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Showing 33 results for Beams

Khalou A.r., Ghara Chour Lou A.,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (3-2005)

This paper presents the results of analytical studies concerning the flexuralstrengthening of reinforced concrete beams by external bonding of high-strength lightweightcarbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) plates to tension face of the beam. Three groups of beamswere tested analytically and compared with existing experimental results. Results of the numericalanalyses showed that, although addition of CFRP plates to the tension face of the beam increasesthe strength, it decreases the beam ductility. Finite element modeling of fifteen different beams in aparametric study indicates that steel area ratio, CFRP thickness, CFRP ultimate strength andelastic modulus considerably influence the level of strengthening and ductility.
F.m. Wegian, M.t. Alkhamis, S.r. Sabbagh Yazdi,
Volume 4, Issue 4 (12-2006)

This study evaluates two different types of techniques for concrete hollow-block sections reinforced with traditional steel rebars and wire meshes, and compares their structural behaviour to that of an ordinary reinforced concrete beam section. The comparisons are based on the responses both before and after they were repaired with glass fibre reinforced polymers (GFRP). The specimens were subjected to concentrated loading up to initial failure. After failure, the specimens were repaired and loaded once again until ultimate failure. It was shown that the success of the repair by GFRP depended on the mode of failure of the hollow-block concrete beams.
Ali Kheyroddin, Hosein Naderpour,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (3-2007)

A parametric study is performed to assess the influence of the tension reinforcement index, ( ω = ρ fy /f Bc), and the bending moment distribution (loading type) on the ultimate deformation characteristics of reinforced concrete (RC) beams. The analytical results for 15 simply supported beams with different amounts of tension reinforcement ratio under three different loading conditions are presented and compared with the predictions of the various formulations and the experimental data, where available. The plastic hinge rotation capacity increases as the loading is changed from the concentrated load at the middle to the third-point loading, and it is a maximum for the case of the uniformly distributed load. The effect of the loading type on the plastic rotation capacity of the heavily reinforced beams is not as significant as that for the lightly reinforced beams. Based on the analytical results obtained using the nonlinear finite element method, new simple equations as a function of the tension reinforcement index, ω, and the loading type are proposed. The analytical results indicate that the proposed equations can be used for analysis of ultimate capacity and the associated deformations of RC beams with sufficient accuracy.
M.kazem Sharbatdar,
Volume 6, Issue 1 (3-2008)

FRPs (fiber reinforced polymer) possess many favorable characteristics suitable and applicable for construction industry when compared with steel reinforcement. There are new ideas to use FRPs as longitudinal or transverse reinforcement for new concrete elements particularly for bridge decks or beams. Although high tensile strength of FRP is main characteristic for applications at both areas, its weakness to bending and linear stress-strain behavior with virtually no ductility, makes it vulnerable to probably premature failures under reversal tension-compression loading during earthquake. A pilot research project has been conducted to explore the characteristics of large-scale cantilever concrete beams reinforced with FRP re-bars and grids and were tested under either simulated cyclic loading or monotonically increasing lateral loading. This paper presents the test parameters and results obtained during research. The analytical relationships are compared with those recorded experimentally, and test results showed the diagonal cracks and either rupturing of FRP bars in tension or stability failure in compression bars at long or short shear span beams. The comparison of nominal moment capacities between analytical and experimental values confirms that plane section analysis is applicable to FRP reinforced concrete members.
Sassan Eshghi, Khashaiar Pourazin,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (3-2009)

Confined masonry buildings are used in rural and urban areas of Iran. They performed almost satisfactory

during past moderate earthquakes of Iran. There is not a methodology in Iranian Seismic Code (Standard 2800-3rd

edition) to estimate their capacities quantitatively. In line with removing this constraint, an attempt is made to study

in-plane behavior of two squared confined masonry walls with and without opening by using a numerical approach.

These walls are considered based on Iranian Seismic Code requirements. Finite element 2D models of the walls are

developed and a pushover analysis is carried out. To model the non-linear behavior of the confined masonry walls, the

following criteria are used: (1) The Rankine-Hill yield criterion with low orthotropic factor to model the masonry

panel (2) The Rankine yield criterion to model reinforced concrete bond-beams and tie-columns (3) The Coulomb

friction criterion with tension cutoff mode to model the interface zone between the masonry panel and reinforced

concrete members. For this purpose, the unknown parameters are determined by testing of masonry and concrete

samples and by finite element analysis. Comparing the results show that the initial stiffness, the maximum lateral

strength and the ductility factor of walls with and without opening are different. Also, the severe compressed zones of

the masonry panels within the confining elements are found different from what are reported for the masonry panels

of infilled frames by other researchers. This study shows that a further investigation is needed for estimating capacity

of confined masonry walls with and without opening analytically and experimentally. Also where openings, with

medium size are existed, the confining elements should be added around them. These issues can be considered in the

next revisions of Iranian Seismic Code.

