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Showing 17 results for Cracking

Khaloo R., Sharifian M.,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (9-2005)
Abstract

Results of an experimental investigation performed to evaluate the effect of various concrete strength levels on behavior of lightweight concrete (LWC) under pure torsion are reported.The principle variable of the testing program was compressive strength of concrete (�'c) which ranged between 6.9 and 81.4 MPa. Ten mixture proportions were utilized for LWC of 1500 to 2050 kg/m3 unit weight. In total, sixty four (thirty two pairs) rectangular specimens with 100x 200 mm cross-section were tested. Ultimate torsion strength of LWC increases as uniaxial compressive strength increases however the increase rate reduces for high levels of concrete strengths. The test results are compared with predictions of elastic and plastic theories for torsion and the ACI Code. The Code underestimates the cracking torque of LWC under pure torsion. A regression equation incorporating test results is higher than the ACI equation prediction by a factor of 1.12.
M.h. Baziar, Sh. Salemi, T. Heidari,
Volume 4, Issue 3 (9-2006)
Abstract

Seismic behavior of a rockfill dam with asphalt-concrete core has been studied utilizing numerical models with material parameters determined by laboratory tests. The case study selected for these analyses, is the Meyjaran asphalt core dam, recently constructed in Northern Iran, with 60 m height and 180 m crest length. The numerical analyses have been performed using a nonlinear three dimensional finite difference software and various hazard levels of earthquakes. This study shows that due to the elasto-plastic characteristics of the asphalt concrete, rockfill dams with asphalt concrete core behave satisfactorily during earthquake loading. The induced shear strains in the asphalt core, for the case presented in this research, are less than 1% during an earthquake with amax=0.25g and the asphalt core remains watertight. Due to large shear deformations caused by a more severe earthquake with amax=0.60g, some cracking may occur towards the top of the core (down to 5-6 m), and the core permeability may increase in the top part, but the dam is safe.
P. Ghoddousi, A.m. Raiss Ghasemi, T. Parhizkar,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (12-2007)
Abstract

Plastic shrinkage is one of the most important parameter which must be considered in hot weather concreting. If plastic shrinkage is not prevented, cracking will be significant, especialy if silica fume is used in the mix. In this paper, the effect of silica fume in bleeding and evaporation was investigated in laboratory. The results showed that in restrained shrinkage, beside relative humidity, temperature and wind velocity, sun rediation also is very important factor in evaporation rate. It is found that under solar radition condition, the evaporation was much larger than the estimated value in ACI 305 Nomogram. The rate of evaporaion under solar radiation was about two folds of evaporation rate under shade condition. The results showed that in terms of crack initiation time, crack width and total cracking area, concrete containing silica fume is more severe than concrete with no silica fume. Reduction of water cement ratio in concrete with silica fume makes the concrete more sensitive in cracking. The results of this project also showed that the severity of the cracking is not related only to rate of bleeding but all environmental factors including like sun radiation or shading and also mix compositions have important roles.
Mahmood R. Abdi, Ali Parsapajouh, Mohammad A. Arjomand,
Volume 6, Issue 4 (12-2008)
Abstract

Clay soils and their related abnormal behavior such as excessive shrinkage, swelling, consolidation settlement and cracking on drying has been the subject of many investigations. Previous studies mainly evaluated the effects of additives such as lime, cement and sand on these characteristics. Initial results indicated that the soil characteristics were improved. However, reportedly in many cases, these additives resulted in a decrease in plasticity and increase in hydraulic conductivity. As a result, there has been a growing interest in soil/fiber reinforcement. The present investigation has focused on the impact of short random fiber inclusion on consolidation settlement, swelling, hydraulic conductivity, shrinkage limit and the development of desiccation cracks in compacted clays. To examine the possible improvements in the soil characteristics, samples consisting of 75% kaolinite and 25% montmorillonite were reinforced with 1, 2, 4 and 8 percent fibers as dry weight of soil with 5, 10 and 15mm lengths. Results indicated that consolidation settlements and swelling of fiber reinforced samples reduced substantially whereas hydraulic conductivities increased slightly by increasing fiber content and length. Shrinkage limits also showed an increase with increasing fiber content and length. This meant that samples experienced much less volumetric changes due to desiccation, and the extent of crack formation was significantly reduced.
A. Khodaii, Sh. Fallah,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (6-2009)
Abstract

