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KHeyr Aldin A., Mortezaei A.r.,
Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2004)

Structural walls are used extensively in moderate- and high-rise buildings to resist lateral loads induced by earthquakes. The seismic performance of many buildings is, therefore, closely linked to the behavior of the reinforced concrete walls. The analytical models used in this paper are developed to study the push-over response of T-shaped reinforced concrete walls andinvestigate the influence of the flange walls on laterally loaded walls and nonlinear behavior of shear walls, namely strength, ductility and failure mechanisms. A layered nonlinear finite element method is used to study the behavior of T-shaped and rectangular (barbell) shear walls. This paper introduces a computer program to practically study three-dimensional characteristics of reinforced concrete wall response by utilizing layered modeling. The program is first verified bysimulated and reported experimental response of 3-D reinforced concrete shear walls. Subsequently, a study considering eighteen analytical test specimens of T-shaped and barbell shear walls is carried out. Finally, based on analytical results, a new equation for minimum ratio of shear wall area to floor-plan area is proposed.
Kimiaei M., Shayanfar M.a., Hesham Ei Naggar M., Agha Kouchak A.a.,
Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2004)

The seismic response of pile-supported offshore structures is strongly affected by the nonlinear behavior of the supporting piles. Nonlinear response of piles is the most important source of potentially nonlinear dynamic response of offshore platforms due to earthquake excitations. It is often necessary to perform dynamic analysis of offshore platforms that accountsfor soil nonlinearity, discontinuity condition at pile soil interfaces, energy dissipation through soil radiation damping and structural non linear behaviors of piles.In this paper, an attempt is made to develop an inexpensive and practical procedure compatible with readily available structural analysis software for estimating the lateral response of flexible piles embedded in layered soil deposits subjected to seismic loading. In the proposed model a BNWF (Beam on Nonlinear Winkler Foundation) approach is used consisting of simple nonlinear springs, dash pots and contact elements. Gapping and caving-in conditions at the pile-soil interfaces are also considered using special interface elements. This model was incorporated into a Finite Element program (ANSYS), which was used to compute the response of laterally excited piles. A linear approach was used for seismic free field ground motion analysis. The computed responses compared well with the Centrifuge test results.This paper deals with the effects of free field ground motion analysis on seismic non linear behavior of embedded piles. Different parts of a BNWF (Beam on Nonlinear Winkler Foundation) model, together with quantitative and qualitative findings and conclusions for dynamic nonlinear response of offshore piles, are discussed and addressed in detail. The proposed BNWF model (only using the existing features of the available general finite element software) could easily be implemented in a more comprehensive model of nonlinear seismic response analysis of pile supported offshore platforms.
M.r Esfahani , M.r Kianoush, M. LacHemi ,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (September 2004)

This paper compares the results of two experimental studies on bond strength of steel and GFRP bars in the case of self-consolidating concrete (SCC). Each study included pull-out tests of thirty six reinforcing bars embedded in concrete specimens. Two types of concretes, normal concrete and self-consolidating concrete were used in different studies. Different parameters such as bar location and cover thickness were considered as variables in different specimens. The comparison between the results of GFRP reinforcing bars with those of steel deformed bars showed that the splitting bond strength of GFRP reinforcing bars was comparable to that of steel bars in both normal strength and self-consolidating concrete (SCC). The bond strength of bottom reinforcing bars was almost the same for both normal concrete and self-consolidating concrete. However, for the top bars, the bond strength of self-consolidating concrete was less than that of normal concrete.
A. Khayyer, A. Yeganeh Bakhtiari, A. GhaHeri, T. Asano,
Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2004)

A two-dimensional numerical model has been developed to study wave breaking on a sloping beach. The basic elements of numerical model are Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations that describe the mean flow motion of a turbulent flow a k turbulence closure model that describes the turbulent transport and dissipation process an efficient technique (VOF- Volume Of Fluid method) for tracking the free surface motion and a new scheme developed by Lin and Liu (1999) for wave generation. Shoaling, breaking and overturning of solitary wave on a slope of 1/16 have been studied with the main emphasis on turbulence characteristics. Turbulence characteristics i.e., turbulence kinetic energy, k turbulence dissipation rate, turbulence production, pr turbulence eddy viscosity, vt and their spatial distribution during the breaking process have been discussed in great details. Spatial distribution of turbulence characteristics and the order of magnitude have been found to be in agreement with existing experimental and numerical studies. The main characteristic of plunging breaking waves, the shoreward advective transport of turbulence, has also been investigated and numerically proved.
Golparvar Fard M., Yeganeh Bakhtiary A., CHeng L.,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2005)