Alireza Mortezaei, Ali Kheyroddin,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (3-2009)

The work presented in this paper investigates the causes of size effects in structural-concrete members. It is

based on the use of a finite-element model found to yield realistic predictions of structural-concrete behavior in all

cases investigated to date. In fact, the previous use of this model in investigations of size effects in reinforced-concrete

beams indicated that such effects reflect the dependence of load-carrying capacity on small unintended eccentricities

of the applied load and/or load-induced anisotropy, rather than, as widely considered, on fracture-mechanics

characteristics. The present work extends the scope of the above investigation so as to include the case of reinforced

concrete flanged shear walls, the behavior of which is already established experimentally. It is found that, unlike the

flanged shear walls with a height-to-length ratio larger than 2, the shear walls investigated in the present work, in

contrast with the interpretation given to recently published experimental findings, are size-effect independent.

A. Arabzadeh, A.r. Rahaie, A. Aghayari,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (9-2009)

In this paper a new method based on Strut-and-Tie Model (STM) is proposed to determine the shear capacity of simply supported RC deep beams and an efficiency factor for concrete with considering the effect of web reinforcements. It is assumed that, the total carried shear force by RC deep beam provided by two independent resistance, namely diagonal concrete strut due to strut-and-tie mechanism and the equivalent resisting force resulted by web reinforcements, web reinforcing reduces the concrete compression softening effect with preventing from the diagonal cracks opening or concrete splitting. The unknown function and parameters are determined from 324 experimental results obtained by other researchers. To validate the proposed method, the obtained results are compared with some of the existing methods and codes such as ACI 318-05 and CSA. The results indicate that the proposed method is capable to predict the shear strength of variety of deep beams with acceptable accuracy.
A.r. Khaloo, I. Eshghi, P. Piran Aghl,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (9-2010)

In this paper the response of cantilevered reinforced concrete (RC) beams with smart rebars under static lateral loading has been numerically studied, using Finite Element Method. The material used in this study is SuperelasticShape Memory Alloys (SE SMAs) which contains nickel and titanium elements. The SE SMA is a unique alloy that has the ability to undergo large deformations and return to their undeformed shape by removal of stresses. In this study, different quantities of steel and smart rebars have been used for reinforcement andthe behavior of these models under lateral loading, including their load-displacement curves, residual displacements, and stiffness, were discussed. During lateral loading, rebars yield or concrete crushes in compression zone in some parts of the beams and also residual deflections are created in the structure. It is found that by using SMA rebars in RC beams, these materials tend to return to the previous state (zero strain), so they reduce the permanent deformations and also in turn create forces known as recovery forces in the structure which lead into closing of concrete cracks in tensile zone. This ability makes special structures to maintain their serviceability even after a strong earthquake

Abolfazl Arabzadeh, Reza Aghayari, Ali Reza Rahai,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (9-2011)

An experimental-analytical investigation was conducted to study the behavior of high-strength RC deep beams a total of sixteen

reinforced concrete deep beams with compressive strength in range of 59 MPaOf'c O65 MPa were tested under two-point top

loading. The shear span-to-effective depth ratio a/d was 1.10 all the specimens were simply supported and reinforced by

vertical, horizontal and orthogonal steel bars in various arrangements. The test specimens were composed of five series based

on their arrangement of shear reinforcing. The general behavior of tested beams was investigated. Observations were made on

mid-span and loading point deflections, cracks form, failure modes and shear strengths. The test results indicated that both

vertical and horizontal web reinforcement are efficient in shear capacity of deep beams, also the orthogonal shear reinforcement

was the most efficient when placed perpendicular to major axis of diagonal crack. Concentrating of shear reinforcement within

middle region of shear span can improve the ultimate shear strength of deep beam. The test results were then compared with the

predicted ultimate strengths using the ACI 318-08 provisions ACI code tended to either unsafe or scattered results. The

performed investigations deduced that the ACI code provisions need to be revised.

A. Kaveh, O. Sabzi,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (9-2012)

In this paper a discrete Big Bang-Big Crunch algorithm is applied to optimal design of reinforced concrete planar frames under

the gravity and lateral loads. Optimization is based on ACI 318-08 code. Columns are assumed to resist axial loads and bending

moments, while beams resist only bending moments. Second-order effects are also considered for the compression members, and

columns are checked for their slenderness and their end moments are magnified when necessary. The main aim of the BB-BC

process is to minimize the cost of material and construction of the reinforced concrete frames under the applied loads such that

the strength requirements of the ACI 318 code are fulfilled. In the process of optimization, the cost per unit length of the sections

is used for the formation of the subsequent generation. Three bending frames are optimized using BB-BC and the results are

compared to those of the genetic algorithm.

