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Ali Kavand, S.mohsen Haeri, Arian Asefzadeh, Iraj Rahmani, Abbas Ghalandarzadeh, Ali Bakhshi,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (Transaction B: Geotechnical Engineering, July 2014)

In this paper, different aspects of the behavior of 2×2 pile groups under liquefaction-induced lateral spreading in a 3-layer soil profile is investigated using large scale 1-g shake table test. Different parameters of the response of soil and piles including time-histories of accelerations, pore water pressures, displacements and bending moments are presented and discussed in the paper. In addition, distribution of lateral forces due to lateral spreading on individual piles of the groups is investigated in detail. The results show that total lateral forces on the piles are influenced by the shadow effect as well as the superstructure mass attached to the pile cap. It was also found that lateral forces exerted on the piles in the lower half of the liquefied layer are significantly larger than those recommended by the design code. Based on the numerical analyses performed, it is shown that the displacement based method is more capable of predicting the pile group behavior in this experiment comparing to the force based method provided that the model parameters are tuned.
S. F. Eftekharzadeh, A. KhodaBakhshi,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (Transaction A: Civil Engineering September 2014)

The previous studies show that a high percentage of traffic accidents take place in two-lane rural highways and most of which happen at horizontal curves. Meanwhile the horizontal alignment is often subject to hard topographic conditions where because of economic aspects designers are forced to design horizontal curves at grades. Vertical angle of longitudinal slope reduces the normal force of vehicle on road and friction force in tire-pavement surface will decrease. This leads to a lack of sufficient driver control over the vehicle especially if the curve with small radius is located at downgrade. In this paper, the suitability of operating speed and lateral friction coefficient as geometric design criteria for horizontal curves in downgrades are studied with regard to traffic safety and vehicle stability. The investigation of speed reduction of the vehicles running on a horizontal curve at downgrade as a response of driver behavior and the use of friction ellipse theory give the available friction coefficient. Whereas the dynamic analysis of forces applied on the vehicle in curve which is located at downgrade if combined with operating speed results in the required coefficient of lateral friction. Finally, a comparison of these two parameters based on safety evaluation criteria gives an estimation of actual safety level in designing horizontal curve at downgrades with regard to AASHTO’s data in horizontal curve design.

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