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Showing 47 results for Compressive Strength

A.r. Khaloo, Molaee A.,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (12-2003)

An experimental program was carried out to investigate the behavior of steel, fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) under abrasion and cycles of freeze and them. Compression and flexural tests were also performed in order to reach a comprehensive conclusion of the response. In total, over 200 specimens were tested The test variables included two concrete strength., (i. e., 28 MPa as Normal Strength (NSFRC) and 42 MPa as Medium Strength (MSFRC)), four volumetric percentage of fibers (i.e., 0%, 0,5%, 1.0% and 1.5%) and two fiber lengths (i.e.. 25mm and 35rnrn).Cube specimens were tested according to ASTM C6661n-ocedrrre B using 100 cycles of freeze and thaw. The Los Angeles test method for testing aggregate was used to evaluate the abrasion resistance of SFRC.Test results of1VSFRCptesertted improvements up to 39% and 32 % in cylindrical and cubic compressive strength, respectively. and 88�o in modulus of rupture, 57% in resistance against abrasion based oil weight loss and 40% against compressive strength reduction due to freeze and thaw cycles. The corresponding improvements for MSFRC were 18%, 16%, 48%, 53% and 46% respectively.Increase in cocncrete strength from 28 Ala to 42 MPa provided higher freeze and thaw and abrasion resistance than addition of 1.5% of steel fibers to the normal strength concrete matrix.
Mazloom M., Ramezanian Pour A.a.,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (3-2004)

This paper presents the long-term deformations of reinforced high-strength concrete columns subjected to constant sustained axial forces. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of binder systems containing different levels of silica fume on time-dependent behaviour of high-strength concrete columns. The experimental part of the work focused on concrete mixes having a fixed water/binder ratio of 0.35 and a constant total binder content of 500 kg/m3. The percentages of silica fume that replaced cement in this research were: 0%, 6%, 8%, 10% and 15%. The mechanical properties evaluated in the laboratory were: compressive strength secant modulus of elasticity strain due to creep and shrinkage. The theoretical part of the work is about stress redistribution between concrete and steel reinforcement as a result of time-dependent behaviour of concrete. The technique used for including creep in the analysis of reinforced concrete columns was age-adjusted effective modulus method. The results of this research indicate that as the proportion of silica fume increased, the short-term mechanical properties of concrete such as 28-day compressive strength and secant modulus improved. Also the percentages of silica fume replacement did not have a significant influence on total shrinkage however, the autogenous shrinkage of concrete increased as the amount of silica fume increased. Moreover, the basic creep of concrete decreased at higher silica fume replacement levels. Drying creep (total creep - basic creep) was negligible in this investigation. The results of the theoretical part of this researchindicate that as the proportion of silica fume increased, the gradual transfer of load from the concrete to the reinforcement decreased and also the effect of steel bars in lowering the concrete deformation reduced. Moreover, the total strain of concrete columns decreased at higher silicafume replacement levels.
M. Naderi,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (3-2005)

Having observed the costly failures of different cutoff walls, that had been constructed according to the mix design specified by reputable consultants in Iran, a research programme was conducted to study the effects of constituent materials on the properties of plastic concrete. The main properties, such as compressive strength, biaxial and triaxial strains, permeability, and modulus of elasticity have been investigated using different mixes, obtained from prototype production line plant, situated on site, because it was realized that the site production line and the systems employed have major effects on the properties of plastic concrete. Statistical analysis of the results, revealed the coefficients of influence of main constituent materials of plastic concrete namely cement, bentonite, aggregate and water on its compressive strength and modulus of elasticity. Having realized the cancelling effects of bentonite and aggregates on the measured properties, some equations relating the quantities of cement and water to the compressive strength and modulus of elasticity are introduced. Effects of clay and hydrated lime powder, as fillers were also investigated leading to the proposal of limits for their safe and economic use. Since most of the cutoff walls are buried structures, failure strains under both uniaxial and triaxial tests, with values of cohesion and internal friction, are also presented in this paper.
Khaloo R., Sharifian M.,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (9-2005)

