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Showing 25 results for Causes

F. Eftekharzadeh,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (9-2004)

According to experiences, zones of weaknesses, joint systems and sliding surfaces in rock masses, have a great effect on the deformation behavior of tunnel cross section and the stress development in the shotcrete cover. The loosening and detaching of rock due to roof deformations in turn can take progressive dimensions and lead to roof fall and in extreme case cave to the surface. In this study, the effect of weakness zones on increasing roof deformations is demonstrated and the radius of influence of such weaknesses is determined using a FE- program for 3- dimensional continuum. Furthermore it is shown that the thickness of such disturbances does not significantly affect the development of deformations i.e. if the stiffness conditions remain constant. Also the viscous material causes greater deformations than the elastic one. Finally the study indicates that tangential stresses in the lining are also increased by weakness zones.
Mahin Roosta R., Sadaghyani M.h., Pak A.,
Volume 3, Issue 3 (9-2005)

Existence of discontinuities causes higher deformability and lower strength in rock masses. Thus joints can change the rock mass behaviour due to the applied loads. For this reason properties and orientation of the joint sets have a great effect on the stability of rock slopes. In this paper, after introducing some numerical methods for evaluating the factor of safety for the stability of slopes, stability of jointed rock slopes in the plane strain condition is investigated with the strength reduction technique this method is modified and applied in the multilaminate framework. First of all, stability of one homogeneous rock slope is investigated and compared with the limit equilibrium method. Then stability of a layered rock slope is analyzed with some modifications in the strength reduction technique. Effects of orientation, tensile strength and dilation of layered joint sets on the factor of safety and location of the sliding block are explained.
M.h. Baziar, R. Ziaie_moayed,
Volume 4, Issue 2 (6-2006)

This paper highlights the effect of silt content on cone tip resistance in loose silty sand. In this study, twenty-seven cone penetration tests are performed in saturated silty sand samples with several different silt contents ranging from 10 to 50 percent. The samples are consolidated at three overburden stresses including 100, 200 and 300 kPa. It is shown that, as the silt content increases, the cone tip resistance decreases. In high percent of silt (30-50%), the cone tip resistance decreases more gently compared with low percent of silt (0-30%). It is also concluded that the method proposed by Olsen (1997) for stress normalization of cone tip resistance compared with the Robertson and Wride (1998) method has better agreement with the obtained results. To evaluate liquefaction potential of loose silty sand, the method presented by Robertson and Wride (1998) is also studied. The results showed that the use of Robertson and Wride (1998) method to estimate the fine content from CPT data causes some uncertainty especially for high silt content (FC>30%).
Faradjollah Askari, Orang Farzaneh,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (3-2008)

Although some 3D slope stability algorithms have been proposed in recent three decades, still role of pore pressures in three dimensional slope stability analyses and considering the effects of pore water pressure in 3D slope stability studies needs to be investigated. In this paper, a limit analysis formulation for investigation of role of the pore water pressure in three dimensional slope stability problems is presented. A rigid-block translational collapse mechanism is used, with energy dissipation taking place along planar velocity discontinuities. Results are compared with those obtained by others. It was found that water pressure causes the three-dimensional effects to be more significant, especially in gentle slopes. This may be related to the larger volume of the failure mass in gentle slopes resulting in more end effects. Dimensionless stability factors for three dimensional slope stability analyses are presented - including the 3D effect of the pore water pressure – for different values of the slope angle in cohesive and noncohesive soils.
Alireza Mortezaei, Ali Kheyroddin,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (3-2009)

The work presented in this paper investigates the causes of size effects in structural-concrete members. It is

based on the use of a finite-element model found to yield realistic predictions of structural-concrete behavior in all

cases investigated to date. In fact, the previous use of this model in investigations of size effects in reinforced-concrete

beams indicated that such effects reflect the dependence of load-carrying capacity on small unintended eccentricities

of the applied load and/or load-induced anisotropy, rather than, as widely considered, on fracture-mechanics

characteristics. The present work extends the scope of the above investigation so as to include the case of reinforced

concrete flanged shear walls, the behavior of which is already established experimentally. It is found that, unlike the

flanged shear walls with a height-to-length ratio larger than 2, the shear walls investigated in the present work, in

contrast with the interpretation given to recently published experimental findings, are size-effect independent.

