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Showing 85 results for Subject: Structure- Concrete

A.r. Khaloo, I. Eshghi, P. Piran Aghl,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (9-2010)

In this paper the response of cantilevered reinforced concrete (RC) beams with smart rebars under static lateral loading has been numerically studied, using Finite Element Method. The material used in this study is SuperelasticShape Memory Alloys (SE SMAs) which contains nickel and titanium elements. The SE SMA is a unique alloy that has the ability to undergo large deformations and return to their undeformed shape by removal of stresses. In this study, different quantities of steel and smart rebars have been used for reinforcement andthe behavior of these models under lateral loading, including their load-displacement curves, residual displacements, and stiffness, were discussed. During lateral loading, rebars yield or concrete crushes in compression zone in some parts of the beams and also residual deflections are created in the structure. It is found that by using SMA rebars in RC beams, these materials tend to return to the previous state (zero strain), so they reduce the permanent deformations and also in turn create forces known as recovery forces in the structure which lead into closing of concrete cracks in tensile zone. This ability makes special structures to maintain their serviceability even after a strong earthquake

O. Omidi, V. Lotfi,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (9-2010)

 Neither damage mechanics model nor elastoplastic constitutive law can solely describe the behavior of concrete satisfactorily. In fact, they both fail to represent proper unloading slopes during cyclic loading. To overcome the disadvantages of pure plastic models and pure damage approaches, the combined effects need to be considered. In this regard, various classes of plastic-damage models have been recently proposed. Here, the theoretical basics of the plastic-damage model originally proposed by Lubliner et al. and later on modified by Lee and Fenves is initially presented and its numerical aspects in three-dimensional space are subsequently emphasized. It should be mentioned that a part of the implementation in 3-D space needs to be reformulated due to employing a hyperbolic potential function to treat the singularity of the original linear form of plastic flow proposed by Lee and Fenves. The consistent algorithmic tangent stiffness, which is utilized to accelerate the convergence rate in solving the nonlinear global equations, is also derived. The validation and evaluation of the model to capture the desired behavior under monotonic and cyclic loadings are shown with several simple one-element tests. These basic simulations confirm the robustness, accuracy, and efficiency of the algorithm at the local and global levels. At the end, a four-point bending test is examined to demonstrate the capabilities of the model in real 3-D applications.

M. Mazloom ,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (9-2010)

 According to the Iranian code of practice for seismic resistant design of buildings, soft storey phenomenon happens in a storey when the lateral stiffness of the storey is lower than 70% of the stiffness of the upper storey, or if it is lower than 80% of the average stiffness of the three upper stories. In the combined structural systems containing moment frames and shear walls, it is possible that the shear walls of the lower stories crack however, this cracking may not occur in the upper stories. The main objective of this research is to investigate the possibility of having soft storey phenomenon in the storey, which is bellow the uncracked walls. If the tension stresses of shear walls obtained from ultimate load combinations exceed the rupture modulus of concrete, the walls are assumed to be cracked. For calculating the tension stresses of shear walls in different conditions, 10 concrete structures containing 15 stories were studied. Each of the structures was investigated according to the obligations of Iranian, Canadian, and American concrete building codes. Five different compressive strengths of 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 MPa were assumed for the concrete of the structures. In other words, 150 computerized analyses were conducted in this research. In each analysis, 5 load combinations were imposed to the models. It means, the tension stresses of the shear walls in each storey, were calculated 750 times. The average wall to total stiffness ratios of the buildings were from 0.49 to 0.95, which was quite a wide range. The final conclusion was that the soft storey phenomenon did not happen in any of the structures investigated in this research. 

M. Bastami, F. Aslani, M. Esmaeilnia Omran,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2010)

Structural fire safety capacity of concrete is very complicated because concrete materials have considerable variations. In this paper, constitutive models and relationships for concrete subjected to fire are developed, which are intended to provide efficient modeling and to specific fire-performance criteria of the behavior of concrete structures exposed to fire. They are developed for unconfined concrete specimens that include residual compressive and tensile strengths, compressive elastic modulus, compressive and tensile stress-strain relationships at elevated temperatures. In this paper, the proposed relationships at elevated temperatures are compared with experimental result tests and pervious existing models. It affords to find several advantages and drawbacks of present stress-strain relationships and using these results to establish more accurate and general compressive and tensile stress-strain relationships. Additional experimental test results are needed in tension and the other main parameters at elevated temperatures to establish well-founded models and to improve the proposed relationships. The developed models and relationships are general, rational, and have good agreement with experimental data.

