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Showing 24 results for Internal Combustion Engine

P. Bashi Shahabi, H. Niazmand, M.r Modarres Razavi,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (1-2011)
Abstract

Increase of environmental pollution and restricted emission legislations have forced companies to produce automobiles with lower air pollutants. In this respect, discharge of blowby gases into the environment has been prohibited and their recirculation into the combustion chamber is proposed as an alternative solution. In addition, using EGR technique to control and reduce nitrogen oxides in internal combustion engines has been quite effective. An important common feature of these two methods is the fact that improper EGR/blowby distribution leads to the increase in other pollutants and the significant engine power reduction. Therefore, the study of important factors in maldistribution of the injected gases is of great practical importance. Besides the injection position that has significant role on distribution of injected gases, it seems that other parameters such as engine speed, injection velocity and angle may affect the distribution of injected gases. In this numerical study, a new technique is used to determine the effect of these parameters on distribution of injected EGR or blowby gases into the EF7 intake manifold. Numerical calculations are performed for three injection velocities, five injection angles and three different engine speeds. It was found that recirculated gases distribution is slightly influenced by the injection angle and injection velocity, while the engine speed is the most influential factor.
M. H. Shojaeefard, I. Sohrabiasl, E. Sarshari,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (6-2011)
Abstract

Intake system design as well as inlet ports and valves configuration is of paramount importance in the optimal performance of internal combustion engines. In the present study, the effect of inlet ports design is investigated on OM-457LA diesel engine by using a CFD analysis and the AVL-Fire code as well. A thermodynamic model of the whole engine equipped with a turbocharger and an intercooler is used to obtain the initial and boundary conditions of the inlet and outlet ports of the engine cylinder which are necessary for performing the three dimensional CFD analysis. The intake stroke as well as the compression and power strokes are included in this three dimensional CFD model. As a mean of validation the performance of the engine model with the base configuration of the inlet ports is compared to the experimental data. Two new alternative configurations for the inlet ports are then investigated with respect to the turbulence levels of the in-cylinder flow and the combustion characteristics as well. Finally it is demonstrated that applying the new configurations results in circa 75% reduction in nitric oxide formation besides increase of 32% in the in-cylinder flow swirl.


A. Kakaee, M. Keshavarz,
Volume 2, Issue 3 (7-2012)
Abstract

In this study it has been tried, to compare results and convergence rate of sensitivity analysis and conjugate gradient algorithms to reduce fuel consumption and increasing engine performance by optimizing the timing of opening and closing valves in XU7/L3 engine. In this study, considering the strength and accuracy of simulation GT-POWER software in researches on the internal combustion engine, this software has been used. In this paper initially all components of engine have been modeled in GT-POWER. Then considering the experimental result, results confirmed the accuracy of the model. After model verification, GT-POWER model with MATLAB-SIMULINK are coupled each other, to control the inputs and the outputs by sensitivity analysis and conjugate gradient algorithms. Then the results compared with experimental results of initial engine too. The results indicated that optimal valve timing significantly reduced brake specific fuel consumption and when is used variable valve system for opening and closing angle of intake and exhaust valves, the mean improvement percentage in brake specific fuel consumption from sensitivity analysis is nearly 5.87 and from conjugate gradient is about 6.69. too, for example with increasing engine speed late closing intake valve causes optimized brake specific fuel consumption and from 3500rpm this trend stops and in 4000rpm and 4500rpm early closing of intake valve results in more optimized brake specific fuel consumption. Then up to 6000rpm again late closing of valve would be favorable. Also results indicated that convergence rate of conjugate gradient algorithm to reaching the optimal point is more than sensitivity analysis algorithm.