M. Miraboutalebi, F. Askari, O. Farzaneh,
Volume 9, Issue 4 (12-2011)

In this paper, the effect of bedrock inclination on seismic performance of slopes is investigated. The study was conducted based

on dynamic analysis of different slopes, evaluation of the earthquake acceleration in sliding mass, and calculating the

permanent displacement of the slope, using Newmark sliding block. The investigation indicates that variation of the bedrock

inclination may cause the acceleration magnitude and the displacement in the sliding mass to reach to their maximum level.

This may happen in conditions that the mean period of the acceleration time history on failure surface (Tmt) and the

predominant period of the slope (Ts ) are close to each other. Typical results are presented and discussed. A two dimensional

model of a typical slope was considered and conducting dynamic analyses, the slope performance was studied for different

geometries, strength parameters and shear wave velocities. Such a performance has been studied by assessing the record of

acceleration in sliding mass (the mass above the critical sliding surface) and calculating the slope displacement using Newmark

method. It is shown that neglecting the effect of bedrock inclination, would lead to non-real results in assessing the seismic slope


N. Shariatmadari, S. Saeidijam,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (6-2012)

Bentonite-sand mixture is one of the most important candidates for engineering buffer element in nuclear waste repositoriesso
the analysis of its thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior is important for design purposes.An innovative setup of classic oedometer
was used for swelling and compression study at high temperatures in this research. A fully calibration program was utilized to
include high temperature effects on measurements. This research shows that the elevation of temperature from 25 to 90◦C in
1:1bentonite-sand mixture in distilled water reduces free swelling potential and strain about 20 percent. The required time for
equalization of swelling is less in high temperature due to increasing in permeability. Also, the high temperature causes increasing
in compressibility rate and quantity for this buffer. For detection of this effect, XRD analysis showed that an increase in
temperature causes a decrease in basal spacing. So, the particles can come near to each other more than lower temperatures and
the amount of absorbed water in the microstructure of the clay is smaller.The effect of thermal history on behavior of bentonitesand
mixture has been showed and tried to clarify it. At similar stress-temperature states, thermal history causes different
deformation in samples. The highest temperature that bentonite has been experienced, controls its behavior in the next thermal

H. Ghiassian, M. Jalili, I. Rahmani, Seyed M. M. Madani,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (12-2013)

The concept of Geosynthetic Cellular Systems (GCS) has recently emerged as a new method in construction of breakwaters and coastal protective structures. The method potentially has significant advantages compared to conventional systems from the standpoint of constructability, cost effectiveness, and environmental considerations. This paper presents the results of physical model testing on the hydraulic responses of GCS structures under wave action. A series of model tests were carried out in a wave flume on GCS models with different shapes and soil types, subjected to various wave characteristics. Horizontal wave forces acting on the models were measured at different elevations. The maximum horizontal force in each test was calculated and compared with conventional formula of predicting wave pressure on breakwaters. The results show that Goda’s equation overestimates the hydrodynamic water pressure on these structures. This can be attributed to the influence of seeping water through the GCS models because of relative permeability of the GCS.
N. Abedimahzoon, A. Lashteh Neshaei,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (12-2013)

In this paper, a new approach is presented for estimating the vertical and horizontal distribution of undertow in the surf zone for reflective beaches. The present model is a modification of the original model presented by Okayasu et al., (1990) for natural, non-reflective beaches to include the effect of partially reflected waves. The nonlinearity of waves, wave-current interaction and nonlinear mass drift of the incident wave are also included in the present model. The results of experimental investigation and model development show that existence of reflective conditions on beaches results in a reduction in the magnitude of undertow and modifies its distribution across the beach profile. Comparison of the results by those obtained from the experiments clearly indicates that by taking the nonlinearity and wave-current interaction, the predictions of undertow in the surf zone are much improved. In particular, due to the effect of turbulence induced by wave breaking for nonlinear waves, the predicted results show more consistence with the measurements.
M. Khorami, J. Sobhani,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (12-2013)