Results of an experimental investigation performed to evaluate the effect of various concrete strength levels on behavior of lightweight concrete (LWC) under pure torsion are reported.The principle variable of the testing program was compressive strength of concrete (�'c) which ranged between 6.9 and 81.4 MPa. Ten mixture proportions were utilized for LWC of 1500 to 2050 kg/m3 unit weight. In total, sixty four (thirty two pairs) rectangular specimens with 100x 200 mm cross-section were tested. Ultimate torsion strength of LWC increases as uniaxial compressive strength increases however the increase rate reduces for high levels of concrete strengths. The test results are compared with predictions of elastic and plastic theories for torsion and the ACI Code. The Code underestimates the cracking torque of LWC under pure torsion. A regression equation incorporating test results is higher than the ACI equation prediction by a factor of 1.12.
M. Naderi,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (6-2006)

This paper introduces an innovative partially destructive method, called “Twist-off”, for the assessment of in situ concrete strength. In this method a 40mm diameter metal probe is bonded to a concrete surface by means of a high strength epoxy resin adhesive. To measure the concrete compressive strength, a torque is applied using an ordinary torque-meter and the maximum shear stress at failure is used to estimate the cube compressive strength by means of a calibration graph. The relationship between the results of this new method and compressive strengths of concrete cores is also presented in this paper. The average coefficient of variation of the results of this method was seen to be of the order of 8 percent and the correlation coefficients of its comparative results with concrete cube and core compressive strengths were found to be 0.97 and 0.90 respectively. In order to assess the performance of this method on site, tests were undertaken on a number of buildings. Although the method was found to perform well but with some of the structures tested, the differences between the strengths of sample cubes and estimated in situ compressive strength of concrete were seen to be significant.
A. Foroughi-Asl, S. Dilmaghani, H. Famili,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (3-2008)

Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) is a highly fluid yet stable concrete that can flow consistently under its own weight, pass between bars, and fill in formwork without the need of compaction. The application of SCC effectively resolves the difficulties of concreting in situations with complicated formwork and congested reinforcements. In this paper, the bond between SCC and steel reinforcement was investigated. The bonding strengths of reinforcing bars were measured using cubic specimens of SCC and of normal concrete. The SCC specimens were cast without applying compaction, whereas the specimens of normal concrete were cast by conventional practice with substantial compaction and vibration. The results showed that SCC specimens generated higher bond to reinforcing bars than normal concrete specimens and the correlation between bond strength and compressive strength of NC is more consistent.
A.a. Ramezanianpour, M. Mahdi Khani, Gh. Ahmadibeni,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (6-2009)

Rice Husk Ash (RHA) is a by-product of the agricultural industry which contains high amount of silicon dioxide (SiO2). In this research, for the first time in the Middle East, in order to supply typical RHA, a special furnace was designed and constructed in Amirkabir University of Technology. Afterwards, XRD and XRF techniques were used to determine the amorphous silica content of the burnt rice husk. Attempts were made to determine the optimum temperature and duration of burning. Results show that temperature of 650 degrees centigrade and 60 minutes burning time are the best combination. Then various experiments were carried out to determine properties of concretes incorporating optimum RHA. Tests include compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, modules of elasticity, water permeability and rapid chloride permeability test. Results show that concrete incorporating RHA had higher compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and modulus of elasticity at various ages compared with that of the control concrete. In addition, results show that RHA as an artificial pozzolanic material has enhanced the durability of RHA concretes and reduced the chloride diffusion.
A. Allahverdi, E. Najafi Kani,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (9-2009)

It has been shown that geopolymerization can transform a wide range of waste aluminosilicate materials into building materials with excellent chemical and physical properties such as fire and acid resistance. In this research work, geopolymerization of construction waste materials with different alkali-activators based on combinations of Na2SiO3 and NaOH has been investigated. A number of systems were designed and prepared with water-to-dry binder ratio, silica modulus, and sodium oxide concentration were adjusted at different levels and setting time and 28-day compressive strength were studied. The results obtained reveal that construction wastes can be activated using a proportioned mixture of Na2SiO3 and NaOH resulting in the formation of a geopolymer cement system exhibiting suitable workability and acceptable setting time and compressive strength. Laboratory techniques of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were utilized for studying molecular and microstructure of the materials.
M. Mazloom ,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (9-2010)