A. Allahverdi, B. Shaverdi, E. Najafi Kani,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2010)

:The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of sodium oxide on properties of fresh and hardened paste of alkali-activated blast furnace slag from Isfahan steel plant. The silica modulus (SiO2/Na2O) of activator was adjusted at 0.6 and a number of mixes were designed in such a way to contain different levels of sodium oxide including 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6% by weight of dry slag. The most important physico-mechanical properties of the pastes including workability, initial and final setting times, 28-day compressive strength and efflorescence severity were measured. Suitable mixes were chosen for more studies including compressive strength at different ages, 90-day autogenous and drying shrinkages. According to the results, increasing the sodium oxide content of the mixes results in increased workability, reduced setting times, and higher compressive strength. The results confirm the possibility of achieving 28-day compressive strengths up to 27.5, 50.0 and 70.0 MPa for mixes with sodium oxide content of 1, 2 and 3 wt% respectively. The measured values for autogenous shrinkage were all less than 0.1% and SEM studies showed a significant decrease in pore sizes with increasing sodium oxide concentration from 1 to 2%.

P. Ghoddousi, R. Ahmadi, Mahdi Sharifi,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2010)

 Superior performances of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) in fresh state to achieve a more uniform distribution encourage the addition of fibers in concrete which is a motivation for structural application of fiberreinforced concrete. Fiber addition reduces the workability of Self-Compacting Fiber Reinforced Concrete (SCFRC). To provide required workability of the SCFRC, more paste is needed in the mixture. Therefore, the coarse aggregate content shall be adjusted to maintain its workability. The purpose of this study is to drive a model for estimating the aggregate contents for SCFRC. This model is based on constant covering mortar thickness theory. In this paper, all parameters which are participated in coarse aggregate content are discussed and presented in a relation. Then another relation is developed for predicting the void volume in the fibrous concrete. These relations are combined and a mathematical relation is deduced for predicting the coarse volume content in the function of the fiber factors. Proposed model is validated by conducting a rheological test. The result shows that the proposed model is simple, applicable and can be used as starting point in practical project.      Finally in order to complete the proposed model, another relation has been derived that can show the interaction of parameters involved in SCFRC rheology behavior. 

A. Allahverdi, E. Najafi Kani,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2010)

Fast set and high early strength cements containing calcium fluoroaluminate phase (C11A7CaF2) are usually produced by sintering a proportioned raw mix from calcareous and argillaceous components as the main raw materials, at reduced temperatures about 1330 °C. In this work, the possibility of utilizing natural pozzolan as the argillaceous component in the cement raw mix and in order to decrease the sintering temperature of fast set and high early strength cement clinker containing C11A7CaF2 phase has been investigated. The results reveal that the sintering temperature can be reduced to temperatures as low as 1270 °C by utilizing a suitable natural pozzolan and improving the mix burnability. The experimental results confirm the possibility of achieving final setting times as low as 10 min and 3-day compressive strengths as high as 57 MPa

D. P. Chen, C. X. Qian, C. L. Liu,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2010)

 Concrete deformation due to temperature and moisture condition will always develop simultaneously and interactively. The environmentally (hygral and thermally) induced stress and deformation are essential to concrete durability. To simulate the deformation of concrete caused by the coupling effect of temperature and moisture, a numerical simulation approach is proposed comprising analytical process and finite element analysis is proposed based on the mechanism of heat and moisture transfer in porous medium. In analytical method, Laplace transformation and transfer function were used to simplify and solve the coupled partial differential equations of heat and moisture transfer. The hygro-thermal deformation of concrete is numerically simulated by finite element method (FEM) based on the obtained temperature and moisture stress transformed from the solved moisture distribution. This numerical simulation approach avoids the complex eigenvalues, coupling difficulty and low accuracy in other solving method, and also effectively calculates the moisture induced shrinkage which is almost impossible using familiar FEM software. Furthermore, a software named Combined Temperature and Moisture Simulation System for concrete (CTMSoft) was represented and developed by a mix programming of Visual Basic, Matlab and ANSYS. CTMSoft provided a simple and more intuitive interface between user and computer by providing a graphical user interface (GUI). The validity of the numerical simulation approach was verified by two cases analysis.