Worldwide, asbestos fibers utilized in fiber cement boards, have been recognized as harmful materials regarding the public health and environmental pollutions. These concerns motivate the researchers to find the appropriate alternatives to substitute the asbestos material towards the sustainability policies. In this paper, the applicability of asbestos replacement with three types of agricultural waste fibers, including bagasse, wheat and eucalyptus fibers were experimentally investigated. To this end, the flexural behaviour and microstructure of cement composite boards made by addition of 2 % and 4 % of waste agricultural fibers in combination with and without 5 % replacement of silica fume by mass of cement were evaluated. The results of this study attested the applicability of utilized waste agricultural fibers in production of cement composite boards by improving the flexural and energy absorption characteristics, more or less, depending on the type of fibers. Moreover, it is found that application of silica fume in production of cement composite boards led to an increase in flexural strength.
H. Shakib, Gh. R. Atefatdoost,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (3-2014)

An approach was formulated for the nonlinear analysis of three-dimensional dynamic soil-structure interaction (SSI) of asymmetric buildings in time domain in order to evaluate the seismic response behavior of torsionally coupled wall-type buildings. The asymmetric building was idealized as a single-storey three-dimensional system resting on different soil conditions. The soil beneath the superstructure was modeled as nonlinear solid element. As the stiffness of the reinforced concrete flexural wall is a strength dependent parameter, a method for strength distribution among the lateral force resisting elements was considered. The response of soil-structure interaction of the system under the lateral component of El Centro 1940 earthquake record was evaluated and the effect of base flexibility on the response behavior of the system was verified. The results indicated that the base flexibility decreased the torsional response of asymmetric building so that this effect for soft soil was maximum. On the other hand, the torsional effects can be minimized by using a strength distribution, when the centre of both strength CV and rigidity CR is located on the opposite side of the centre of mass CM, and SSI has no effect on this criterion.
A. Gholizad, P. Kamrani Moghaddam,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (3-2014)

High performance and reliability of refurbish able knee braced steel frames has been confirmed in previous researches trying to get an optimal design for its configuration. Buckling of diagonal member which affects the hysteretic behavior of KBF under cyclic loadings has not been foreseen in previous evaluations of this system. This deficiency can be improved by utilization of adjustable rotary friction damper device (FDD) as knee element. Diagonal element buckling can be prevented considering a suitable value for FDD sliding threshold moment Mf. Lower values of Mf Lower energy dissipation rate in FDD and this leads to an optimization problem. Nonlinear time history analyses have been performed in addition to lateral cyclic loading analyses to evaluate the response of single story KBF subjected to seismic excitation. Optimal Mf in FDD has been chosen according to these analyses results. Roof displacement and acceleration, base shear and diagonal element’s buckling status have been compared in optimally designed KBF and FDD utilized KBF (FKBF) with different configurations. Nonlinear dynamic analyses have been performed for one, four, eight and twelve story frames under different seismic records with several PGAs. More than 60% displacement response reduction has been earned for the FKBF without considerable increase in base shear.
A. R. Habibi, Keyvan Asadi,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (3-2014)

Setback in elevation of a structure is a special irregularity with considerable effect on its seismic performance. This paper addresses multistory Reinforced Concrete (RC) frame buildings, regular and irregular in elevation. Several multistory Reinforced Concrete Moment Resisting Frames (RCMRFs) with different types of setbacks, as well as the regular frames in elevation, are designed according to the provisions of the Iranian national building code and Iranian seismic code for the high ductility class. Inelastic dynamic time-history analysis is performed on all frames subjected to ten input motions. The assessment of the seismic performance is done based on both global and local criteria. Results show that when setback occurs in elevation, the requirements of the life safety level are not satisfied. It is also shown that the elements near the setback experience the maximum damage. Therefore it is necessary to strengthen these elements by appropriate method to satisfy the life safety level of the frames.
A. Kaveh, A. Nasrolahi,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (3-2014)