An experimental program was conducted to determine the effects of geosynthetic reinforcement on mitigating reflection cracking in asphalt overlays. The objectives of this study were to asses the effects of geosynthetics inclusion and its placement location on the accumulation of permanent deformation. To simulate an asphalt pavement overlaid on top of a crack in a concrete or asphalt pavement, an asphalt mixture specimen was placed on top of two discontinuous concrete or asphalt concrete blocks with 100 mm height. Four types of specimens were prepared with respect to the location of geogrid: (I) Unreinforced samples, which served as control specimen, (II) Samples with geogrid embedded on the concrete or asphalt concrete block, (III) Samples with geogrid embeded one-thired depth of asphalt concrete from bottom, (IV) Samples with geogrid embedded in the middle of the asphalt beam. Each specimen was then placed on the rubber foundation in order to be tested. Simulated- repeated loading was applied to the asphalt mixture specimens using a hydraulic dynamic loading frame. Each experiment was recorded in its entirety by a video camera to allow the physical observation of reflection crack formation and propagation. This study revealed that geosynthetic reinforced specimens exhibited resistance to reflection cracking. Placing the geogrid at the one- third depth of overlay thickness had the maximum predicted service life. Results indicate a significant reduction in the rate of crack propagation and rutting in reinforced samples compared to unreinforced samples.
M. Mazloom ,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (9-2010)
Abstract

 According to the Iranian code of practice for seismic resistant design of buildings, soft storey phenomenon happens in a storey when the lateral stiffness of the storey is lower than 70% of the stiffness of the upper storey, or if it is lower than 80% of the average stiffness of the three upper stories. In the combined structural systems containing moment frames and shear walls, it is possible that the shear walls of the lower stories crack however, this cracking may not occur in the upper stories. The main objective of this research is to investigate the possibility of having soft storey phenomenon in the storey, which is bellow the uncracked walls. If the tension stresses of shear walls obtained from ultimate load combinations exceed the rupture modulus of concrete, the walls are assumed to be cracked. For calculating the tension stresses of shear walls in different conditions, 10 concrete structures containing 15 stories were studied. Each of the structures was investigated according to the obligations of Iranian, Canadian, and American concrete building codes. Five different compressive strengths of 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 MPa were assumed for the concrete of the structures. In other words, 150 computerized analyses were conducted in this research. In each analysis, 5 load combinations were imposed to the models. It means, the tension stresses of the shear walls in each storey, were calculated 750 times. The average wall to total stiffness ratios of the buildings were from 0.49 to 0.95, which was quite a wide range. The final conclusion was that the soft storey phenomenon did not happen in any of the structures investigated in this research. 


Afshin Firouzi, Ali Reza Rahai,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (9-2011)
Abstract

Corrosion of reinforcement due to frequently applied deicing salts is the major source of deterioration of concrete bridge decks, e.g. severe cracking and spalling of the concrete cover. Since crack width is easily recordable in routine visual inspections there is a motivation to use it as an appropriate indicator of condition of RC bridge elements in decision making process of bridge management. While few existing research in literature dealing with spatial variation of corrosion-induced cracking of RC structures is based on empirical models, in this paper the extent and likelihood of severe cracking of a hypothetical bridge deck during its lifetime is calculated based on a recently proposed analytical model for corrosion-induced crack width. Random field theory has been utilized to account for spatial variations of surface chloride concentration, as environmental parameter, and concrete compressive strength and cover depth as design parameters. This analysis enables to track evolution of cracking process, spatially and temporally, and predict the time for the first repair of bridge deck based on acceptable extent of cracked area. Furthermore based on a sensitivity analysis it is concluded that increasing cover depth has a very promising effect in delaying corrosion phenomenon and extension of the service life of bridge decks.


R. Ahmadii, P. Ghoddousi, M. Sharifi,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (12-2012)
Abstract

The main objective of this study is to drive a simple solution for prediction of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) behavior

under four point bending test (FPBT). In this model all the force components at the beam section (before and after cracking)

are formulated by applying these assumptions: a bilinear elastic-perfectly plastic stress-strain response for concrete behavior

in compression, a linear response for the un-cracked tension region in a concrete constitutive model, and an exponential

relationship for stress-crack opening in the crack region which requires two parameters.Then the moment capacity of the critical

cracked section is calculated by applying these assumptions and satisfying equilibrium lawat critical cracked section. After that,

parametric studies have been done on the behavior of SFRC to assess the sensitively of model. Finally the proposed model has

been validated with some existing experimental tests.The result shows that the proposed solution is able to estimate the behavior

of SFRC under FPBT with simplicity and proper accuracy.


A. Arabzadeh, R. Aghayari, Ali A. R. Rahai,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (12-2012)
Abstract

Strut-and-Tie Model (STM) can be used to model the flow of compression within a concrete strut. Concrete struts are formed

in various shapes such as prismatic or bottle-shaped. In order to study the behavior of concrete struts, a series of simple tests

were performed. Eighteen reinforced concrete isolated struts with compressive strength of 65 MPa were tested up failure under

point loading in the plane of specimens. The tested specimens were reinforced by various reinforcement layouts. The behavior

of tested beams was investigated. Observations were made on transverse displacement, primary cracking and ultimate failure

load and distribution of strain on the face of tested panels. Based on these observations, the geometry of the concrete struts was

examined. a new model to analysis of concrete struts was proposed based on modified compression field theory (MCFT). A

database of 44 tested specimens was compiled to evaluate the proposed model. The results indicate that using the ACI and CSA

codes expressions regarding the amount of minimum required reinforcement in a strut produces conservative but erratic results

when compared with the test data. Conversely, the new proposed model presents a more accurate prediction for the strength of

44 tested struts.


