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Showing 13 results for Compatibility

Saffar Zadeh M., Asadi M.b.,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (6-2004)

In this research, the Integrated Noise Model (INM), has been calibrated to perform the noise pollution evaluation in the vicinity of Mehrabad International Airport (MIA). First a conceptual model was developed to analyze the compatibility of airport noise with the land use based on the most widely accepted noise pollution standards. Second, the data generated from the INM package was compared with real data acquired from the test stations positioned around airport. Finally, the outputs of the calibrated model was compared with the noise pollution standards. The results show that more than 70 percent of the land use in the vicinity of airport are not compatible with the accepted noise levels. The generated noise contours was superimposed on the digital map of the city and the areas which violated the permitted levels was recognized. Moreover, the more noise sensitive facilities such as hospitals, schools, and residential units can be positioned in areas which have the permitted noise levels. The model and the procedure can be used to design new airports. Noise evaluation of existing operational airports can be performed by the model developed in this research.
Mahmoud Hassanlourad, Hosein Salehzadeh, Habib Shahnazari,
Volume 6, Issue 2 (6-2008)

In this paper shear behavior of two calcareous sands having different physical properties are

investigated using drained and undrained triaxial tests. The investigated sands are obtained from two different

zones located in Persian Gulf, Kish Island and Tonbak region. Analysis based on energy aspects show that

friction angle in these soils, having crushable particles, is formed of three components: substantial internal

friction angle, dilation and particle breakage angle. Dilation component is available in the two investigated

sand. Particle breakage component is a function of grains hardness, structure and geometry shape. Particles

breakage decreases the volume of sample during drained tests and creates positive pore water pressure during

undrained tests. Two investigated sands show different amount of dilation and particle breakage under similar

conditions. Simultaneous dilation and particles crushing and different amount of them result in different shear

behavior of the two studied sands. Energy aspects are used to determine the effect of particle crushing on the

shear strength. There is a suitable compatibility between relative breakage of grains and consumed energy

ratio for particle breakage.

M.h. Baziar, A. Ghorbani, R. Katzenbach,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (9-2009)

The pile-raft foundation is a combination of a raft foundation with piles. Pile-raft foundation has been widely designed, assuming all structure loads to be transferred to piles without considering contribution of the load taken by contact surface between raft and soil. Methods of analysis currently used in practice are based upon relatively conservative assumptions of soil behavior or on the less realistic soil-structure interaction. In this study the bearing -settlement behavior of combined pile-raft foundations on medium dense sand was investigated. 1g physical model test was performed on a circular rigid raft underpinned with four model piles. Numerical simulation was also carried out on the model test, using FLAC-3D, to show compatibility of the numerical analysis with the test. The obtained results showed very good accuracy of the numerical method used in this study as long as the applied load does not exceed the working load, while the performance of numerical model was relatively good for the loads beyond working load.
R. A. Memon, G. B. Khaskheli, M. H. Dahani,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (3-2012)

Present study is an extension of earlier work carried out on two-lane two way roads in the two provinces of Pakistan i.e. N-25,

N-55 and N-5 regarding the measure of operating speed and development of operating speed prediction models. Curved sections

of two-lane rural highways are the main location of run-off road accidents. In addition to that the road alignment having

combination of geometric elements may be more harmful to the drivers than the successive features with adequate separation.

This study is carried out on two-lane two- way road along N-65 (from Sibi to Quetta). Three sections are selected for study with

thirty three horizontal curves. Continuous speed profile data was recorded with the help of VBox (GPS based device) which was

attached with a vehicle to detect vehicle position through satellite signals. VBox is new equipment with modern technology in this

field and it helps in recording continuous speed profile and saving of this information on the computer as a permanent record.

Through the regression analysis, models were developed for estimation of operating speed on horizontal curves and on tangent,

and estimation of maximum speed reduction from tangent to curve. The validation of developed model shows compatibility with

the experimental data.

