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Showing 16 results for Subject: Modern Powertrain (hybrid, electric, CNG, bio, ...)

A. Nemati, Sh. Khalilarya, S. Jafarmadar, H. Khatamnejhad, V. Fathi ,
Volume 1, Issue 1 (1-2011)
Abstract

Conventional compression ignition (CI) engines are known for their high thermal efficiency compared to spark ignited (SI) engines. Gasoline because of its higher ignition delay has much lower soot emission in comparison with diesel fuel. Using double injection strategy reduces the maximum heat release rate that leads to NOx emission reduction. In this paper, a numerical study of a gasoline fuelled heavy duty Caterpillar 3401 engine was conducted via three dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) procedures and compared with experimental data. The model results show a good agreement with experimental data. To have a better design the effect of injection characteristics such as, the main SOI timing, injection duration and nozzle hole size investigated on combustion and emissions and an optimized point find. The results suggest an optimization in injection characteristics for simultaneous reduction of NOx and soot emissions with negligible change in IMEP.
M. H. Shojaeefard, I. Sohrabiasl, E. Sarshari,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (6-2011)
Abstract

Intake system design as well as inlet ports and valves configuration is of paramount importance in the optimal performance of internal combustion engines. In the present study, the effect of inlet ports design is investigated on OM-457LA diesel engine by using a CFD analysis and the AVL-Fire code as well. A thermodynamic model of the whole engine equipped with a turbocharger and an intercooler is used to obtain the initial and boundary conditions of the inlet and outlet ports of the engine cylinder which are necessary for performing the three dimensional CFD analysis. The intake stroke as well as the compression and power strokes are included in this three dimensional CFD model. As a mean of validation the performance of the engine model with the base configuration of the inlet ports is compared to the experimental data. Two new alternative configurations for the inlet ports are then investigated with respect to the turbulence levels of the in-cylinder flow and the combustion characteristics as well. Finally it is demonstrated that applying the new configurations results in circa 75% reduction in nitric oxide formation besides increase of 32% in the in-cylinder flow swirl.


M. Bidarvatan, M. Shahbakhti, S.a. Jazayeri,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (5-2011)
Abstract

Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines hold promise of high fuel efficiency and low emission levels for future green vehicles. But in contrast to gasoline and diesel engines, HCCI engines suffer from lack of having direct means to initiate combustion. A combustion timing controller with robust tracking performance is the key requirement to leverage HCCI application in production vehicles. In this paper, a two-state control-oriented model is developed to predict HCCI combustion timing for a range of engine operation. The experimental validation of the model confirms the accuracy of the model for HCCI control applications. An optimal integral state feedback controller is designed to control the combustion timing by modulating the ratio of two fuels. Optimization methods are used in order to determine the controller’s parameters. The results demonstrate the designed controller can reach optimal combustion timing within about two engine cycles, while showing good robustness to physical disturbances.
M. Khanbabazadeh, S. Jafarmadar,
Volume 1, Issue 3 (5-2011)
Abstract

Multidimensional modelling of open-cycle process of OM355 engine was developed. Calculations for computational mesh were carried out. The results of the model were validated by experimentally measured in-cylinder pressure and the good agreement between calculations and measurements approved the trustworthy of numerical code. Results included pressure, temperature, emission and Rate of heat release diagrams were represented for the full cycle. Further more local flow field velocity vectors were indicated. The results show the importance of open-cycle simulations in automotive researches.
Dr. Ali Qasemian, Mr Pouria Azarikhah, Mr Sina Jenabi Haqparast,
Volume 8, Issue 2 (6-2018)
Abstract

The thermal balance analysis is a useful method to determine energy distribution and efficiency of internal combustion (IC) engines. In engines cooling concepts, estimation of heat transfer to brake power ratio, as one of the most significant performance characteristics, is highly demanded. In this paper, investigation of energy balance and derivation of specific heat rejection is carried out experimentally and numerically. Experiments are carried out on an air-cooled, single cylinder, four-stroke gasoline IC engine. The engine is simulated numerically and after validation with experimental data, the code is run to find out total and instantaneous thermal balance of engine. Results indicate that about one-third of fuel energy is converted to brake power and major part of energy is dissipated through exhaust and heat transfer. Experimental and numerical results show that by increasing engine speed, heat transfer to brake power ratio decreases. It is also observed that increasing engine speed leads to increase of exhaust power to brake power ratio. Finally two correlations for estimation of heat transfer and exhaust power to brake power ratios are obtained.
Amirhossein Moshrefi, Majid Shalchian,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (9-2018)
Abstract

