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Showing 198 results for Type of Study: Research

F. Forouzesh, Sh. Azadi,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (1-2011)
Abstract

In this article, rubber bumpers of Double - Wishbone suspension system have been modeled and analyzed. The objective of the present work is to predict the performance of these products during deformation, represent an optimum method to design, obtain stiffness characteristic curves and utilize the results in the automotive suspension dynamic analysis. These parts are nonlinear and exhibit large deformation under loading. They have an important role to limit the motion of wheels and absorb energy. In this study, nonlinear FE model using ABAQUS software was used to obtain the bumper load - displacement curve. Then a laboratory test was done on the bumper to get this curve. The comparison between numerical and experimental results shows a good adaptation. A less than 2 percent difference has been observed between them. Thus, we can use this numerical method to simulate bumpers easily and accurately.
P. Bashi Shahabi, H. Niazmand, M.r Modarres Razavi,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (1-2011)
Abstract

Increase of environmental pollution and restricted emission legislations have forced companies to produce automobiles with lower air pollutants. In this respect, discharge of blowby gases into the environment has been prohibited and their recirculation into the combustion chamber is proposed as an alternative solution. In addition, using EGR technique to control and reduce nitrogen oxides in internal combustion engines has been quite effective. An important common feature of these two methods is the fact that improper EGR/blowby distribution leads to the increase in other pollutants and the significant engine power reduction. Therefore, the study of important factors in maldistribution of the injected gases is of great practical importance. Besides the injection position that has significant role on distribution of injected gases, it seems that other parameters such as engine speed, injection velocity and angle may affect the distribution of injected gases. In this numerical study, a new technique is used to determine the effect of these parameters on distribution of injected EGR or blowby gases into the EF7 intake manifold. Numerical calculations are performed for three injection velocities, five injection angles and three different engine speeds. It was found that recirculated gases distribution is slightly influenced by the injection angle and injection velocity, while the engine speed is the most influential factor.
Dr. B. Mashadi, E. Zakeri,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (1-2011)
Abstract

In this paper, Front Engine Accessory Drive (FEAD) system of automotive engine is modeled with ADAMS software. The model is validated using engine test data. It is then used to investigate the effect of design parameters on the system performance such as belt vibration and loads on the idlers. Three alternative layouts were developed in order to improve the performance of original EEAD system. The validated model was used to study the effect of changes made to the layouts on the reduction of vibration and loads. Several system outputs indicated that for the modified layouts, large reductions in vibration and loads were achieved. It was concluded that one of proposed layouts was more appropriate and could be a useful substitution to the original layout. The developed model also proved useful for the design of engine FEAD systems and could be used for further developments.


A. Nemati, Sh. Khalilarya, S. Jafarmadar, H. Khatamnejhad, V. Fathi ,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (1-2011)
Abstract

Conventional compression ignition (CI) engines are known for their high thermal efficiency compared to spark ignited (SI) engines. Gasoline because of its higher ignition delay has much lower soot emission in comparison with diesel fuel. Using double injection strategy reduces the maximum heat release rate that leads to NOx emission reduction. In this paper, a numerical study of a gasoline fuelled heavy duty Caterpillar 3401 engine was conducted via three dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) procedures and compared with experimental data. The model results show a good agreement with experimental data. To have a better design the effect of injection characteristics such as, the main SOI timing, injection duration and nozzle hole size investigated on combustion and emissions and an optimized point find. The results suggest an optimization in injection characteristics for simultaneous reduction of NOx and soot emissions with negligible change in IMEP.
A. Fotouhi, M. Montazeri, M. Jannatipour,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (1-2011)
Abstract