M. Eftekhar, A. Keshavarz, A. Ghasemian, J. Mahdavinia,
Volume 3, Issue 1 (3-2013)
Abstract

Running the industrial components at a proper temperature is always a big challenge for engineers. Internal combustion engines are among these components in which temperature plays a big role in their performance and emissions. With the development of new technology in the fields of ‘nano-materials’ and ‘nano-fluids’, it seems very promising to use this technology as a coolant in the internal combustion engines. In this study, a nano-fluid (Al2O3-Water/Ethylene Glycol (EG)) is used as an engine coolant along with an optimized heat exchanger to reduce the warm-up timing. The effect of nano-fluid concentration is considered here by using their corresponding governing equations, such as momentum and energy. The engine coolant thermal behavior calculation is carried out based on the lumped method. The obtained results indicated that using different percentage of nano-fluid mixtures (by volume), such as Al2O3- Water/EG as engine coolant enhances the heat transfer coefficient and reduces the warm-up timing which, in turn, results in reduced emissions and fuel consumption.
M.h. Shojaeefard, V.kh. Mousapour, M.sh. Mazidi,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (3-2014)
Abstract

Thermal Contact Conductance (TCC) between an exhaust valve and its seat is one of the important parameters to be estimated in an internal combustion engine. An experimental study presented here to acquire temperature in some interior points to be used as inputs to an inverse analysis. An actual exhaust valve and its seat are utilized in a designed and constructed setup. Conjugate Gradient Method (CGM) with adjoin problem for function estimation is used for estimation of TCC. The method converges very rapidly and is not so sensitive to the measurement errors. Contact frequency is one the factors which have a significant influence on TCC. The results obtained from current inverse method as well as those obtained from linear extrapolation method show that the thermal contact conductance decreases as the contact frequency increases. The results obtained from both sets of results are also in good agreement.


A. Ghasemian, A. Keshavarz, H. Sotodeh,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (3-2014)
Abstract

The subjects of heat transfer and cooling system are very important topics in the Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). In modern cooling systems, low weight, small size and high compactness are the critical designing criteria that requires heat transfer enhancement. Boiling phenomenon which is occurred in the water jacket of the ICE is one of the methods to increase heat transfer in the coolant system of an ICE. A research has been shown that parameters such as material, temperature, and roughness of the heated surface have direct effect on the rate of heat transfer in a boiling phenomenon. In this paper the potential of boiling phenomenon and the effect of the surface roughness on the amount of heat flux removed by the coolant flow in the engine water jacket is investigated experimentally. For this purpose the experiments was carried out in three different flow velocities and also three different surface roughnesses. Results show that the boiling and roughness of a hot surface will increase the heat removal significantly.
M.h. Shojaeefard, V.kh. Mousapour, M.sh. Mazidi,
Volume 4, Issue 1 (3-2014)
Abstract

Thermal Contact Conductance (TCC) between an exhaust valve and its seat is one of the important parameters to be estimated in an internal combustion engine. An experimental study presented here to acquire temperature in some interior points to be used as inputs to an inverse analysis. An actual exhaust valve and its seat are utilized in a designed and constructed setup. Conjugate Gradient Method (CGM) with adjoin problem for function estimation is used for estimation of TCC. The method converges very rapidly and is not so sensitive to the measurement errors. Contact frequency is one the factors which have a significant influence on TCC. The results obtained from current inverse method as well as those obtained from linear extrapolation method show that the thermal contact conductance decreases as the contact frequency increases. The results obtained from both sets of results are also in good agreement.


H. Biglarian, S. M. Keshavarz, M. Sh. Mazidi, F. Najafi,
Volume 4, Issue 4 (12-2014)
Abstract

Many studies have been done on hybrid vehicles in the past few years. The full hybrid vehicles need a large number of batteries creating up to 300 (V) to meet the required voltage of electric motor. The size and weight of the batteries cause some problems. This research investigates the mild hybrid vehicle. This vehicle includes a small electric motor and a high power internal combustion engine. In most cases the car’s driving force is created by an internal combustion part. A small electric motor, which can operate as engine starter, generator and traction motor, is located between the engine and an automatically shifted multi-gear transmission (gearbox). The clutch is used to disconnect the gearbox from the engine when needed such as during gear shifting and low vehicle speed. The power rating of the electric motor may be in the range of about 15% of the IC engine power rating. The electric motor can be smoothly controlled to operate at any speed and torque, thus, isolation between the electric motor and transmission is not necessary. The present study evaluates the properties of the mild hybrid vehicle, its structure and performance and proposes an energy control model for its optimum operation.
E. Safarian, K. Bilen, M. Akif Ceviz , A. Salimias,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (9-2016)
Abstract

