain behavior besides volumetric strains in drained condition and induced pore pressure during undrained loading are satisfactory predicted which indicates the possibility of its application in boundary value problems of geotechnical engineering.
M. Mojezi, M.k. Jafari, M. Biglari,
Volume 13, Issue 3 (12-2015)

Experimental study of the cyclic behavior of unsaturated materials is more complex than that of the saturated materials due to the required equipment, experience and time. Furthering investigations in the field of unsaturated materials is necessary to better understand its complexity and sensitivity of unsaturated cyclic parameters to different determinants such as suction path, stress path, loading speed, deviatoric stress amplitude, physical specifications, and etc. To this end, the main focus of this study has been to analyze the effects of factors such as mean net stress and deviatoric stress levels in fast cyclic loading on the cyclic behavior of a normally consolidated unsaturated fine-grained trade soil, namely the Zenoz kaolin. Various unsaturated tests were performed in three mean net stress levels and three amplitudes of cyclic deviatoric stress levels. Results showed that increase of suction in the same strain level leads to increase in stiffness in normally consolidated samples (i.e. increase in elastic modulus and shear modulus and decrease in damping ratio). Also, in the same suction value and strain level, increase of the mean net stress during the isotropic consolidation causes to the denser normally consolidated samples and results to increase of elastic modulus and shear modulus, and decrease of damping ratio.

Volume 15, Issue 6 (9-2017)

To reveal the deformation mechanism during tunneling in deep soft ground, triaxial unloading confining pressure tests and triaxial unloading creep tests were carried out on sandy mudstone specimens to study the dilatancy and fracturing behavior of soft rock. In the triaxial unloading confining pressure tests, the stress path and different unloading rates were considered to reflect the unloading characteristics of the excavation methods. The unloading rate effects and the rock damage evolution law are studied. The following conclusions are obtained from the results. Firstly, when the unloading rate is smooth, the peak strengths and deviatoric stress–strain curves under the unloading condition are close to those under the conventional loading condition. Secondly, the post-peak brittle characteristics are more apparent with the increasing unloading rates. Thirdly, the soft rock undergoes five deformation and failure regimes of elasticity, pre-peak unloading damage–dilatancy, post-peak brittle drop, linear strain softening and residual perfect plasticity under quasi-static smooth unloading of mechanized excavation which is mainly focused on in this study. Fourthly, the damage evolution law at the pre-peak damage–dilatancy stage follows an exponential function. Fifthly, during the post-peak stages, multistage microfractures are initiated, propagated and finally coalesced forming a shear-fragmentation band with a certain thickness, accompanied by significant volumetric dilatancy. In the triaxial unloading creep tests, multistep unloading of the confining pressure was applied, while the axial pressure was kept constant. The results show that when the deviatoric stress is larger and the experienced creep time is longer, the unloading effect and creep characteristics become more apparent accompanied with obvious lateral dilatancy, eventually leading to significant creep–dilatancy. The progressive failure with time is caused by the damage accumulating with time-dependent crack expansion, which can be called as ‘time-dependent damage and fracturing’. The reasons for the above evolution process are presented, then the deformation mechanism of soft rock is revealed. The soft rock deformation mainly consists of two parts. One part is the pre-peak damage–dilatancy and post-peak fracture–bulking produced at the excavation unloading instant. The other part is creep–dilatancy caused by time-dependent damage and fracturing in a period of time after excavation. The above-mentioned results of damage, dilatancy and fractures evolution process are in good agreement with the in situ monitoring results and previous studies about the surrounding rock convergence, fracturing and EDZ (excavation damaged zone) development.

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