 According to the Iranian code of practice for seismic resistant design of buildings, soft storey phenomenon happens in a storey when the lateral stiffness of the storey is lower than 70% of the stiffness of the upper storey, or if it is lower than 80% of the average stiffness of the three upper stories. In the combined structural systems containing moment frames and shear walls, it is possible that the shear walls of the lower stories crack however, this cracking may not occur in the upper stories. The main objective of this research is to investigate the possibility of having soft storey phenomenon in the storey, which is bellow the uncracked walls. If the tension stresses of shear walls obtained from ultimate load combinations exceed the rupture modulus of concrete, the walls are assumed to be cracked. For calculating the tension stresses of shear walls in different conditions, 10 concrete structures containing 15 stories were studied. Each of the structures was investigated according to the obligations of Iranian, Canadian, and American concrete building codes. Five different compressive strengths of 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 MPa were assumed for the concrete of the structures. In other words, 150 computerized analyses were conducted in this research. In each analysis, 5 load combinations were imposed to the models. It means, the tension stresses of the shear walls in each storey, were calculated 750 times. The average wall to total stiffness ratios of the buildings were from 0.49 to 0.95, which was quite a wide range. The final conclusion was that the soft storey phenomenon did not happen in any of the structures investigated in this research. 

A. Allahverdi, B. Shaverdi, E. Najafi Kani,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2010)

:The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of sodium oxide on properties of fresh and hardened paste of alkali-activated blast furnace slag from Isfahan steel plant. The silica modulus (SiO2/Na2O) of activator was adjusted at 0.6 and a number of mixes were designed in such a way to contain different levels of sodium oxide including 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6% by weight of dry slag. The most important physico-mechanical properties of the pastes including workability, initial and final setting times, 28-day compressive strength and efflorescence severity were measured. Suitable mixes were chosen for more studies including compressive strength at different ages, 90-day autogenous and drying shrinkages. According to the results, increasing the sodium oxide content of the mixes results in increased workability, reduced setting times, and higher compressive strength. The results confirm the possibility of achieving 28-day compressive strengths up to 27.5, 50.0 and 70.0 MPa for mixes with sodium oxide content of 1, 2 and 3 wt% respectively. The measured values for autogenous shrinkage were all less than 0.1% and SEM studies showed a significant decrease in pore sizes with increasing sodium oxide concentration from 1 to 2%.

A. Allahverdi, E. Najafi Kani,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2010)

Fast set and high early strength cements containing calcium fluoroaluminate phase (C11A7CaF2) are usually produced by sintering a proportioned raw mix from calcareous and argillaceous components as the main raw materials, at reduced temperatures about 1330 °C. In this work, the possibility of utilizing natural pozzolan as the argillaceous component in the cement raw mix and in order to decrease the sintering temperature of fast set and high early strength cement clinker containing C11A7CaF2 phase has been investigated. The results reveal that the sintering temperature can be reduced to temperatures as low as 1270 °C by utilizing a suitable natural pozzolan and improving the mix burnability. The experimental results confirm the possibility of achieving final setting times as low as 10 min and 3-day compressive strengths as high as 57 MPa

Mahmoud Reza Abdi,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (6-2011)

The use of various slags as by-products of steel industry is well established in civil engineering applications. However, the use

of BOS slag in the area of soil stabilization has not been fully researched and developed despite having similar chemical

composition and mineralogy to that of Portland cement. This paper reports on efforts to extend the use of BOS slag to soil

stabilization by determining possible beneficial effects it may have on compressive strength and durability. Results of laboratory

tests conducted on kaolinite samples stabilized with lime and treated with various percentages of BOS slag are presented. Tests

determined strength development of compacted cylinders, moist cured in a humid environment at 35° C and durability by freezing

and thawing method. Results showed that additions of BOS slag to kaolinite samples singularly or in combination with lime

increased unconfined compressive strength and durability. These characteristics were significantly enhanced by the concurrent

use of lime and BOS slag for stabilization of kaolinite.

A.a. Maghsoudi, Sh. Amohamadpour, M. Maghsoudi,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (9-2011)

Considering normal concrete (NC) the type of concrete need to be vibrated after placing in the formwork, Lightweight

concretes have been successfully applied in the building constructions for decades because of their low specific weight in

connection with a high strength, a high capacity of thermal insulation and a high durability. The development leading to a self

compacting light weight concrete (SCLWC) represents an important innovative step in the recent years. This concrete combines

the favorable properties of a lightweight concrete with those of a self compacting concrete (i.e., the type of concrete need no

vibration after placing in the formwork). Research work is aimed on development of (SCLWC) with the use of light weight

aggregates " Light expand clay aggregate (Leca)". In this investigation, by trial and error procedure, different mix design of