M. Khorami, J. Sobhani,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (12-2013)

Worldwide, asbestos fibers utilized in fiber cement boards, have been recognized as harmful materials regarding the public health and environmental pollutions. These concerns motivate the researchers to find the appropriate alternatives to substitute the asbestos material towards the sustainability policies. In this paper, the applicability of asbestos replacement with three types of agricultural waste fibers, including bagasse, wheat and eucalyptus fibers were experimentally investigated. To this end, the flexural behaviour and microstructure of cement composite boards made by addition of 2 % and 4 % of waste agricultural fibers in combination with and without 5 % replacement of silica fume by mass of cement were evaluated. The results of this study attested the applicability of utilized waste agricultural fibers in production of cement composite boards by improving the flexural and energy absorption characteristics, more or less, depending on the type of fibers. Moreover, it is found that application of silica fume in production of cement composite boards led to an increase in flexural strength.
H. Rahami, A. Kaveh, M. Ardalan Asl, S. R. Mirghaderi,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (12-2013)

In the process of structural analysis we often come to structures that can be analyzed with simpler methods than the standard approaches. For these structures, known as regular structures, the matrices involved are in canonical forms and their eigen-solution can be performed in a simple manner. However, by adding or removing some elements or nodes, such methods cannot be utilized. Here, an efficient method is developed for the analysis of irregular structures in the form a regular structure with additional or missing nodes or with additional or missing supports. In this method, the saving in computational time is considerable. The power of the method becomes more apparent when the analysis should be repeated very many times as it is the case in optimal design or non-linear analysis.
A. H. Eghbali, K. Fakharian,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (1-2014)

Portland cement can be mixed with sand to improve its mechanical characteristics. Many studies are reported in literature on this topic, but the effect of principal stress rotation has not been investigated yet. Considering the inherent anisotropy of most sands, it is not clear whether the added cement shall contribute to equal increase in strength and stiffness at vertical and horizontal directions or not. Furthermore, it is not well understood how the cement as an additive in non-compacted (loose) sand compared to compacted (dense) sand without cement, contribute to improving the material behavior in undrained condition such as limiting the deformations and the liquefaction potential. In this research, undrained triaxial and simple shear tests under different stress paths are carried out on different mixtures of Portland cement (by adding 1.5, 3 and 5 percent) with clean sand to investigate the effect of principal stress rotations. The triaxial test results revealed that the cement mixture reduces the anisotropy, while it improves the mixture mechanical properties compared to compacted sand without cement. The results of the simple shear tests validated the triaxial test results and further clarified the effect of the  parameter or rotation of principal stresses on the behavior of cemented sand mixtures.
A. Eslami, I. Tajvidi, M. Karimpour-Fard,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (1-2014)

Three common approaches to determine the axial pile capacity based on static analysis and in-situ tests are presented, compared and evaluated. The Unified Pile Design (UPD), American Petroleum Institute (API) and a SPT based methods were chosen to be validated. The API is a common method to estimate the axial bearing capacity of piles in marine environments, where as the others are currently used by geotechnical engineers. Seventy pile load test records performed in the northern bank of Persian Gulf with SPT profile have been compiled for methods evaluation. In all cases, pile capacities were measured using full scale static compression and/or pull out loading tests. As the loading tests in some cases were in the format of proof test without reaching the plunging or ultimate bearing capacity, for interpretation the results, offset limit load criteria was employed. Three statistical and probability based approaches in the form of a systematic ranking, called Rank Index, RI, were utilized to evaluate the performance of predictive methods. Wasted Capacity Index (WCI) concept was also applied to validate the efficiency of current methods. The evaluations revealed that among these three predictive methods, the UPD is more accurate and cost effective than the others.
A. Kaveh, M.s. Massoudi ,
Volume 12, Issue 2 (6-2014)

Formation of a suitable null basis is the main problem of finite elements analysis via force method. For an optimal analysis, the selected null basis matrices should be sparse and banded corresponding to sparse, banded and well-conditioned flexibility matrices. In this paper, an efficient method is developed for the formation of the null bases of finite element models (FEMs) consisting of tetrahedron elements, corresponding to highly sparse and banded flexibility matrices. This is achieved by associating special graphs with the FEM and selecting appropriate subgraphs and forming the self-equilibrating systems (SESs) on these subgraphs. Two examples are presented to illustrate the simplicity and effectiveness of the presented graph-algebraic method.
O. Farzaneh, F. Askari, J. Fatemi,
Volume 12, Issue 4 (12-2014)