This paper presents the prediction of vehicle's velocity time series using neural networks. For this purpose, driving data is firstly collected in real world traffic conditions in the city of Tehran using advance vehicle location devices installed on private cars. A multi-layer perceptron network is then designed for driving time series forecasting. In addition, the results of this study are compared with the auto regressive (AR) method. The least root mean square error (RMSE) and median absolute percentage error (MDAPE) are utilized as two criteria for evaluation of predictions accuracy. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach for prediction of driving data time series.
J. Mahdavinia, A. Keshavarz, M.h. Moshrefi,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (1-2011)
Abstract

Turbocharging an engine boosts its power by increasing the amount of input air. This task is accomplished by using the exhaust gas to power a turbine which is engaged with a compressor. The Variable Geometry Turbocharger, VGT is a unique turbocharger that the diffuser vane angle can be changed over a wide range of positions. The mathematics of turbomachinery flow analysis is intensive and uses iterative methods. Most of the flow analyses in the area of turbochargers are either experimental or numerical. Three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), two-dimensional multiple streamline and one dimensional mean line is the three primary numerically available methods. In this paper a mean line method has been used for predicting the performance of a centrifugal compressor with variable diffuser vane angle position at subcritical Mach numbers. The calculation is based on common thermodynamic and aerodynamic principles, and empirical correlations for losses in a mean line analyses. The model calculates the velocities, pressures, temperatures, pressure losses, work consumption, and efficiencies for a specified set of turbocharger geometry, atmospheric conditions, rotational speed, and fluid mass flow rate. The obtained numerical results are validated with the in house measured experimental data and good agreement observed. The purpose for compressor model analysis is to generate overall characteristic map and identify the impact of the diffuser vane angles on the performance. The overall characteristic map is generated by this method demonstrate very good agreement and the effect of variable vane angle in pressure ratio and operating range observed.
E. Esmailzadeh, A. Goodarzii, M. Behmadi,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (1-2011)
Abstract

Improvement in braking performance and vehicle stability can be achieved through the use of braking systems whose brake force distribution is variable. Electronic braking force distribution has an important and serious role in the vehicle stopping distance and stability. In this paper a new approach will be presented to achieve the braking force distribution strategy for articulated vehicles. For this purpose, the mathematical optimization process has been implemented. This strategy, defined as an innovative braking force distribution strategy, is based on the wheel slips. The simulation results illustrate proposed strategy can significantly improve the vehicle stability in curved braking for different levels of vehicle deceleration
M. M. Tehrani, M. R. Hairi-Yazdi, Ba. Haghpanah-Jahromi, V. Esfahanian, M. Amiri, A. R. Jafari,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (6-2011)
Abstract

In this paper, an adaptive rule based controller for an anti-lock regenerative braking system (ARBS) of a series hybrid electric bus (SHEB) has been proposed. The proposed controller integrates the regenerative braking and wheel anti-lock functions by controlling the electric motor of the hybrid vehicle, without using any conventional mechanical anti-lock braking system. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated by a comprehensive vehicle dynamics model in MATLAB/Simulink. Using the designed ARBS, the braking and regenerative performances of SHEB have significantly improved in slippery roads while the slip ratios are kept between 0.15 and 0.20.
A. Paykani, R. Khoshbakhti Saray, A. M. Mohammadi Kousha, M. T. Shervani Tabar,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (6-2011)
Abstract

In this study, a numerical simulation using the CFD software, FLUENT, has been conducted to examine the effect of various shapes of the venturi component sections in order to find the optimum venturi specifications to increase the EGR rate with minimum pressure loss at the part load operation range. The CFD results reveal that the venturi should be precisely optimized to introduce the required amount of EGR to the engine manifold. Then, the optimum venturi was manufactured, and it was installed on the engine intake system. By using the optimum Venturi EGR system instead of original system the 26% increase in EGR flow rate to the engine manifold is observed. In the second part of the paper, an experimental investigation was carried out on a “Lister 8-1” dual fuel (diesel – natural gas) engine to examine the simultaneous effect of inlet air pre-heating and EGR on performance and emission characteristics of a dual fuel engine. The use of EGR at high levels seems to be unable to improve the engine performance at part loads, however, it is shown that EGR combined with pre-heating of inlet air can slightly increase thermal efficiency, resulting in reduced levels of both UHC and NOx emissions. CO and HC emissions were reduced by 24% and 31%, respectively. The NOx emissions were decreased by 21% because of the lower combustion temperature due to the much inert gas brought by EGR and decreased oxygen concentration in the cylinder.
M. H. Askari, S. M. Hoseinalipour, S. A. Jazayeri, M. Baghsheikhi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (6-2011)
Abstract