Malik Shoeb Ahmad, S. Salahuddin Shah,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2010)

 Roadways have a high potential for utilization of large volume of the fly ash stabilized mixes. In this study, an attempt has been made to investigate the use of Class F fly ash mixed with lime precipitated electroplating waste sludge–cement as a base material in highways. A series of tests were performed on specimens prepared with fly ash, cement and lime precipitated waste sludge. California bearing ratio (CBR) tests were conducted for 70%-55%fly ash, 8%cement, and 30%-45%waste sludge combinations. Results show that the load bearing strength of the mix is highly dependent on the waste sludge content, cement as well as curing period. The CBR value of fly ash mixed with electroplating waste sludge and cement has been increased to manifold and results the reduction in the construction cost of the pavement. The study also encourages the use of two potentially hazardous wastes for mass scale utilization without causing danger to the environment, vegetation, human and animal lives. 

A. Gharachorlou, Dr. A.a. Ramezanianpour ,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2010)

The use of epoxy-bonded FRPcomposite for structural repair is emerging as an efficient and cost-effective technique for restoring and upgrading the capacity of concrete structures. Considerable researches have been reported in the last decades on the mechanical behavior and failure modes of the FRPstrengthened RC elements but actual data on its durability are scarce. This study intends to examine the durability of concrete specimens strengthened with FRP laminates under accelerated laboratory conditions and mimic harsh environmental situation which is the penetration of chloride ions. In this study three groups of specimens were examined. Each of these groups includes several concrete cylindrical specimens full confined with FRP laminates for investigating different types of fiber (Glass and Carbon), number of fiber layers and temperature influences. Furthermore, an apparatus was fabricated to simulate wetting and drying cycles for the second group of specimens. Moreover group III specimens were placed in a marine environment for 3 years to monitor their performance. Test results show that addition of FRP laminates reduces chloride ions penetration up to 70 percent. Results also indicate that although chloride ions penetration decreased the ultimate strength of cylindrical specimens up to 11 percent but FRP strengthened specimens achieved their initial strengths. Moreover wetting and drying cycles reduced the strength of cylinder specimens up to about ten percent especially in the high temperature laboratory condition.

A. Kaveh, A. Shakouri Mahmud Abadi,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (3-2011)

Cost optimization of the reinforced concrete cantilever soil retaining wall of a given height satisfying some structural and geotechnical design constraints is performed utilizing harmony search and improved harmony search algorithms. The objective function considered is the cost of the structure, and design is based on ACI 318-05. This function is minimized subjected to design constraints. A numerical example of the cost optimization of a reinforced concrete cantilever retaining wall is presented to illustrate the performance of the presented algorithms and the necessary sensitivity analysis is performed.
A.a. Maghsoudi, Sh. Amohamadpour, M. Maghsoudi,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (9-2011)

Considering normal concrete (NC) the type of concrete need to be vibrated after placing in the formwork, Lightweight

concretes have been successfully applied in the building constructions for decades because of their low specific weight in

connection with a high strength, a high capacity of thermal insulation and a high durability. The development leading to a self

compacting light weight concrete (SCLWC) represents an important innovative step in the recent years. This concrete combines

the favorable properties of a lightweight concrete with those of a self compacting concrete (i.e., the type of concrete need no

vibration after placing in the formwork). Research work is aimed on development of (SCLWC) with the use of light weight

aggregates " Light expand clay aggregate (Leca)". In this investigation, by trial and error procedure, different mix design of

SCLWC were caste and tested to reach a so called standard self compacting concrete in fresh matrix phase such as values of

slump flow, L-box, V-funnel and in hardened phase, the 28 day compressive strength. Based on the results obtained, for two best

so-called standard mix design of SCLWC the stress-strain diagrams are drawn and discussed. Also by three different methods,

the modulus of elasticity of SCLWC are obtained and discussed here. It was found that a brittle mode of failure is governed in