AWT IMAGEPresented is a method of two-dimensional analysis of the active earth pressure due to simultaneous effect of both soil weight and surcharge of strip foundation. The study’s aim is to provide a rigorous solution to the problem in the framework of upper-bound theorem of limit analysis method in order to produce some design charts for calculating the lateral active earth pressure of backfill when loaded by a strip foundation. A kinematically admissible collapse mechanism consisting of several rigid blocks with translational movement is considered in which energy dissipation takes place along planar velocity discontinuities. Comparing the lateral earth forces given by the present analysis with those of other researchers, it is shown that the results of present analysis are higher (better) than other researchers’ results. It was found that with the increase in AWT IMAGE, the proportion of the strip load (q) which is transmitted to the wall decreases. Moreover, Increasing the friction between soil and wall ( AWT IMAGE) will result in the increase of effective distance ( AWT IMAGE). Finally, these results are presented in the form of dimensionless design charts relating the mechanical characteristics of the soil, strip load conditions and active earth pressure.

A. Komak Panah, A.h. Khoshay,
Volume 13, Issue 2 (6-2015)

To increase the safety of structures against strong ground motions and their life due to environmental issues on the earth and saving in terms of materials, it is necessary to expand and upgrade seismic resistant systems. However, more cost-effective systems which have sufficient influence on the seismic performance of structures and also more compatibility with the regional conditions, will be more desirable than other systems. One of the seismic resistance systems is seismic isolation. In the event of interest in using the seismic isolation system for a mounted building on piles, the costly construction of piles and isolation equipment shall be provided simultaneously. The seismic isolating using sleeved-piles which is generally used in combination with various damper systems, can help to overcome this issue. In this research a seismic isolator system using sleeved-pile has been studied while considering the damping behavior of the soil-rubber mixture as the only source of damping. To investigate the proposed system, a series of tests including static lateral load test, dynamic free and forced vibration tests, were performed on a model pile in a field laboratory which has been constructed for this purpose. According to results of tests the proposed system has a good deformation ability and damping characteristics, and as a method of seismic isolation is completely efficient.
Guray Arslan, Muzaffer Borekci, Muzaffer Balci, Melih Hacisalihoglu,
Volume 14, Issue 3 (4-2016)

The contribution of concrete to inelastic deformation capacity and shear strength of reinforced concrete (RC) columns failing in shear has been investigated extensively by various researchers. Although RC members are designed to have shear strengths much greater than their flexural strengths to ensure flexural failure according to the current codes, shear degradation of RC columns failing in flexure has not been studied widely. The aim of this study is to investigate the shear degradation of RC columns using finite element analyses (FEA). The results of FEA are compared with the results of experimental studies selected from literature, and it is observed that the lateral load-deflection curves of analysed columns are compatible with the experimental results. Twenty-six RC columns were analysed under monotonically increasing loads to determine the concrete contribution to shear strength. The results of analyses indicate that increasing the ratio of shear to flexural strength reduces the concrete contribution to shear strength of the columns.

Volume 15, Issue 6 (9-2017)

It is vital to control the settlement of ultra-high voltage and long span tower foundation because of the difficult construction and strict deformation control. Based on the thinking of deformation compatibility, the mechanical model of deformation compatibility between pile and soil is established. Relying on the long span tower project Lingzhou–Shaoxing ±800 kV DC transmission lines across the Yangtze River, through checking ultimate bearing capacity of existing pile foundation, it can be obtained that the present design foundation can effectively meet the upper 200–220 t load, but it cannot meet the load requirements about 300 t in the construction. The failures of tower foundation mainly display that piles cut into the soil with penetration type in the early condition. With the load increasing, the shallow soil and infrastructure gradually damage with the whole cap sinking, cushion layer destruction and the surrounding soil uplifting. As a result, tower foundation is unable to withstand the effect of upper overload and the whole tower becomes shear failure. The treatment scheme was proposed that it can improve the cushion thickness and strength combined with grouting consolidation to soil around the piles. Thus, the stability of tower foundation improves significantly and settlement was controlled within the permitted range of below 10 mm, which can meet the structure requirements. The results of numerical simulation based on deformation compatibility between pile and soil coincide well with field measured results.

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