The HCCI combustion process is initiated due to auto-ignition of fuel/air mixture which is dominated by chemical kinetics and therefore fuel composition has a significant effect on engine operation and a detailed reaction mechanism is essential to analysis HCCI combustion. A single zone-model permits to have a detailed chemical kinetics modeling for practical fuels. In this study a single-zone thermodynamic model with detail chemical mechanism is developed to investigate the effect of hydrogen addition to natural gas in a homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion and to analyze the performance and emissions of the HCCI engine. The effect of five different percentage of hydrogen added to natural gas ranging from 0 to 40 on HCCI combustion is investigated in this study. The results indicate that by increasing hydrogen portion in intake mixture, start of combustion advances and maximum temperature increase, but increasing in maximum pressure is negligible. Carbon’s included emissions such as Co, Co2 and unburned hydrocarbons decreases by increasing of hydrogen, and also, specific fuel consumption decreases. The result shows that hydrogen improves combustion characteristics of natural gas in an HCCI engine and leads to better performance and less emissions.
T. Feyzi, M. Esfahanian, R. Tikani, S. Ziaei Rad,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (6-2011)
Abstract


M. H. Shojaeefard, I. Sohrabiasl, E. Sarshari,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (6-2011)
Abstract

Intake system design as well as inlet ports and valves configuration is of paramount importance in the optimal performance of internal combustion engines. In the present study, the effect of inlet ports design is investigated on OM-457LA diesel engine by using a CFD analysis and the AVL-Fire code as well. A thermodynamic model of the whole engine equipped with a turbocharger and an intercooler is used to obtain the initial and boundary conditions of the inlet and outlet ports of the engine cylinder which are necessary for performing the three dimensional CFD analysis. The intake stroke as well as the compression and power strokes are included in this three dimensional CFD model. As a mean of validation the performance of the engine model with the base configuration of the inlet ports is compared to the experimental data. Two new alternative configurations for the inlet ports are then investigated with respect to the turbulence levels of the in-cylinder flow and the combustion characteristics as well. Finally it is demonstrated that applying the new configurations results in circa 75% reduction in nitric oxide formation besides increase of 32% in the in-cylinder flow swirl.


S. Sanaye, M. Dehghandokht,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (5-2011)
Abstract

Thermal modeling of an automotive cabin was performed in this paper to predict the inside cabin air temperature. To implement this task, thermal and ventilation loads were estimated and the mass and energy balance conservation equations for dry air and water vapor with considering a new parameter (air circulation ratio) as well as the balance equations of internal components of a cabin were derived and solved simultaneously. The performance of the proposed thermal modeling of a cabin was compared with the data collected from hot room experimental tests. These tests were run for various design parameters such as evaporating cooling load and cabin size (air volume inside cabin). The comparison of experimental and numerical results showed a good agreement. Parametric analysis with three parameters namely, vehicle speed, number of passengers, and A/C air mass flow rate was performed to investigate the effects of these parameters on cabin air temperature.
M. Abbasi, R. Kazemi, A. Ghafari Nazari,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (5-2011)
Abstract

