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Showing 10 results for Architecture

A. Kaveh, A. Shakouri Mahmud Abadi, S. Zolfaghari Moghaddam,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (3-2012)

This paper presents a strategy for using Harmony Search algorithm in facility layout optimization problems. In this paper an

adapted harmony search algorithm is developed for solving facility layout optimization problems. This method finds an optimal

facility arrangement in an existing layout. Two real-world case studies are employed to demonstrate the efficiency of this model.

A comparison is also made to illustrate the efficiency of these strategies in facility layout optimization

B.l. Kirov, N.n. Truc,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (6-2012)

Soft soil in Hanoi, Vietnam, is mainly originated from lacustrine and shallow-sea sediment. This is the youngest formation with
around 3000 years of age. To serve the research purpose, clayey soil samples at ten areas in Hanoi and some places in the RRD
are prepared. Mineral composition of soils determined by X-ray diffraction analysis shows that clay minerals are predominated
by Illite, Kaolinite, Chlorite, and Montmorillonite respectively. Many previous researches indicated that in saline-saturated
condition, types of cation in saline water and types of clay mineral in soil layers, as well as their predomination decide the
changing process of geotechnical properties in other manner. In this paper, the initial relationship between geotechnical
properties and clay mineral composition of Hanoi soft soils in saline-saturated media is established

K. J. Tu, Y. W. Huang,
Volume 11, Issue 4 (12-2013)

The decisions made in the planning phase of a building project greatly affect its future operation and maintenance (O&M) cost. Recognizing the O&M cost of condominiums’ common facilities as a critical issue for home owners, this research aims to develop an artificial neural network (ANN) O&M cost prediction model to assist developers and architects in effectively assessing the impacts of their decisions made in the planning phase of condominium projects on future O&M costs. A regression cost prediction model was also developed as a benchmark model for testing the predictive accuracy of the ANN model. Six critical building design attributes (building age, number of apartment units, number of floors, average sale price, total floor area, and common facility floor area) which are usually available in the project planning phase, were identified as the input factors to both models and average monthly O&M cost as the output factor. 55 of the 65 existing condominium properties randomly selected were treated as the training samples whose data were used to develop the ANN and regression models the other ten as the test samples to compare and verify the predictive performance of both models. The study results revealed that the ANN model delivers more accurate and reliable cost prediction results, with lower average absolute error around 7.2% and maximum absolute error around 16.7%, as compared with the regression model. This study shows that ANN is an effective method in predicting building O&M costs in the project planning phase. Keywords: Project management, Facility management, Common facilities, Cost modeling.
C. Vieira,
Volume 12, Issue 1 (1-2014)

This paper presents a simplified approach to estimate the resultant force, which should be provided by a retention system, for the equilibrium of unstable slopes. The results were obtained with a developed algorithm, based on limit equilibrium analyses, that assumes a two-part wedge failure mechanism. Design charts to obtain equivalent earth pressure coefficients are presented. Based on the results achieved with the developed computer code, an approximate equation to estimate the equivalent earth pressure coefficients is proposed. Given the slope angle, the backslope, the design friction angle, the height of the slope and the unit weight of the backfill, one can determine the resultant force for slope equilibrium. This simplified approach intends to provide an extension of the Coulomb earth pressure theory to the stability analyses of steep slopes and to broaden the available design charts for steep reinforced slopes with non-horizontal backslopes
O. Farzaneh, F. Askari, J. Fatemi,
Volume 12, Issue 4 (12-2014)

AWT IMAGEPresented is a method of two-dimensional analysis of the active earth pressure due to simultaneous effect of both soil weight and surcharge of strip foundation. The study’s aim is to provide a rigorous solution to the problem in the framework of upper-bound theorem of limit analysis method in order to produce some design charts for calculating the lateral active earth pressure of backfill when loaded by a strip foundation. A kinematically admissible collapse mechanism consisting of several rigid blocks with translational movement is considered in which energy dissipation takes place along planar velocity discontinuities. Comparing the lateral earth forces given by the present analysis with those of other researchers, it is shown that the results of present analysis are higher (better) than other researchers’ results. It was found that with the increase in AWT IMAGE, the proportion of the strip load (q) which is transmitted to the wall decreases. Moreover, Increasing the friction between soil and wall ( AWT IMAGE) will result in the increase of effective distance ( AWT IMAGE). Finally, these results are presented in the form of dimensionless design charts relating the mechanical characteristics of the soil, strip load conditions and active earth pressure.