Reza Abbasnia, Neda Mirzadeh, Kamyar Kildashti,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (9-2011)

In recent years, different damage indexes have been introduced in engineering literature. The most prominent one among other

counterparts is the 1985 Park and Ang's damage index (DIPA), which demonstrates well calibration against experimental

results. Hence, it has traditionally had broad application in the field of structural engineering. Commonly, in DIPA relevant

parameters are assessed based on plastic-hinge approach, which is not well suited to consider the coupled response between

stress resultants (axial force and flexural moment) especially in grossly nonlinear domain. The reason is that named approach

is utilized constant shape plastic moment-curvature curve, which is not capable of varying the shape throughout loading history.

Another drawback of plastic-hinge method is the difficulty of representing precisely partial yielding of the cross-section. To

remedy the situation, the fiber discretization technique is used in this paper. Based on the fiber discretization strategy, not only

have the stiffness and strength degradation been characterized more accurately, but also the distribution of plasticity along the

plastic zone has been considered. Besides, the multi-directional effect of axial force and flexural moment is considered to assess

DI parameters. Additionally, this strategy directly incorporates the effect of transverse confinement into cross sectional

constitutive behaviour.

S. Bakhtiyari, A. Allahverdi, M. Rais-Ghasemi, A. A. Ramezanianpour, T. Parhizkar, B. A. Zarrabi,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (9-2011)

Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) specimens with limestone (L) and quartz (Q) powders were formulated. The influence of the type

of the powder on the properties of fresh and hardened concrete was evaluated. Dense packing theories were used for mix design

of samples. The equation of Fuller and Thompson for particle size distribution (PSD) of aggregates was modified with considering

fine particles and a proper PSD curve was obtained for SCC. Experimental results showed that this method needs use of less

powder content and results in higher strength/cement ratio compared to traditional mixing methods. No significant difference was

observed between the compressive strengths of specimens containing limestone (L-specimens) and quartz (Q-specimens) powders,

with similar proportions of materials. The residual compressive strength of specimens was examined at 500°C and contradictory

behaviors were observed. One Q-specimen suffered from explosive spalling, while no spalling was occurred for L-specimens. On

the other hand, the residual strength of remained Q-specimens showed considerable increase compared to L-specimens. The results

show the necessity for more detailed investigations considering different effective parameters.

Ali Kaveh, Omid Sabzi,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (9-2011)

This article presents the application of two algorithms: heuristic big bang-big crunch (HBB-BC) and a heuristic particle swarm

ant colony optimization (HPSACO) to discrete optimization of reinforced concrete planar frames subject to combinations of

gravity and lateral loads based on ACI 318-08 code. The objective function is the total cost of the frame which includes the cost

of concrete, formwork and reinforcing steel for all members of the frame. The heuristic big bang-big crunch (HBB-BC) is based

on BB-BC and a harmony search (HS) scheme to deal with the variable constraints. The HPSACO algorithm is a combination of

particle swarm with passive congregation (PSOPC), ant colony optimization (ACO), and harmony search scheme (HS)

algorithms. In this paper, by using the capacity of BB-BC in ACO stage of HPSACO, its performance is improved. Some design

examples are tested using these methods and the results are compared.

Abolfazl Arabzadeh, Reza Aghayari, Ali Reza Rahai,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (9-2011)

An experimental-analytical investigation was conducted to study the behavior of high-strength RC deep beams a total of sixteen

reinforced concrete deep beams with compressive strength in range of 59 MPaOf'c O65 MPa were tested under two-point top

loading. The shear span-to-effective depth ratio a/d was 1.10 all the specimens were simply supported and reinforced by

vertical, horizontal and orthogonal steel bars in various arrangements. The test specimens were composed of five series based

on their arrangement of shear reinforcing. The general behavior of tested beams was investigated. Observations were made on

mid-span and loading point deflections, cracks form, failure modes and shear strengths. The test results indicated that both

vertical and horizontal web reinforcement are efficient in shear capacity of deep beams, also the orthogonal shear reinforcement

was the most efficient when placed perpendicular to major axis of diagonal crack. Concentrating of shear reinforcement within

middle region of shear span can improve the ultimate shear strength of deep beam. The test results were then compared with the

predicted ultimate strengths using the ACI 318-08 provisions ACI code tended to either unsafe or scattered results. The

performed investigations deduced that the ACI code provisions need to be revised.