This paper presents a k- turbulence model for simulation of steady current and itsinduced vortex shedding caused by the presence of an offshore pipeline. Performance of the modelaround a circular cylinder above a wall with gap to diameter ratios of 0.1, 0.35 and 0.5 underdifferent flow regimes with Reynolds numbers of 1500, 2500 and 7000 is studied. The flow field iscomputed with solving the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) the seabed underpipeline is treated as a plane boundary with no-slip boundary condition on pipe surface. Thegoverning equations are solved using Finite Volume Method in a Cartesian coordinate system.Based on the numerical solutions, the flow field, vortex shedding and distribution of shear stressdue to the presence of the pipeline near seabed are studied. In addition the mechanism of vortexshedding with different gap to diameter ratios is examined with focusing on the effect of vortexshedding on bed shear stress. It is found that the k- turbulence model can well predict the flowfield and its induced vortex shedding around a pipeline hence it can be easily applied forsimulation of scour below an offshore pipeline.
M.h. BagHeripour, S.m. Marandi,
Volume 3, Issue 2 (June 2005)

Arational approach is introduced for numerical modeling of unbounded soil foundations based on coupled dynamic periodic infinite and conventional finite elements (IFE-FE). The model can be applied for analysis of various dynamic problems in geomechanics, especially in Soil Structure Interaction (SSI), where determination of stiffness properties and response of unbounded soil domains are of prime importance. In numerical SSI analysis, there exists important problems a) the discretization of natural soil foundation, especially defining the boundaries to prevent reflecting body waves and avoiding spurious results, b) the definition of the matrices related to the soils impedance functions which are essentially dependant on the excitation frequency, c) the evaluation of free field motion of the natural foundation, especially those of irregular geometry and material diversity. An efficient way and integrated solution to these important problems is found to be the use of periodic infinite elements. The wave equation of motion is derived numerically for discretization of the soil domain. Shape functions and mapping coordinates for dynamic periodic infinite elements are presented in this paper. The accuracy of the IFE is examined for the evaluation of free field motion of a visco-elastic soil foundation. Derivation of impedance function is shown and leads to the determination of dynamic stiffness characteristics of the unbounded soil medium including spring and dashpot coefficients. Application of the approach introduced here is shown by analysis of SSI for a semi-tall building subjected to earthquake loading. Other advantages of the approach are the substantial reduction in degrees of freedom involved in numerical SSI analysis, the computational time and costs without sacrificing the accuracy of the results.
M.h. Baziar, Sh. Salemi, T. Heidari,
Volume 4, Issue 3 (September 2006)

Seismic behavior of a rockfill dam with asphalt-concrete core has been studied utilizing numerical models with material parameters determined by laboratory tests. The case study selected for these analyses, is the Meyjaran asphalt core dam, recently constructed in Northern Iran, with 60 m height and 180 m crest length. The numerical analyses have been performed using a nonlinear three dimensional finite difference software and various hazard levels of earthquakes. This study shows that due to the elasto-plastic characteristics of the asphalt concrete, rockfill dams with asphalt concrete core behave satisfactorily during earthquake loading. The induced shear strains in the asphalt core, for the case presented in this research, are less than 1% during an earthquake with amax=0.25g and the asphalt core remains watertight. Due to large shear deformations caused by a more severe earthquake with amax=0.60g, some cracking may occur towards the top of the core (down to 5-6 m), and the core permeability may increase in the top part, but the dam is safe.
H. Soltani-JigHeh, A. Soroush,
Volume 4, Issue 3 (September 2006)

This paper presents the results of a series of monotonic and post-cyclic triaxial tests carried out on a clay specimen and three types of clay-sand mixed specimens. The focus of the paper is on the post-cyclic mechanical behavior of the mixed specimens, as compared to their monotonic behavior. Analyses of the tests results show that cyclic loading degrade undrained shear strength and deformation modulus of the specimens during the post-cyclic monotonic loading. The degradation depends on the sand content, the cyclic strain level and to some degrees to the consolidation pressure.
Ali KHeyroddin, Hosein Naderpour,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (March 2007)