The usage of turbochargers in diesel engines has led to the downsizing of the motors as well as usage of the waste gates in turbochargers. Any dimensional reduction in turbochargers and appurtenant leads to an enhancement on the performance of internal combustion engines and in environmental problems in terms of aerodynamic, thermodynamic and mechanical specifications for both engines and turbochargers. For this reason, the efforts need to be focused on the design of turbochargers and their waste gates accurately, in order to maintain its benefits as much as possible. The extent of waste gate opening, from full opened to closed valve, is demonstrated by the limiting compressor boost pressure ratio. Ultimately, an optimum point of limiting compressor boost pressure ratio is obtained then an increase in the values of BMEP and engine power for the same fuel consumption in range of waste gate opening is achieved


A. Moshrefi,
Volume 6, Issue 3 (9-2016)
Abstract

One of the factors that affects the efficiency and lifetime of spark ignited internal combustion engine is “knock”. Knock sensor is a commonly used to detect this phenomenon. However, noise, limits detection accuracy of this sensor. In this study, Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method is introduced as a fully adaptive signal-based analysis. Then, based on weighting decompositions, a method for reducing knock signal noise to enhance detection accuracy of knock, has been proposed. Then, the presented method has been evaluated using recorded signals from four engine cylinders. Internal pressure of each cylinder were recorded and used as reference for knock detection. Test results verifies that knock detection accuracy improved by about 11.3%. The results of optimization method were consistent with our expectations and the weights of middle levels are higher than other levels, which means that the proposed method not only extracts the main frequencies of knock, but also assigns reasonable weights to them.


M.h. Shojaeefard, P. Azarikhah, A. Qasemian,
Volume 7, Issue 2 (6-2017)
Abstract

Heat transfer in internal combustion engines is one of the most significant topics. Heat transfer may take place through thermal conduction and thermal convection in spark ignition engines. In this study, valve cover heat transfer and thermal balance of an air-cooled engine are investigated experimentally. The thermal balance analysis is a useful method to determine energy distribution and efficiency of internal combustion engines. In order to carry out experiments, a single cylinder, air-cooled, four-stroke gasoline engine is applied. The engine is installed on proper chassis and equipped with measuring instruments. Temperature of different points of valve cover and exhaust gases is measured with the assistance of K-type thermocouples. These experiments are conducted in various engine speeds. Regarding to the first law of thermodynamics, thermal balance is investigated and it is specified that about one-third of total fuel energy will be converted to effective power. It is also evaluated that for increasing brake power, fuel consumption will increase and it is impossible to prevent upward trends of wasted energies. In addition, it is resulted that, there is a reduction heat transfer to brake power ratio by increasing engine speed. Furthermore, it is found that, at higher engine speed, lower percentage of energy in form of heat transfer will be lost.
Dr. Ali Qasemian, Mr Pouria Azarikhah, Mr Sina Jenabi Haqparast,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (6-2018)
Abstract