Seyed B. Beheshti-Aval,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (12-2012)
Abstract

A comparison between design codes i.e. ACI and AISC-LRFD in evaluation of flexural strength of concrete filled steel tubular

columns (CFTs) is examined. For this purpose an analytical study on the response of CFTs under axial-flexural loading is carried

using three-dimensional finite elements with elasto-plastic model for concrete with cracking and crushing capability and elastoplastic

kinematic hardening model for steel. The accuracy of the model is verified against previous test results. The nonlinear

modeling of CFT columns shows that the minimum thickness that recommended by ACI and AISC-LRFD to prevent local buckling

before the steel shell yielding for CFT columns could be decreased. The comparison of analytical results and codes indicates that

the accuracy of ACI method in estimation of axial-flexural strength of CFT columns is more appropriate than AISC-LRFD. The

ACI lateral strength of CFTs is located on upper bond of the AISC-LRFD’s provisions. AISC-LRFD estimates the lateral strength

conservatively but ACI in some ranges such as in short columns or under high axial load levels computes lateral strength in nonconservative

manner. Supplementary provisions for post local buckling strength of CFT columns should be incorporated in high

seismic region. This effect would be pronounced for column with high aspect ratio and short columns.


A. R. Rahai, S. Fallah Nafari,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (12-2013)
Abstract

The seismic behavior of frame bridges is generally evaluated using nonlinear static analysis with different plasticity models hence this paper tends to focus on the effectiveness of the two most common nonlinear modeling approaches comprising of concentrated and distributed plasticity models. A three-span prestressed concrete frame bridge in Tehran, Iran, including a pair of independent parallel bridge structures was selected as the model of the study. The parallel bridges were composed of identical decks with the total length of 215 meters supported on different regular and irregular substructures with non-prismatic piers. To calibrate the analytical modeling, a large-scale experimental and analytical seismic study on a two-span reinforced concrete bridge system carried out at the University of Nevada Reno was used. The comparison of the results shows the accuracy of analytical studies. In addition, close correlation between results obtained from two nonlinear modeling methods depicts that the lumped plasticity approach can be decisively considered as the useful tool for the nonlinear modeling of non-prismatic bridge piers with hollow sections due to its simple modeling assumption and less computational time.
M. S. Lee, T. S. Seo,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (3-2014)
Abstract

Because thin plate reinforced concrete members such as walls and slabs are greatly influenced by the drying shrinkage, cracks can occur in these members due to the restraint of the volume change caused by drying shrinkage. Therefore, the control of cracking due to drying shrinkage is very important in building construction that the thin plate members are frequently used. However, few researches of estimating shrinkage cracking in RC walls have been executed, and the cracking control design of RC walls has been conducted based on the experience rather than the quantitative design method. In this study, the practical cracking prediction method using equivalent bond-loss length Lb was proposed for the quantitative drying shrinkage crack control of RC wall. The calculated values using proposed method were compared with the experimental results from uniaxial restrained shrinkage cracking specimens and the investigative values from the field study. In general, the results of this method were close to those of the experiment and the field study.
Guray Arslan, Muzaffer Borekci, Muzaffer Balci, Melih Hacisalihoglu,
Volume 14, Issue 3 (4-2016)
Abstract

The contribution of concrete to inelastic deformation capacity and shear strength of reinforced concrete (RC) columns failing in shear has been investigated extensively by various researchers. Although RC members are designed to have shear strengths much greater than their flexural strengths to ensure flexural failure according to the current codes, shear degradation of RC columns failing in flexure has not been studied widely. The aim of this study is to investigate the shear degradation of RC columns using finite element analyses (FEA). The results of FEA are compared with the results of experimental studies selected from literature, and it is observed that the lateral load-deflection curves of analysed columns are compatible with the experimental results. Twenty-six RC columns were analysed under monotonically increasing loads to determine the concrete contribution to shear strength. The results of analyses indicate that increasing the ratio of shear to flexural strength reduces the concrete contribution to shear strength of the columns.