In this paper, a new enhanced version of the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is presented. An important modification is made by adding probabilistic functions into PSO, and it is named Probabilistic Particle Swarm Optimization (PPSO). Since the variation of the velocity of particles in PSO constitutes its search engine, it should provide two phases of optimization process which are: exploration and exploitation. However, this aim is unachievable due to the lack of balanced particles’ velocity formula in the PSO. The main feature presented in the study is the introduction of a probabilistic scheme for updating the velocity of each particle. The Probabilistic Particle Swarm Optimization (PPSO) formulation thus developed allows us to find the best sequence of the exploration and exploitation phases entailed by the optimization search process. The validity of the present approach is demonstrated by solving three classical sizing optimization problems of spatial truss structures.
H. Shahnazari, M. A. Shahin, M. A. Tutunchian,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (1-2014)

Due to the heterogeneous nature of granular soils and the involvement of many effective parameters in the geotechnical behavior of soil-foundation systems, the accurate prediction of shallow foundation settlements on cohesionless soils is a complex engineering problem. In this study, three new evolutionary-based techniques, including evolutionary polynomial regression (EPR), classical genetic programming (GP), and gene expression programming (GEP), are utilized to obtain more accurate predictive settlement models. The models are developed using a large databank of standard penetration test (SPT)-based case histories. The values obtained from the new models are compared with those of the most precise models that have been previously proposed by researchers. The results show that the new EPR and GP-based models are able to predict the foundation settlement on cohesionless soils under the described conditions with R2 values higher than 87%. The artificial neural networks (ANNs) and genetic programming (GP)-based models obtained from the literature, have R2 values of about 85% and 83%, respectively which are higher than 80% for the GEP-based model. A subsequent comprehensive parametric study is further carried out to evaluate the sensitivity of the foundation settlement to the effective input parameters. The comparison results prove that the new EPR and GP-based models are the most accurate models. In this study, the feasibility of the EPR, GP and GEP approaches in finding solutions for highly nonlinear problems such as settlement of shallow foundations on granular soils is also clearly illustrated. The developed models are quite simple and straightforward and can be used reliably for routine design practice.
Gonçalo Sá, João Sá, Jorge de Brito, B. Amaro,
Volume 12, Issue 2 (6-2014)

This paper presents an inspection and diagnosis system customized for rendered walls, both interior and external. It classifies all anomalies capable of affecting renderings and most of the likeliest corresponding causes and is supplemented by anomaly-cause and inter-anomaly correlation matrices. In addition, the diagnosis, repair and maintenance techniques suitable for these anomalies are classified. Examples of the files that contain the exhaustive characterization of the anomalies and diagnosis, repair and maintenance techniques are also presented. The system is the result of an intense literature review, which allowed collecting and organizing the information available on pathology of renders. Next it was validated by mathematical manipulation of the data collected from standard inspections of 55 buildings, in which 150 renderings (100 exterior and 50 interior) were examined. The system proposed may be included in a proactive maintenance strategy, since it is robust, reliable and has been statistically validated. The systematic structure of this system is innovative and can help the inspector by making his/her work more objective and standardizing procedures. Anomalies in wall renderings may be prevented/minimized if buildings are properly managed by developing and implementing proactive maintenance plans that cover the following areas: technology (adequate maintenance and repair solutions, including the selection of materials and execution techniques), economy (minimizing running costs) and functionality (appropriate use).
A. Sheikholeslami, Gh. Ilati, M. Kobari,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (9-2014)

We consider the problem of continuous dynamic berth allocation to containerships in a tidal seaport. In some container ports, low water depth in coastal area causes many restrictions on providing vessel's services. Therefore, berth allocation planning for relatively large vessels with high draft is subject to tidal conditions when the vessels are in the access channel as from anchorage area to the quay. Tidal conditions sometimes have a significant effect on possibility of entrance and departure of these ships to or from ports. Shahid Rajaee Port Complex, Iran's largest container seaport and the case study of this research, located at northern coast of Persian Gulf and has low water depth in its area. Historical data of seaside operations in this port is applied to the proposed model. This model also takes into account the variations of water depth in different berths. Simultaneous programming for two or more container terminals and exertion of priority and precedency coefficients based on vessel size and voyage type altogether are other attributes of this model. Here, genetic algorithm in combination with pattern search algorithm was used for solving the problem. Computational experiments have indicated that the proposed heuristic is relatively effective just for small size instances.
A. Ardeshir, M. Amiri, Y. Ghasemi, M. Errington,
Volume 12, Issue 4 (12-2014)