A parametric study is performed to assess the influence of the tension reinforcement index, ( ω = ρ fy /f Bc), and the bending moment distribution (loading type) on the ultimate deformation characteristics of reinforced concrete (RC) beams. The analytical results for 15 simply supported beams with different amounts of tension reinforcement ratio under three different loading conditions are presented and compared with the predictions of the various formulations and the experimental data, where available. The plastic hinge rotation capacity increases as the loading is changed from the concentrated load at the middle to the third-point loading, and it is a maximum for the case of the uniformly distributed load. The effect of the loading type on the plastic rotation capacity of the heavily reinforced beams is not as significant as that for the lightly reinforced beams. Based on the analytical results obtained using the nonlinear finite element method, new simple equations as a function of the tension reinforcement index, ω, and the loading type are proposed. The analytical results indicate that the proposed equations can be used for analysis of ultimate capacity and the associated deformations of RC beams with sufficient accuracy.
M. Heidarzadeh, A.a. Mirghasemi, S. Etemadzadeh,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (March 2007)

A new chemical grouting method has been developed for conglomerate formations based on the experimental studies. Due to the lack of chemical grouting experience of conglomerate formations, the testing programs were performed to evaluate the performance of chemical grouting in the water sealing of part of conglomerate foundation of Karkheh earth dam using a combination of field and laboratory tests. First, the chemical grouts alone were examined with regard to viscosity-time behavior, gelation time, temperature-influence, stability, and deformability. These laboratory tests, led to the selection of the final chemical grout which was a solution of sodium silicate, water, and ethyl acetate as reactant. The second step tested grout-soil interaction: The injectability and permeability reduction of the selected chemical grout was examined in field injection tests. In this step two field tests were performed including shallow test holes without hydrostatic pressure and full scale tests under dam real hydrostatic pressure head. Based on these two field injection tests, performed in the conglomerate foundation of Karkheh dam, a new chemical grouting method for conglomerate formations is proposed and satisfactory results led to the recommendation of this method for eventually successful application.
A. Yeganeh Bakhtiary, A. GhaHeri, R. Valipour,
Volume 5, Issue 1 (March 2007)

Determination of allowable free span length plays a crucial role in design of offshore pipelines. The seabed intervention cost and safety of an offshore pipelines project are largely influenced by pipelines free spanning during the project life time. Different criteria are proposed by both the current designing guidelines and researchers there is however lack of comprehensive assessment of independent parameters affects the design length of free span. In this note, it is intended to investigate the effects of seabed formation along with axial force on Natural Frequency of offshore pipelines. Based on this assessment a new simple formula is proposed. Finally, to evaluate the result of this study, the allowable free span length of Qeshem Island pipelines is calculated as a case study and compared with those of the DNV (1998) and ABS (2001) guidelines and the modal analysis.
M. Heidarzadeh, M. Dolatshahi Pirooz, N. Hadjizadeh Zaker, M. Mokhtari,
Volume 5, Issue 4 (December 2007)

Makran Subduction Zone (MSZ) offshore of Iran and Pakistan is one of the most tsunamigenic sources in the Indian Ocean. Historically, the MSZ has generated some tsunamigenic earthquakes like that of 28 November 1945 with the death tool of more than 4000 people along the coasts of Iran, Pakistan, India, and Oman. In this study, the tsunami hazard associated with the MSZ is investigated. At first, a review of historical tsunamis in the Indian Ocean basin was performed which reveals the Makran region has experienced al least 4 tsunamis including events of 326 BC, 1897, 1008, and 1945. Consequently, since the pattern and extent of vertical ground deformation from an earthquake determines whether or not a tsunami is formed, a computer program is developed to predict the seafloor deformation due to the earthquake occurrence in the MSZ. The model was verified through run of it on some actual tsunamis so far occurred. Then, using the data of the 1945 Makran tsunami, the seismic parameters of the MSZ were calibrated. Finally, we used the developed computer program to calculate seafloor deformation at the location of Makran subduction zone for several earthquake scenarios with moment magnitudes ranging between 6.5 and 8.5. The results of this research show that the risk of tsunami generation from MSZ can be classified into three main categories, as follows: (1) very little risk for tsunami generation in the case of the occurrence of an earthquake having magnitude up to 7 (2) little to medium risk for moment magnitudes ranging between 7 and 7.5 and (3) high risk for moment magnitude greater than 7.5. At the end of the paper, modeling of tsunami propagation is performed for an earthquake scenario with magnitude of 8 offshore Chabahar, in order to give preliminary information about tsunami behavior in this region.
G. Ghodrati Amiri, F. ManoucHehri Dana, S. Sedighi,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (September 2008)