Changjie Xu, Yuanlei Xu, Honglei Sun,
Volume 13, Issue 2 (6-2015)

In soft soil areas, equal-length piles are often adopted in the retaining system. A decrease in the bending moment value borne by the retaining structure along the pile depth (below the excavation bottom), leads to an inadequate use of the pile bending capacity near the pile bottom. This paper presents retaining systems with long and short pile combinations, in which the long piles ensure integral stability of the excavation while the short piles give full play to bearing the bending moment. For further analysis on pile and bottom heaves deformations and inner-force characteristics, three-dimensional models were built in order to simulate the stage construction of the excavation. The ratio between long and short pile numbers, and the effects on short pile length pile horizontal deformation, pile bending moment and bottom heave are investigated in detail. In the end, a feasible long-short pile combination is established. Obtained results from the simulation data and the field data prove that the long-short pile retaining system is feasible.
Z.y. Wang, Q.y. Wang,
Volume 13, Issue 4 (12-2015)

This paper presents a finite element analysis and its related experimental test of corrugated steel web beams subjected to fatigue loading. A particular focus in this study was set on the fatigue failure arising from the web-to-flange welded joint of the corrugated steel web beam. A detailed three-dimensional finite element model which explicitly includes the geometry of the web-to-flange welds along the corrugated web was developed to simulate the test corrugated web beam. The finite element model is verified by comparing with related fatigue experimental test results. The effective notch stress approach was also applied to analyse the web-to-flange welded joint replicating the local critical region in the corrugated web beam. The fatigue strength of the web-to-flange welded joint was evaluated and compared numerically by considering the stress distribution at potential fatigue crack initiation location. The fatigue life of the corrugated web beam was assessed numerically by incorporating material S-N relation and employing fracture mechanics approach. The comparison with the fatigue test results show that it is possible to expect the fatigue crack failure arising at the weld root or weld toe corresponding to the sections with reference angle using the effective notch stress analysis. The range of these predictions was evaluated by comparing with fatigue test results with accuracy and can be considered between AASHTO fatigue categories B and B’. The parametric notch stress analysis incorporating the influences of corrugation angle was performed and demonstrates it is possible to expect the fatigue crack failure arising at the weld root or weld toe. Finally, a practical solution for possible fatigue life enhancement of such structure is proposed by decreasing the corrugation angle or smoothing the intersection geometry of the corrugated web is suggested together with a moderate increase of the flange thickness.

Ilker Erkan, Hasan Hastemoglu,
Volume 14, Issue 8 (12-2016)

In this study, the usage of the Level of Service (LOS) concept, which was developed specifically for pedestrian satisfaction and safety, was critically analyzed. The focuses of this investigation were the Fruin and Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) LOS values, which were evaluated and compared in terms of their anthropometric dimensions. In this paper, new LOS values are proposed on the basis of the critical evaluation of the HCM and Fruin LOS values revealing the inconsistencies between the LOS values and the analysis. The importance of emptiness area in calculating human comfort and satisfaction in terms of the anthropometric dimensions and LOS value is also discussed. A software program called Laborer Image Analysis Software (LIAS) was developed to evaluate and compare the impacts of different body dimensions on the LOS values and on the space requirements for pedestrians. LIAS is presented as a facilitation tool for calculating more concise and effective emptiness areas and LOS values. The comfort area concept is also presented and discussed. This discussion is used to reveal the contrasts and inconsistencies in the existing usage of the LOS concept and to highlight the importance of the emptiness area approach. The paper presents a different perspective and discussion on the existing utilization of LOS levels, particularly for pedestrians in different structures. The research contributes to the LOS analysis discussion in terms of the anthropometric scale according to changing user profiles and develops facilitator(s) for analyzing and applying amendments to pedestrian needs, which can be used in transportation buildings.

Mohammadreza Sheidaii, Mehdi Babaei,
Volume 15, Issue 2 (3-2017)

Engineering design usually requires considering multiple variances in a design and integrating them appropriately in order to achieve the most desirable alternative. This consideration takes particular importance in the constructional projects of civil engineering. However, frequently, the structural designer’s considerations in civil engineering teams contrast the stylish and creative novelties of architectures. Then, we should take up new methodologies to yield appropriate alternatives which meet artistic aspects of design and simultaneously satisfy the structural designer’s demands. Consequently, the process of design should incorporate the multi-fold aspects of engineer’s requirements and their personal preference. So, in this study, we preset a systematic approach, so-called desirability based design, to perform a directed multi-objective optimal design considering various aspects of a design, based on soft-computing methods. Fuzzy logic integrated with genetic algorithm is employed to build a decision-making fuzzy system based on expert knowledge. It will be employed to conduct the designing process. Illustrative examples show practicality and efficiency of the presented methodology in structural design of several space structures.

Onyebuchi Nwabueze Mogbo, Balkiz Yapicioglu, Ibrahim Yitmen,
Volume 15, Issue 5 (7-2017)

There are challenges and opportunities of deploying policies for transport infrastructure improvement in developing countries. Transport infrastructural development remains a major tool for achieving the aspirations of the newly introduced economic principles of the Federal Government of Nigeria. This study investigates the impact of innovative strategic approaches for improved transport policy and how the strategies are well incorporated to solve the problems faced in the infrastructure sector in order to enhance improved economic growth. The research involves a questionnaire survey conducted to key stakeholders in Nigerian six states. The study was focused on the stakeholders selected from the public entities, private clients, consultants, and contractors operating within the Nigerian construction sector. Based on the empirical data, the specific ways in which innovative strategies for transport policies affect infrastructure development contributing to sustainable economic growth have been shown. The findings contribute to the fields of innovative strategies for transport policies in infrastructure development by linking various aspects of innovative strategies for transport policies and infrastructure development and their interrelationships to sustainable economic development from stakeholders’ perspective. The results show that variables of innovative strategies in transportation and transportation infrastructure improvement have different roles and significant positive impact on sustainable economic development.

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