Tao Ma,
Volume 14, Issue 5 (7-2016)
Abstract

This study focused on the design of heat-resistant asphalt mixture for permafrost regions. Vermiculite powder with low thermal conductivity was used to replace some of the fine aggregates in asphalt mixture to lower the thermal conductivity of asphalt mixture. Asphalt mixtures with different mass ratios (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12%) of vermiculite powder were prepared for performance and thermal property evaluation. Wheel tracking test, low-temperature bending beam test, freeze-thaw splitting test and fatigue test were conducted to evaluate the influences of vermiculite powder on the high-temperature rutting resistance, low-temperature cracking resistance, moisture stability and anti-fatigue performance of asphalt mixture. Mathis TCI analyzer was used to analyze the influences of vermiculite powder on the thermal conductivity of asphalt mixture. Temperature monitor system was used to figure out the influences of vermiculite powder on the inside temperature of asphalt mixture. It is proved that vermiculite powder has no significant influences on the performances of asphalt mixture while it obviously affects the thermal property of asphalt mixture. By addition of 9% to 12% vermiculite powder in asphalt mixture, the performances of asphalt mixture can still well meet the performance requirements for permafrost regions the thermal conductivity can be reduced by 40% to 55% and the inside temperature of asphalt mixture can be lowered by 1 to 2°C. It proves the feasibility by using vermiculite powder to produce heat-resistant asphalt mixture for permafrost regions.


Vahid Broujerdian, Mohammad T. Kazemi,
Volume 14, Issue 8 (12-2016)
Abstract

Complex nature of diagonal tension accompanied by formation of new cracks as well as closing and propagating preexisting cracks has deterred researchers to achieve an analytical and mathematical procedure for accurate predicting shear behavior of reinforced concrete, and there is the lack of a unique theory accepted universally. Shear behavior of reinforced concrete is studied in this paper based on recently developed constitutive laws for normal strength concrete and mild steel bars using nonlinear finite element method. The salient feature of these stress-strain relations is to account the interactive effects of concrete and embedded bars on each other in a smeared rotating crack approach. Implementing the considered constitutive laws into an efficient secant-stiffness based finite element algorithm, a procedure for nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete is achieved. The resulted procedure is capable of predicting load-deformation behavior, cracking pattern, and failure mode of reinforced concrete. Corroboration with data from shear-critical beam test specimens with a wide range of properties showed the model to predict responses with a good accuracy. The results were also compared with those from the well-known theory of modified compression field and its extension called disturbed stress field model which revealed the present study to provide more accurate predictions. 


Takayoshi Maruyama, Hideaki Karasawa, Shin-Ichiro Hashimoto, Shigeyuki Date,
Volume 15, Issue 2 (3-2017)
Abstract

Pre-cast concrete products are sometimes manufactured in 2 cycles per day with one mold for the purpose of productivity improvement and so forth. In such a case, from the point of view of securing early-time strength which is required at the time of demolding, it is necessary to increase steam curing temperature and then the likelihood of temperature cracking becomes a concern. Moreover, self-compacting concrete (hereinafter refer as “SCC”) is increasingly used to which ground granulated blast-furnace slag is added, in consideration of environment surrounding a plant or operation environment. One choice then is to admix expansive agent in order to prevent cracking due to autogenous shrinkage. However, there is some possibility that high temperature curing required for 2 cycles per day production likely enhances cracking due to expansive agent admixing. In this study, the cause of cracking of large-sized pre-cast concrete products with high amount of expansive agent, in comparison of 1 cycle per day and 2 cycles per day productions was investigated.

As the result, it was confirmed that high temperature steam curing and early demolding of 2 cycles per day production promote thermal stress cracking in contrast to 1 cycle per day production, and at the same time, un expected cracking along main reinforcement is caused by excess expansion due to inappropriate curing of expansive agent.


Muhammad Yousaf, Zahid Ahmed Siddiqi, Muhammad Burhan Sharif, Asad Ullah Qazi,
Volume 15, Issue 4 (6-2017)
Abstract

In this study, a comparison is made between force and displacement controlled non-linear FE analyses for an RC beam in flexure with partially developed steel bars. An FE model with slightly unsymmetrical reinforcement was analyzed by applying two-point loading using both force and displacement controlled methods. The responses obtained using ANSYS-13 were validated against available experimental data. Combined comparative display of flexural response of the beam using force and displacement controlled analysis, that has least been addressed in the literature, is given here. Study choses large-deformation-nonlinear plastic analysis scheme, discrete modeling approach for material modeling and program-chosen incremental scheme following Newton-Raphson method. The results show that displacement controlled approach is efficient in terms of time saving and less disk space requirement along with the ability to give falling branch of load-deflection response, if element displacement capacity still exists. Moreover, it gives an early estimate of the load carrying capacity of the structural element along with suitable values of convergence and non-linear solution parameters. However, for a beam with unsymmetrical detailing, force controlled analysis method seems to yield more realistic and practical results in terms of mid span deflection and beam cracking behavior compared with assumed symmetric displacement controlled technique. It also gives true fracture prediction at ultimate load level, which is not true for the displacement controlled method as the computer code forces the model to maintain equal displacements at two load points, falsely increasing the capacity of the beam.



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