The thermal balance analysis is a useful method to determine energy distribution and efficiency of internal combustion (IC) engines. In engines cooling concepts, estimation of heat transfer to brake power ratio, as one of the most significant performance characteristics, is highly demanded. In this paper, investigation of energy balance and derivation of specific heat rejection is carried out experimentally and numerically. Experiments are carried out on an air-cooled, single cylinder, four-stroke gasoline IC engine. The engine is simulated numerically and after validation with experimental data, the code is run to find out total and instantaneous thermal balance of engine. Results indicate that about one-third of fuel energy is converted to brake power and major part of energy is dissipated through exhaust and heat transfer. Experimental and numerical results show that by increasing engine speed, heat transfer to brake power ratio decreases. It is also observed that increasing engine speed leads to increase of exhaust power to brake power ratio. Finally two correlations for estimation of heat transfer and exhaust power to brake power ratios are obtained.
Amirhossein Moshrefi, Majid Shalchian,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (9-2018)
Abstract

Premature combustion that affects outputs, thermal efficiencies and lifetimes of internal combustion engine is called “knock effect”. However knock signal detection based on acoustic sensor is a challenging task due to existing of noise in the same frequency spectrum. Experimental results revealed that vibration signals, generated from knock, has certain frequencies related to vibration resonance modes of the combustion chamber. In this article, a new method for knock detection based on resonance frequency analysis of the knock sensor signal is introduced. More specifically at higher engine speed, where there is additional excitation of resonance frequencies, continuous wavelet transform has been proposed as an effective and applicative tool for knock detection and a formula for knock detection threshold based on this method is suggested. Measurement results demonstrate that this technique provide 15% higher accuracy in knock detection comparing to conventional method.


 
S. Ali Mirmohammadsadeghi, Dr. Kamyar Nikzadfar, Nima Bakhshinezhad, Dr. Alireza Fathi,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (9-2018)
Abstract

In order to lowering level of emissions of internal combustion engines (ICEs), they should be optimally controlled. However, ICEs operate under numerous operating conditions, which in turn makes it difficult to design controller for such nonlinear systems. In this article, a generalized unique controller for idle speed control under whole loading conditions is designed. In the current study, instead of tedious time-consuming trial-and-error based methods, soft computing techniques are employed to tune a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller which controls idle speed of engine. Since model based design technique is employed, a mean value model (MVM) is taken advantage due to its evidenced merits. Moreover, a brief introduction to the selected meta-heuristics is given followed by a flowchart to show how the engine model is linked to the optimization algorithms. A set point of 750 rpm is fed to the system, and the weighted sum of the three characteristics of mean squared error, control energy, and percent overshoot of the control system is set to the problem objective function to be minimized. It is evidenced that of all the examined meta-heuristics, Bees Algorithm (BA) converges to a better solution. Finally, to consider the effectiveness of the developed optimal controllers in disturbance rejection, they are implemented to the engine MVM model. The results of the research indicate, all the four optimally designed control systems, albeit the intermediate superiority, are of conspicuous success in compensating for the input disturbances of the load torque.
Hesam Moghadasi, Sasan Asiaei,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (9-2018)
Abstract

This paper investigates 3D simulation of fluid flow in a centrifugal pump from the Detroit Diesel company to extract possible engine cooling trends.  The velocity and pressure profile of water, the coolant, is analyzed and the characteristic curves of the pump are derived. This provides a useful evaluation of the pump performance at all working conditions. For this aim, a computational fluid dynamic model is developed using ANSYS CFX for a wide span of flow rates and a number of shaft angular velocities. The variation of constituting parameters are examined using dimension-less descriptive parameters of flow, head and power coefficients, finally, the efficiency of the pump is examined. In this analysis, sst-k-w turbulent model is employed which is a combination of two different models for pumps and turbomachines. Numerical results show that prolonged cooling duty cycles of the vehicle should accompany a flow factor of 10%. In addition, the peak of the vehicle’s loading should match the maximum efficiency of the pump that can be increased to 62% by augmentation of flow rate and flow coefficient.
Mr Mohsen Motaharinezhad, Dr. Abbas Rahi,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (3-2019)
Abstract