A. Arabzadeh, R. Aghayari, Ali A. R. Rahai,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (12-2012)

Strut-and-Tie Model (STM) can be used to model the flow of compression within a concrete strut. Concrete struts are formed

in various shapes such as prismatic or bottle-shaped. In order to study the behavior of concrete struts, a series of simple tests

were performed. Eighteen reinforced concrete isolated struts with compressive strength of 65 MPa were tested up failure under

point loading in the plane of specimens. The tested specimens were reinforced by various reinforcement layouts. The behavior

of tested beams was investigated. Observations were made on transverse displacement, primary cracking and ultimate failure

load and distribution of strain on the face of tested panels. Based on these observations, the geometry of the concrete struts was

examined. a new model to analysis of concrete struts was proposed based on modified compression field theory (MCFT). A

database of 44 tested specimens was compiled to evaluate the proposed model. The results indicate that using the ACI and CSA

codes expressions regarding the amount of minimum required reinforcement in a strut produces conservative but erratic results

when compared with the test data. Conversely, the new proposed model presents a more accurate prediction for the strength of

44 tested struts.

M. Z. Kabir, A. Hojatkashani,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (12-2012)

The aim of current study is to investigate the effect of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) composites on the fatigue

response of reinforced concrete beams. 6 reinforced concrete (RC) beams from which 3 were retrofitted with CFRP sheets, were

prepared and subjected to fatigue load cycles. To predict and trace the failure occurrence and its growth, a small notch was

induced at the middle span in bottom surface of all RC specimens. At the certain points, strains in concrete and CFRP were

measured in each cycle. The upper limit of applied load was considered at the level of design service load of bridges. In addition,

strain measurements facilitated to the calculation of interfacial shear stresses between concrete substrate and the CFRP layer.

The variation of such stresses through load cycles has been presented and discussed. Also, a discussion on possibility of the local

debonding phenomenon resulted from such interfacial stresses was presented. Load–deflection curves, strain responses and

propagation of tensile cracks provided an insight on the performance of the CFRP strengthened beams subjected to different

cycles of fatigue loading. Variation of load-deflection curves through fatigue load cycles depicted stiffness degradation which

was discussed in the research.

C. Torres-Machi, V. Yepes, J. Alcala, E. Pellicer,
Volume 11, Issue 2 (6-2013)

This paper describes a methodology in designing high-performance concrete for simply supported beams, using a hybrid optimization strategy based on a variable neighborhood search threshold acceptance algorithm. Three strategies have been applied to discrete optimization of reinforced concrete beams: Variable Neighborhood Descent (VND), Reduced Neighborhood Search (RNS) and Basic Variable Neighborhood Search (BVNS). The problem includes 14 variables: two geometrical one material type one mix design and 10 variables for the reinforcement setups. The algorithms are applied to two objective functions: the economic cost and the embedded CO2 emissions. Firstly, this paper presents the application of these three different optimization strategies, which are evaluated by fitting the set of solutions obtained to a three-parameter Weibull distribution function. The Variable Neighborhood Descent with Threshold Accepting acceptance strategy algorithm (VND-TA) results as the most reliable method. Finally, the study presents a parametric study of the span length from 10 to 20 m in which it can be concluded that economic and ecological beams show a good parabolic correlation with the span length.
R. Abbasnia, A. Farsaei,
Volume 11, Issue 3 (9-2013)

Corrosion of reinforcing steel and other embedded metals is the main cause of severe deterioration in reinforced concrete structures which subsequently imposes adverse effects on ultimate and serviceability limit state performance of the whole structure. In this paper, a new corrosion detection method for reinforced concrete beams, based on wavelet analysis is presented. To evaluate the capability and efficiency of the method, a simply supported RC beam was modeled in 3-D taking into account the behaviors of concrete, steel and bond degradation. Deflection profile and mode shapes were extracted numerically and analyzed by wavelet transform. From the findings of the modeling, it can be concluded that this wavelet-based method is capable of detecting corrosion at its earliest stage. It is also concluded that both discrete and continuous wavelet transforms can be used and mother wavelet type has no significant effect on the results.
A. Kaveh, M. Nikaeen,
Volume 11, Issue 3 (9-2013)

In this research, the Charged System Search (CSS) and Enhanced Charged System Search (ECSS) algorithm are used to obtain the optimum design of irregular grillage systems with different spacing and various boundary conditions. The cross-sectional properties of the beams are selected as the design variables and the weight of structure is used as the objective function. The displacement limitations and permissible stress constraints are employed from LRFD-AISC and are considered in the formulation of the design problem. Furthermore, in obtaining the response of the grillage systems, the effect of warping is also taken into account. The comparison of the results shows that warping changes the beam spacing, and different boundary conditions have substantial effects on the optimum design of irregular grillage systems
H. Rahami, A. Kaveh, M. Ardalan Asl, S. R. Mirghaderi,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (12-2013)