SCLWC were caste and tested to reach a so called standard self compacting concrete in fresh matrix phase such as values of

slump flow, L-box, V-funnel and in hardened phase, the 28 day compressive strength. Based on the results obtained, for two best

so-called standard mix design of SCLWC the stress-strain diagrams are drawn and discussed. Also by three different methods,

the modulus of elasticity of SCLWC are obtained and discussed here. It was found that a brittle mode of failure is governed in


S. Bakhtiyari, A. Allahverdi, M. Rais-Ghasemi, A. A. Ramezanianpour, T. Parhizkar, B. A. Zarrabi,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (9-2011)

Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) specimens with limestone (L) and quartz (Q) powders were formulated. The influence of the type

of the powder on the properties of fresh and hardened concrete was evaluated. Dense packing theories were used for mix design

of samples. The equation of Fuller and Thompson for particle size distribution (PSD) of aggregates was modified with considering

fine particles and a proper PSD curve was obtained for SCC. Experimental results showed that this method needs use of less

powder content and results in higher strength/cement ratio compared to traditional mixing methods. No significant difference was

observed between the compressive strengths of specimens containing limestone (L-specimens) and quartz (Q-specimens) powders,

with similar proportions of materials. The residual compressive strength of specimens was examined at 500°C and contradictory

behaviors were observed. One Q-specimen suffered from explosive spalling, while no spalling was occurred for L-specimens. On

the other hand, the residual strength of remained Q-specimens showed considerable increase compared to L-specimens. The results

show the necessity for more detailed investigations considering different effective parameters.

Abolfazl Arabzadeh, Reza Aghayari, Ali Reza Rahai,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (9-2011)

An experimental-analytical investigation was conducted to study the behavior of high-strength RC deep beams a total of sixteen

reinforced concrete deep beams with compressive strength in range of 59 MPaOf'c O65 MPa were tested under two-point top

loading. The shear span-to-effective depth ratio a/d was 1.10 all the specimens were simply supported and reinforced by

vertical, horizontal and orthogonal steel bars in various arrangements. The test specimens were composed of five series based

on their arrangement of shear reinforcing. The general behavior of tested beams was investigated. Observations were made on

mid-span and loading point deflections, cracks form, failure modes and shear strengths. The test results indicated that both

vertical and horizontal web reinforcement are efficient in shear capacity of deep beams, also the orthogonal shear reinforcement

was the most efficient when placed perpendicular to major axis of diagonal crack. Concentrating of shear reinforcement within

middle region of shear span can improve the ultimate shear strength of deep beam. The test results were then compared with the

predicted ultimate strengths using the ACI 318-08 provisions ACI code tended to either unsafe or scattered results. The

performed investigations deduced that the ACI code provisions need to be revised.

Hasan Ghasemzadeh, Ms. Esmat Akbari Jalalabad,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (9-2011)

In this study compressive strength of carbon nanotube (CNT)/cement composite is computed by analytical method. For this purpose representative elementary volume (REV) as an indicator element of composite is chosen and analyzed by elasticity relationships and Von mises' criterion applied to it. It is assumed that carbon nanotubes are distributed uniformly in the cement and there is perfect bonding in the interface of cement and nanotube. At first for simplicity of computations, carbon nanotubes ( CNTs) are assumed to have unidirectional orientation in the cement matrix. In following, the relations are generalized to consider random distribution of nanotubes in cement, and a new factor suggested for random orientation of fibers in the CNT/cement composite. The results of analytical method are compared with experimental results.

Afshin Firouzi, Ali Reza Rahai,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (9-2011)

Corrosion of reinforcement due to frequently applied deicing salts is the major source of deterioration of concrete bridge decks, e.g. severe cracking and spalling of the concrete cover. Since crack width is easily recordable in routine visual inspections there is a motivation to use it as an appropriate indicator of condition of RC bridge elements in decision making process of bridge management. While few existing research in literature dealing with spatial variation of corrosion-induced cracking of RC structures is based on empirical models, in this paper the extent and likelihood of severe cracking of a hypothetical bridge deck during its lifetime is calculated based on a recently proposed analytical model for corrosion-induced crack width. Random field theory has been utilized to account for spatial variations of surface chloride concentration, as environmental parameter, and concrete compressive strength and cover depth as design parameters. This analysis enables to track evolution of cracking process, spatially and temporally, and predict the time for the first repair of bridge deck based on acceptable extent of cracked area. Furthermore based on a sensitivity analysis it is concluded that increasing cover depth has a very promising effect in delaying corrosion phenomenon and extension of the service life of bridge decks.