In internal combustion engines, exhaust valve and its seat gain considerable temperature as the hot gases exit through them. So, the rate of heat transfer should be under control. In this study, the contact heat transfer coefficient has been estimated. An experimental study on an Air-Cooled internal combustion engine cylinder head has been considered. Using the measured temperatures of sensors located in specific locations of the exhaust valve and the seat and the method of linear extrapolation, the surface contact temperatures and constant and periodic contact heat transfer coefficient were calculated. Also, a sensitivity analysis has been done to study the effects of different parameters of contact pressure, contact frequency, heat flux and cooling air speed on thermal contact conductance. The results show that between the major four considered parameters, the thermal contact conductance is more sensitive to the contact pressure, then the contact frequency, heat flux and the cooling air speed are the most affecting parameters on thermal contact resistance.
Dr Behrooz Mashhadi, Dr Amirhasan Kakaee, Mr Ahmad Jafari,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (3-2019)
Abstract

In this research, a high-temperature Rankin cycle (HTRC) with two-stage pumping is presented and investigated. In this cycle, two different pressures and mass flow rates in the HTRC result in two advantages. First, the possibility of direct recovery from the engine block by working fluid of water, which is a low quality waste heat source, is created in a HTRC. Secondly, by doing this, the mean effective temperature of heat addition increases, and hence the efficiency of the Rankin cycle also improves.
The proposed cycle was examined with the thermodynamic model. The results showed that in a HTRC with a two-stage pumping with an increase of 8% in the mean effective temperature of heat addition, the cycle efficiency is slightly improved. Although the operational work obtained from the waste heat recovery from the engine cooling system was insignificant, the effect of the innovation on the recovery from the exhaust was significant. The innovation seems not economical for this low produced energy. However, it should be said that although the effect of the innovation on the increase of the recovery cycle efficiency is low, the changes that must be implemented in the system are also low. 
Dr Amirhasan Kakaee, Mr Mohammadreza Karami,
Volume 9, Issue 2 (6-2019)
Abstract

In this study, modeling of a fuel jet which has been injected by high pressure into a low-pressure tank are investigated. Due to the initial conditions and the geometry of this case and similar cases (like CNG injectors in internal combustion engines (ICE)), the barrel shocks and Mach disk are observed. Hence a turbulence and transient flow will be expected with lots of shocks and waves. According to the increasing usage of this type of injectors in ICE, more studies should be conducted to find the most accurate and beneficial models for modeling this phenomenon.

In order to find an accurate and beneficial turbulence model ,in this study, three Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) turbulence models (SST k-ω, RNG and standard k ) and large eddy simulation (LES) turbulence model were compared by the fuel jet characteristics in three regions (outlet of the nozzle, at Mach disk and at the downstream of the flow). Although the LES model needs more time for each test, the results are more reliable and accurate. On the other hand, RANS turbulence models have lots of errors (more than 10 percent) especially for predicting the characteristics of fuel jet at Mach disk.
Mrs Ghazal Etesami, Dr Mohammad Ebrahim Felezi, Prof Nader Nariman-Zadeh,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (9-2019)
Abstract

The present paper aims to improve the dynamical balancing of a slider-crank mechanism. This mechanism has been widely used in internal combustion engines, especially vehicle engines; hence, its dynamical balancing is important significantly. To have a full balance mechanism, the shaking forces and shaking moment of foundations should be eliminated completely. However, this elimination is usually impossible. Hence, in the current study, a multi-objective optimization is carried out to maintain the optimal balance of mechanism. The vertical and horizontal components of shaking forces and shaking moment are considered as objective functions. Also, the design variables are included the mass, the moment of inertia and the mass center location of mechanism links. The length of mechanism links is also considered constant for achieving a fixed slider course. The four-objective optimization is applied using a differential evolution algorithm. The optimization results are presented in Pareto diagrams as suitable tools for selecting a mechanism with desired characteristics according to the importance of each objective function. The optimal mechanism is finally introduced by the mapping method. The comparison of optimized mechanisms and the original one indicates a significant reduction of shaking forces and shaking moment as well as the reduction of energy consumption.


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