By application of design spectra in seismic analyses, determination of design spectra for different site conditions, magnitudes, safety levels and damping ratios will improve the accuracy of seismic analysis results. The result of this research provides different design acceleration spectra based on Iran earthquakes database for different conditions. For this purpose first a set of 146 records was selected according to causative earthquake specifications, device error modification and site conditions. Then the design acceleration spectra are determined for 4 different site conditions presented in Iranian code of practice for seismic resistant design of buildings (Standard No. 2800), different magnitudes (MsO5.5 & Ms>5.5), different damping ratios (0, 2, 5, 10, 20 percent) and also various safety levels (50% & 84%). Also this research compares the determined design spectra with those in Standard No. 2800.
Alireza Mortezaei, Ali KHeyroddin,
Volume 7, Issue 1 (March 2009)

The work presented in this paper investigates the causes of size effects in structural-concrete members. It is

based on the use of a finite-element model found to yield realistic predictions of structural-concrete behavior in all

cases investigated to date. In fact, the previous use of this model in investigations of size effects in reinforced-concrete

beams indicated that such effects reflect the dependence of load-carrying capacity on small unintended eccentricities

of the applied load and/or load-induced anisotropy, rather than, as widely considered, on fracture-mechanics

characteristics. The present work extends the scope of the above investigation so as to include the case of reinforced

concrete flanged shear walls, the behavior of which is already established experimentally. It is found that, unlike the

flanged shear walls with a height-to-length ratio larger than 2, the shear walls investigated in the present work, in

contrast with the interpretation given to recently published experimental findings, are size-effect independent.

R. Abbasnia, M. Kanzadi, M. SHekarchi Zadeh, J. Ahmadi,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (June 2009)

Drying shrinkage in concrete, which is caused by drying and the associated decrease in moisture content, is one of the most important parameters which affects the performance of concrete structures. Therefore, it is necessary to develop experimental and mathematical models that describe the mechanisms of drying shrinkage and damage build up in concrete. The main objective of this research is the development of a computational model and an experimental method for evaluation of concrete free shrinkage strain based on the internal moisture changes. For this purpose and for modeling of moisture losses in concrete members a computational program based on finite element approach and the modified version of Fick's second law in which the process of diffusion and convection due to water movement are taken into account, is developed. Also the modified SDB moisture meter was used to measure the internal moisture changes in concrete. Based on the obtained results, calculated humidity is in good agreement with measured data when modified Fick's second law with diffusion coefficient from Bazant method were used, and are very reasonable for determining the moisture gradient. Also, the predicted value of shrinkage strain from the proposed method is in good agreement with measured data and also the established relationship can be used for determine the distribution of shrinkage strains in concrete members.
I. Rasoolan, S.a. Sadrnejad, A.r. BagHeri,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (June 2009)

Concrete is a heterogeneous material with a highly non linear behavior, which is mainly caused by the

initiation and propagation of micro cracks within the several components of the material. The damage behavior of

concrete is usually simulated on the macro scale using complex constitutive models. The direct determination of the

homogenized material parameters is often difficult and sometimes impossible. Furthermore these materials models do

not explicitly represent effects and bond behaviors of interfaces between the several components. So in order to predict

of concrete behaviors and characteristics, it should be modeled as a three phase composite material consisting of

aggregate, interfacial transition zone (ITZ) and cement paste. The size and distribution of aggregate affects concrete

characteristics. Because of the random distribution and size variation of aggregate in concrete, the modeling of

concrete behavior based on component in meso structure is difficult and so we must use simple assumption. In this

paper with mixing design and grading curve we developed a simple method to replace real aggregate with equivalent

sphere aggregate with effective diameter. So we can use simple methods instead of complex numeral and randomness

or x ray methods to find effective diameter and use it to determine two arrangements with maximum and minimum

aggregate volume as a repeatable basical element .As a result we can use this element to modeling the behavior of

sample concrete in meso scale and three phases.