Hasan Ghasemzadeh, Ms. Esmat Akbari Jalalabad,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (9-2011)

In this study compressive strength of carbon nanotube (CNT)/cement composite is computed by analytical method. For this purpose representative elementary volume (REV) as an indicator element of composite is chosen and analyzed by elasticity relationships and Von mises' criterion applied to it. It is assumed that carbon nanotubes are distributed uniformly in the cement and there is perfect bonding in the interface of cement and nanotube. At first for simplicity of computations, carbon nanotubes ( CNTs) are assumed to have unidirectional orientation in the cement matrix. In following, the relations are generalized to consider random distribution of nanotubes in cement, and a new factor suggested for random orientation of fibers in the CNT/cement composite. The results of analytical method are compared with experimental results.

Afshin Firouzi, Ali Reza Rahai,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (9-2011)

Corrosion of reinforcement due to frequently applied deicing salts is the major source of deterioration of concrete bridge decks, e.g. severe cracking and spalling of the concrete cover. Since crack width is easily recordable in routine visual inspections there is a motivation to use it as an appropriate indicator of condition of RC bridge elements in decision making process of bridge management. While few existing research in literature dealing with spatial variation of corrosion-induced cracking of RC structures is based on empirical models, in this paper the extent and likelihood of severe cracking of a hypothetical bridge deck during its lifetime is calculated based on a recently proposed analytical model for corrosion-induced crack width. Random field theory has been utilized to account for spatial variations of surface chloride concentration, as environmental parameter, and concrete compressive strength and cover depth as design parameters. This analysis enables to track evolution of cracking process, spatially and temporally, and predict the time for the first repair of bridge deck based on acceptable extent of cracked area. Furthermore based on a sensitivity analysis it is concluded that increasing cover depth has a very promising effect in delaying corrosion phenomenon and extension of the service life of bridge decks.

Saeed Reza Sabbaghyazdi1, Tayebeh Amiri Saadatabadi,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (9-2011)

In this research, a novel numerical algorithm is introduced for computation of temperature-induced before crack steady strainstress field in plane-stress problem. For this purpose, two dimensional heat transfer equation and force equilibrium equations are sequentially solved using Galerkin Finite Volume method on identical unstructured triangular meshes when proper convergence for each field is achieved. In this model, a proper thermal boundary condition that is suitable for unstructured triangular meshes is introduced for analysis. Two test cases are used to assess accuracy of thermal and structural modules of the developed solver and the computed results are compared with theirs analytical solution.First, thermal analysis is performed for a rectangular plate which is connected to a supporting body with constant temperature and expose to surrounding liquid at three edges.Second, structural analysis is performed for a plate under distributed loads in two directions. Having obtained acceptable results from thermal and structural modules, thermal stress analysis is performed for a plate with fixed-end condition at one of edges,due to a uniform temperature field and the computational principle stress contours are compared with the Finite Element method results which have been reported in the literatures.

R. Abbasnia, A. Holakoo,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (9-2012)

One important application of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) is to confine concrete as FRP jackets in seismic retrofit process

of reinforced concrete structures. Confinement can improve concrete properties such as compressive strength and ultimate axial

strain. For the safe and economic design of FRP jackets, the stress-strain behavior of FRP-confined concrete under monotonic

and cyclic compression needs to be properly understood and modeled. According to literature review, it has been realized that

although there are many studies on the monotonic compressive loading of FRP-confined concrete, only a few studies have been

conducted on the cyclic compressive loading. Therefore, this study is aimed at investigating the behavior of FRP-confined

concrete under cyclic compressive loading. A total of 18 cylindrical specimens of FRP-confined concretewere tested in uniaxial

compressive loading with different wrap thickness, and loading patterns. The results obtained from the tests are presented and

examined based on analysis of test results predictive equations for plastic strain and stress deterioration were derived. The

results are also compared with those from two current models,comparison revealed the lack of sufficient accuracy of the current

models to predict stress-strain behavior and accordingly some provisions should be incorporated.

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