Parametric design optimization of an automotive body crashworthiness improvement is presented. The thicknesses of parts are employed as design variables for optimization whose objective is to increase the maximum deceleration value of the vehicle center of gravity during an impact. Using the Taguchi method, this study analyzes the optimum conditions for design objectives and the impact factors and their optimal levels are obtained by a range analysis of the experiment results. A full frontal impact is implemented for the crashworthiness simulation in the nonlinear dynamic code, LS-DYNA. The controllable factors used in this study consist of the six inside foreheads structural parts, while design parameters are relevant thicknesses. The most interestingly the maximum deceleration of the vehicle center of gravity is reduced by 20% during a full frontal impact while several parts experience mass reduction.
D. Younesian, A.a. Jafari, R. Serajian,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (5-2011)
Abstract

Nonlinear hunting speeds of railway vehicles running on a tangent track are analytically obtained using Hopf bifurcation theory in this paper. The railway vehicle model consists of nonlinear primary yaw dampers, nonlinear flange contact stiffness as well as the clearance between the wheel flange and rail tread. Linear and nonlinear critical speeds are obtained using Bogoliubov method. A comprehensive parametric study is then carried out and effects of different parameters like the magnitudes of lateral clearance, damping values, wheel radius, bogie mass, lateral stiffness and the track gauge on linear and nonlinear hunting speeds are investigated.
A. Gharehgahani, M. Mirsalim, A. Jazayeri,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (5-2011)
Abstract

A newly developed heavy duty diesel engine in dual fuel mode of operation has been studied in detail. The main fuel would be natural gas and diesel oil as pilot injection. The importance and effects of mixture preparation and formation through ports, valves and in cylinder flow field with different swirl ratio and tumble on diesel combustion phenomena is an accepted feature which has been studied using a developed CFD model together with a KIVA3-V2 code. This analysis is capable to investigate engine geometry, valves lift, and valves timing turbo charging, and its effects on dynamic flow field with variable dual fuel ratio on power and emission levels output. This complete open cycle study of a dual fuel engine has been carried out originally and for the first time and by considering complete grid consisted of four moving valves, two intake ports, two exhaust ports, and the port runners. It is found that important complex flow structures are developed during the intake stroke. While many of these structures decay during the compression stroke, swirl and tumble can survive. The effect of increased swirl ratio at the end of the compression stroke for the D87 engine with a piston bowl is clearly observed in this study. This is important for aiding in good fuel spray atomization. The formation, development, and break-up of tumble flow are seen, contributing to an increase in turbulent kinetic energy at the end of the compression stroke. The complete engine flow field, i.e. the inlet jet, and formation of swirl in the intake ports, is also clearly shown in the study. Results of these simulations assist in the improved understanding of the intake process and its influence on mixture formation and flow field in a dual fuel engine.
M. Manteghi, B. Abdi, A.a. Tofigh,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (5-2011)
Abstract

This article aims at strategic vision to technology and suggests a strategic planning for this purpose. The main emphasis in this article is on strategic report compilation in the framework of strategic vision and covers issues such as identification of strategic planning dimensions and strategic vision levels, technology priority setting, environment monitoring, focus on costumer needs, methods of strategic vision compilation and future research methods. This article also concentrates on R&D strategies in a separate section. Furthermore, a separate section is dedicated to strategic vision in automotive industry and issues are discussed related to Iran Khodro Co. strategic visions. At the end, a model is presented for strategic vision compilation.
M. Bidarvatan, M. Shahbakhti, S.a. Jazayeri,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (5-2011)
Abstract

Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines hold promise of high fuel efficiency and low emission levels for future green vehicles. But in contrast to gasoline and diesel engines, HCCI engines suffer from lack of having direct means to initiate combustion. A combustion timing controller with robust tracking performance is the key requirement to leverage HCCI application in production vehicles. In this paper, a two-state control-oriented model is developed to predict HCCI combustion timing for a range of engine operation. The experimental validation of the model confirms the accuracy of the model for HCCI control applications. An optimal integral state feedback controller is designed to control the combustion timing by modulating the ratio of two fuels. Optimization methods are used in order to determine the controller’s parameters. The results demonstrate the designed controller can reach optimal combustion timing within about two engine cycles, while showing good robustness to physical disturbances.

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