In the water industry tunnels can be used to transfer water from a basin to other areas over varying distances. The construction of such tunnels is inherently risky and can result in unpredicted events and incidents. It is therefore necessary that thorough risk assessments are carried out as a priority of the owner, contractor and consultant organization. This is so that, through a systematic and logical plan, they can risk posed by these unforeseen events and incidents. In this paper, the risks and their main causes which are often encountered in such projects are identified and assessed. A fault tree method is applied in order to identify the main causes of events and incidents. By its nature a Risk assessment cannot be defined by absolute values and so fuzzy data must be used in order to calculate the probability of incidence and the severity of the risk. This is done on the four main criteria of time, cost, quality and safety. In order to estimate the significance of each criterion and to calculate the significance of the total influence of risk Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is applied. In this paper the case study of Dasht-e Zahab water conveyance tunnel has been selected for discussion as it was subjected to severe and multiple hazards. The results obtained using the method were validated by conducting different interviews with the field experts. It was concluded that by applying the proposed methodology on the case study the risks of the project can be evaluated in a more methodical and accurate way than could be done without using the method. This approach is therefore recommended for similar types of projects where there are complicated risks that must be thoroughly investigated and understood.
S. Karimiyan, A. Moghadam, A. . Husseinzadeh Kashan, M. Karimiyan,
Volume 13, Issue 1 (3-2015)

Plan irregularity causes local damages being concentrated in the irregular buildings. Progressive collapse is also the collapse of a large portion or whole building due to the local damages in the structure. The effect of irregularity on the progressive collapse potential of the buildings is investigated in this study. This is carried out by progressive collapse evaluation of the asymmetric mid rise and tall buildings in comparison with the symmetric ones via the nonlinear time history analyses in the 6, 9 and 12 story reinforced concrete buildings. The effect of increasing the mass eccentricity levels is investigated on the progressive collapse mechanism of the buildings with respect to the story drift behavior and the number of beam and column collapsed hinges criteria. According to the results, increasing the mass eccentricity levels causes earlier instability with lower number of the collapsed hinges which is necessary to fail the asymmetric buildings and at the same time mitigates the potential of progressive collapse. Moreover, the decreasing trend of the story drifts of the flexible edges is lower than those of the stiff edges and the mass centers and the amount of decrement in the story drifts of the stiff edges is approximately similar to those of the mass centers.
M. Mojezi, M.k. Jafari, M. Biglari,
Volume 13, Issue 3 (12-2015)

Experimental study of the cyclic behavior of unsaturated materials is more complex than that of the saturated materials due to the required equipment, experience and time. Furthering investigations in the field of unsaturated materials is necessary to better understand its complexity and sensitivity of unsaturated cyclic parameters to different determinants such as suction path, stress path, loading speed, deviatoric stress amplitude, physical specifications, and etc. To this end, the main focus of this study has been to analyze the effects of factors such as mean net stress and deviatoric stress levels in fast cyclic loading on the cyclic behavior of a normally consolidated unsaturated fine-grained trade soil, namely the Zenoz kaolin. Various unsaturated tests were performed in three mean net stress levels and three amplitudes of cyclic deviatoric stress levels. Results showed that increase of suction in the same strain level leads to increase in stiffness in normally consolidated samples (i.e. increase in elastic modulus and shear modulus and decrease in damping ratio). Also, in the same suction value and strain level, increase of the mean net stress during the isotropic consolidation causes to the denser normally consolidated samples and results to increase of elastic modulus and shear modulus, and decrease of damping ratio.

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