R. Abbasnia, A. Holakoo,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (9-2012)

One important application of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) is to confine concrete as FRP jackets in seismic retrofit process

of reinforced concrete structures. Confinement can improve concrete properties such as compressive strength and ultimate axial

strain. For the safe and economic design of FRP jackets, the stress-strain behavior of FRP-confined concrete under monotonic

and cyclic compression needs to be properly understood and modeled. According to literature review, it has been realized that

although there are many studies on the monotonic compressive loading of FRP-confined concrete, only a few studies have been

conducted on the cyclic compressive loading. Therefore, this study is aimed at investigating the behavior of FRP-confined

concrete under cyclic compressive loading. A total of 18 cylindrical specimens of FRP-confined concretewere tested in uniaxial

compressive loading with different wrap thickness, and loading patterns. The results obtained from the tests are presented and

examined based on analysis of test results predictive equations for plastic strain and stress deterioration were derived. The

results are also compared with those from two current models,comparison revealed the lack of sufficient accuracy of the current

models to predict stress-strain behavior and accordingly some provisions should be incorporated.

H. Famili, M. Khodadad Saryazdi, T. Parhizkar,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (9-2012)

Self-desiccation is the major source of autogenous shrinkage and crack formation in low water-binder ratio (w/b) concretes

which can be reduced by internal curing. In this paper performance of high strength self consolidating concrete (HS-SCC) with

w/b of 0.28 and 0.33 including autogenous shrinkage, drying shrinkage, compressive strength, and resistance to freezing-thawing

was investigated. Then, for the purpose of internal curing, 25% of normal weight coarse aggregate volume was replaced with

saturated lightweight aggregate (LWA) of the same size and its effects on the material properties was studied. Two modes of

external curing, moist and sealed, were applied to test specimens after demoulding. Autogenous shrinkage from 30 minutes to 24

hours after mixing was monitored continuously by a laser system. The initial and final setting time were manifested as a change

of the slope of the obtained deformation curves. Shrinkage after initial setting was 860 and 685 microstrain (&mu&epsilon) for 0.28 and 0.33

w/b mixtures, respectively. The saturated LWA reduced these values to 80 and 295 &mu&epsilon, respectively. By LWA Substitution the 28-

day compressive strength of 0.28 w/b mixture was reduced from 108 to 89 and 98 to 87 MPa for moist and sealed cured specimen,

respectively. The corresponding values for 0.33 w/b mixture was 84 to 80 and 82 to 70 MPa. Shrinkage of 0.28 w/b mixture

without LWA after moist and sealed cured specimen dried for 3 weeks was about 400 &mu&epsilon. Shrinkage of moist and sealed cured

specimen containing LWA was reduced 9% and 25%, respectively. On the contrary for 0.33 w/b mixture an increase was noticed.

Freezing-thawing resistance was improved by sealed curing, decreasing w/b and substituting LWA.

A. A. Maghsoudi, H. Akbarzadeh Bengar,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (12-2012)

In order to lighten the prestressed concrete solid members, nowadays, it is possible to make use of the advantage of HPC (fc'>60

MPa) as well as replacing the solid section with a PSC thin-walled section for certain members such as circular and box columns.

Using the strength theory of ACI, a numerical procedure along with a computer program was developed for the analysis of such

sections subjected to axial compression or tension load and bending moments. The program solves for all possible variables such

as, concrete compressive strength (fc'= 60-100 MPa), type of prestressed steel, concrete cover, ratio of wall thickness to the section

dimensions and the PS steel arrangements to satisfy the given loading cases, thus leading to an optimal cost solution. However,

since the cross section is thin-walled circular or box and the PS steel is located at discrete points along the periphery of a circle

or rectangle, the equations of equilibrium are complex for hand computations (especially for circular section) but suitable for

computer program. So, by use of MATLAB software the interaction diagrams were also drawn for the analysis of such sections

for all mentioned variables. The use of prestressed thin-walled column diagrams is a safe and easy tool for the analysis of such

columns. Finally, the accuracy of the proposed method is demonstrated by comparing its results to those of the available

experimental values and is indicate that the proposed method predict very well the capacity of prestressed thin-walled column.

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