Premature combustion that affects outputs, thermal efficiencies and lifetimes of internal combustion engine is called “knock effect”. However knock signal detection based on acoustic sensor is a challenging task due to existing of noise in the same frequency spectrum. Experimental results revealed that vibration signals, generated from knock, has certain frequencies related to vibration resonance modes of the combustion chamber. In this article, a new method for knock detection based on resonance frequency analysis of the knock sensor signal is introduced. More specifically at higher engine speed, where there is additional excitation of resonance frequencies, continuous wavelet transform has been proposed as an effective and applicative tool for knock detection and a formula for knock detection threshold based on this method is suggested. Measurement results demonstrate that this technique provide 15% higher accuracy in knock detection comparing to conventional method.


 
S. Ali Mirmohammadsadeghi, Dr. Kamyar Nikzadfar, Nima Bakhshinezhad, Dr. Alireza Fathi,
Volume 8, Issue 3 (9-2018)
Abstract

In order to lowering level of emissions of internal combustion engines (ICEs), they should be optimally controlled. However, ICEs operate under numerous operating conditions, which in turn makes it difficult to design controller for such nonlinear systems. In this article, a generalized unique controller for idle speed control under whole loading conditions is designed. In the current study, instead of tedious time-consuming trial-and-error based methods, soft computing techniques are employed to tune a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller which controls idle speed of engine. Since model based design technique is employed, a mean value model (MVM) is taken advantage due to its evidenced merits. Moreover, a brief introduction to the selected meta-heuristics is given followed by a flowchart to show how the engine model is linked to the optimization algorithms. A set point of 750 rpm is fed to the system, and the weighted sum of the three characteristics of mean squared error, control energy, and percent overshoot of the control system is set to the problem objective function to be minimized. It is evidenced that of all the examined meta-heuristics, Bees Algorithm (BA) converges to a better solution. Finally, to consider the effectiveness of the developed optimal controllers in disturbance rejection, they are implemented to the engine MVM model. The results of the research indicate, all the four optimally designed control systems, albeit the intermediate superiority, are of conspicuous success in compensating for the input disturbances of the load torque.
Sina Hassanzadeh Saraei, Shahram Khalilarya, Samad Jafarmadar, Saeed Takhtfirouzeh, Hadi Taghavifar,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2018)
Abstract

Pollutant emissions from diesel engines are significantly affected by fuel injection strategies that could reduce NOx and Soot emissions. For the first time and in this study, numerical simulations were performed to consider the influences of changing the injection duration in each pulse of the double injection strategies on in-cylinder parameters and pollutant emissions. Results confirmed that double injection strategies could influence the in-cylinder temperature, which leads to a reduction in NOx and soot emissions. Additionally, it is seen that decreasing the injection duration could increase the in-cylinder peak pressure and temperature. It could also reduce the soot emission owing to the better fuel atomization. Moreover, RATE+0.5CA case, which injection duration for each pulse increases 0.5 CA, was selected to be the optimum case in reduction of pollutant emissions.
 
Prof Mohammad Hasan Shojaeefard, Mrs Azadeh Sajedin, Dr. Abolfazl Khalkhali,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2018)
Abstract