M.h. Vahidnia, A.a. AlesHeikh, A. Alimohammadi, F. Hosseinali,
Volume 7, Issue 3 (Sept. 2009)

Landslides are major natural hazards which not only result in the loss of human life but also cause economic burden on the society. Therefore, it is essential to develop suitable models to evaluate the susceptibility of slope failures and their zonations. This paper scientifically assesses various methods of landslide susceptibility zonation in GIS environment. A comparative study of Weights of Evidence (WOE), Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), Artificial Neural Network (ANN), and Generalized Linear Regression (GLR) procedures for landslide susceptibility zonation is presented. Controlling factors such as lithology, landuse, slope angle, slope aspect, curvature, distance to fault, and distance to drainage were considered as explanatory variables. Data of 151 sample points of observed landslides in Mazandaran Province, Iran, were used to train and test the approaches. Small scale maps (1:1,000,000) were used in this study. The estimated accuracy ranges from 80 to 88 percent. It is then inferred that the application of WOE in rating maps’ categories and ANN to weight effective factors result in the maximum accuracy.
H. Soltani-JigHeh, A. Soroush,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (6-2010)

Mixed clayey soils occur as mixtures of sand (or gravel) and clay in widely varying proportions. Their

engineering behavior has not been comprehensively studied yet. An experimental program, comprising monotonic,

cyclic, and post-cyclic triaxial tests was undertaken on compacted clay-granular material mixtures, having different

proportions of clay and sand or gravel. This paper presents the results of cyclic triaxial tests and explains the behavior

of the mixtures based on number of loading cycles, cyclic strain amplitude, granular material content, grain size, and

effective confining pressure. The results indicate an increase in degree of degradation and cyclic loading-induced pore

water pressure as the number of loading cycles, cyclic strain and granular material content increase. Also the results

show that the grain size has no significant effect on the degree of degradation and cyclic loading-induced pore water

pressure in the specimens. The effect of granular material content on pore water pressure during cyclic loading in

equal-stress-level was also examined. The pore water pressure increases with the increase of granular material


D. P. CHen, C. X. Qian, C. L. Liu,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (December 2010)

 Concrete deformation due to temperature and moisture condition will always develop simultaneously and interactively. The environmentally (hygral and thermally) induced stress and deformation are essential to concrete durability. To simulate the deformation of concrete caused by the coupling effect of temperature and moisture, a numerical simulation approach is proposed comprising analytical process and finite element analysis is proposed based on the mechanism of heat and moisture transfer in porous medium. In analytical method, Laplace transformation and transfer function were used to simplify and solve the coupled partial differential equations of heat and moisture transfer. The hygro-thermal deformation of concrete is numerically simulated by finite element method (FEM) based on the obtained temperature and moisture stress transformed from the solved moisture distribution. This numerical simulation approach avoids the complex eigenvalues, coupling difficulty and low accuracy in other solving method, and also effectively calculates the moisture induced shrinkage which is almost impossible using familiar FEM software. Furthermore, a software named Combined Temperature and Moisture Simulation System for concrete (CTMSoft) was represented and developed by a mix programming of Visual Basic, Matlab and ANSYS. CTMSoft provided a simple and more intuitive interface between user and computer by providing a graphical user interface (GUI). The validity of the numerical simulation approach was verified by two cases analysis.

M.e. Poorazizi, A.a. AlesHeikh,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (March 2011)

Air pollution is a serious challenge in densely populated cities. It poses a significant threat to human health, property and the environment throughout the developed and developing parts of the world. Real-time air quality monitoring and public access to related information are the key components of a successful environmental management. Mashups can be customized to adequately address the monitoring of such geographically oriented challenges. The growth of mashups has been accelerated by Web 2.0 technologies. The integration of Web 2.0 and GIS (Geographic Information System) has been highlighted by the second generation of Internet-based services that emphasizes on online information collaboration and sharing among users. The main objective of this paper is to assess, design and develop a Web 2.0 thin client application called Tehran Air Quality Reporter. The application uses Google Maps API (Application Programming Interface), Web GIServices (Geographic Information Services), and AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) to disseminate real-time air quality information through internet. Such information can improve the decisions of the pertinent environmental organizations as well as urban settlers. The software also utilized DOM (Document Object Model) and JavaScript functionalities for handling the response events and providing flexibility and more interactivity. The developed Geo Mashup includes geospatial maps and features, standard business charts, node and link displays, as well as custom visual displays. All visualization components run in any web browsers and provide a user friendly environment.

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