In the process of structural analysis we often come to structures that can be analyzed with simpler methods than the standard approaches. For these structures, known as regular structures, the matrices involved are in canonical forms and their eigen-solution can be performed in a simple manner. However, by adding or removing some elements or nodes, such methods cannot be utilized. Here, an efficient method is developed for the analysis of irregular structures in the form a regular structure with additional or missing nodes or with additional or missing supports. In this method, the saving in computational time is considerable. The power of the method becomes more apparent when the analysis should be repeated very many times as it is the case in optimal design or non-linear analysis.
A. Gholizad, P. Kamrani Moghaddam,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (3-2014)

High performance and reliability of refurbish able knee braced steel frames has been confirmed in previous researches trying to get an optimal design for its configuration. Buckling of diagonal member which affects the hysteretic behavior of KBF under cyclic loadings has not been foreseen in previous evaluations of this system. This deficiency can be improved by utilization of adjustable rotary friction damper device (FDD) as knee element. Diagonal element buckling can be prevented considering a suitable value for FDD sliding threshold moment Mf. Lower values of Mf Lower energy dissipation rate in FDD and this leads to an optimization problem. Nonlinear time history analyses have been performed in addition to lateral cyclic loading analyses to evaluate the response of single story KBF subjected to seismic excitation. Optimal Mf in FDD has been chosen according to these analyses results. Roof displacement and acceleration, base shear and diagonal element’s buckling status have been compared in optimally designed KBF and FDD utilized KBF (FKBF) with different configurations. Nonlinear dynamic analyses have been performed for one, four, eight and twelve story frames under different seismic records with several PGAs. More than 60% displacement response reduction has been earned for the FKBF without considerable increase in base shear.
A. R. Habibi, Keyvan Asadi,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (3-2014)

Setback in elevation of a structure is a special irregularity with considerable effect on its seismic performance. This paper addresses multistory Reinforced Concrete (RC) frame buildings, regular and irregular in elevation. Several multistory Reinforced Concrete Moment Resisting Frames (RCMRFs) with different types of setbacks, as well as the regular frames in elevation, are designed according to the provisions of the Iranian national building code and Iranian seismic code for the high ductility class. Inelastic dynamic time-history analysis is performed on all frames subjected to ten input motions. The assessment of the seismic performance is done based on both global and local criteria. Results show that when setback occurs in elevation, the requirements of the life safety level are not satisfied. It is also shown that the elements near the setback experience the maximum damage. Therefore it is necessary to strengthen these elements by appropriate method to satisfy the life safety level of the frames.
A. Eslami, I. Tajvidi, M. Karimpour-Fard,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (1-2014)

Three common approaches to determine the axial pile capacity based on static analysis and in-situ tests are presented, compared and evaluated. The Unified Pile Design (UPD), American Petroleum Institute (API) and a SPT based methods were chosen to be validated. The API is a common method to estimate the axial bearing capacity of piles in marine environments, where as the others are currently used by geotechnical engineers. Seventy pile load test records performed in the northern bank of Persian Gulf with SPT profile have been compiled for methods evaluation. In all cases, pile capacities were measured using full scale static compression and/or pull out loading tests. As the loading tests in some cases were in the format of proof test without reaching the plunging or ultimate bearing capacity, for interpretation the results, offset limit load criteria was employed. Three statistical and probability based approaches in the form of a systematic ranking, called Rank Index, RI, were utilized to evaluate the performance of predictive methods. Wasted Capacity Index (WCI) concept was also applied to validate the efficiency of current methods. The evaluations revealed that among these three predictive methods, the UPD is more accurate and cost effective than the others.
A. Kaveh, M. Maniat,
Volume 12, Issue 2 (6-2014)

It is well known that damaged structural members may alter the behaviour of the structures considerably. Careful observation of these changes has often been viewed as a means to identify and assess the location and severity of damages in structures. Among the responses of a structure, natural frequencies and natural modes are both relatively easy to obtain and independent from external excitation, and therefore, can be used as a measure of the structural behaviour before and after an extreme event which might have led to damage in the structure. This paper applies Charged System Search algorithm to the problem of damage detection using vibration data. The objective is to identify the location and extent of multi-damage in a structure. Both natural frequencies and mode shapes are used to form the required objective function. To moderate the effect of noise on measured data, a penalty approach is applied. Varity of numerical examples including beams, frames and trusses are examined. The results show that the present methodology can reliably identify damage scenarios using noisy measurements and incomplete data.

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