Dual turbocharger turbine is fed by an unequal out-of-phase mass flow charge almost all the time which have significant effects on its performance parameters and flow phenomena which are not well known. Besides fully understanding the flow behavior in the radial turbine suffers from lack of detailed information about the secondary flows. This article studies the secondary flow structure within a dual entry turbine in different admission conditions. Results showed that with increasing the inequality of pressure ratio in the entries, performance of the turbine significantly decrease. From the results a profoundly disturbed flow in the interspace region was recognized. The pressure distribution of each limb shows some dependency between entries. To fully understand the flow physics, the 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was implemented and compared with the experimental results of Copeland et al. (2010). The results are used to study the physical origin and the effect of nonuniform mass flow on secondary vortices. The generation and the development of the inflow, horseshoe and the corner vortex was investigated by evaluating contour plot of velocity distribution. Results demonstrated that the inflow vortex is due to the asymmetrical flow into the passage from the volute.
Mr Mushtaq Ahmad Rather, Mohammad Marouf Wani,
Volume 8, Issue 4 (12-2018)
Abstract

In this paper, a computational in-cylinder analysis of HCCI diesel engine was carried out using IC Engine FORTE (ANSYS 18.2) software package. The analysis used pre-defined industry standard CHEMKIN format for specifying a chemical reaction mechanism during the combustion duration. The investigation was carried out for the effects of various EGR mass percentages on the thermal and emission characteristics of a diesel engine running on HCCI mode of combustion. It was observed that an increase in EGR concentration resulted in the decrease in peak in-cylinder pressure and temperature and it was also found that when the EGR rates were increased beyond 75% there was no combustion happening within the cylinder. A considerable decrease in the NOx emissions was found with an increase in EGR mass percentage with almost negligible values when the EGR rates were increased beyond 50%, however there was a slight increase in un-burnt hydrocarbons.
Mr Mohsen Motaharinezhad, Dr. Abbas Rahi,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (3-2019)
Abstract

In internal combustion engines, exhaust valve and its seat gain considerable temperature as the hot gases exit through them. So, the rate of heat transfer should be under control. In this study, the contact heat transfer coefficient has been estimated. An experimental study on an Air-Cooled internal combustion engine cylinder head has been considered. Using the measured temperatures of sensors located in specific locations of the exhaust valve and the seat and the method of linear extrapolation, the surface contact temperatures and constant and periodic contact heat transfer coefficient were calculated. Also, a sensitivity analysis has been done to study the effects of different parameters of contact pressure, contact frequency, heat flux and cooling air speed on thermal contact conductance. The results show that between the major four considered parameters, the thermal contact conductance is more sensitive to the contact pressure, then the contact frequency, heat flux and the cooling air speed are the most affecting parameters on thermal contact resistance.
Mr Meghdad Pishgooie, Seyed Masoud Hosseini Sarvari, Seyed Hossein Mansouri,
Volume 9, Issue 1 (3-2019)
Abstract

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of radiation heat transfer on temperature distribution and heat flux to the walls of a diesel engine. A diffusion flame is modeled in a simple cylindrical geometry and boundary conditions are defined. A specific solver which can model the turbulent diffusion flame by considering radiation in participating media is used to solve the problem. The solver is verified using experimental data of a furnace. The results show that with considering radiation and non-gray effects in the model, the flame temperature is calculated higher than that with ignoring these effects (about 11% in problem considered in this study).
 
Dr. Abbas Ghayebloo, Mr Amirreza Pourdasht,
Volume 9, Issue 3 (9-2019)
Abstract

In this paper an idea for hybridization of conventional vehicles has proposed. The case study performed on one of the common vehicles on country roads i.e. Samand. This vehicle has high production volume but low fuel performance therefore hybridization of it could be attractive for its manufacture. This paper aims that the hybridization idea and its structure to need minimum mechanical modifications. In consequence attractiveness of this idea for industry could be high. A cost optimization has been performed for sizing of additional components such as electric motors and battery modules and the simulation results has been adopted to verify the proposed idea for case study with hybrid simulation of GT-Suit and MATLAB softwares.      
Hamed Davardoust, Dr. Golamreza Molaeimanesh, Sepehr Mousavi,
Volume 10, Issue 1 (3-2020)
Abstract

Due to the increasing level of air pollution and the reduction of fossil fuels, the need for new technologies and alternative fuels is felt more than ever. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are one of these technologies, which have been of great interest to the researchers due to the benefits of non-contamination, high efficiency, fast start-up, and high power density. The proper functioning of the fuel cell requires thermal management and water management within the cells. To this end, in this work, the effect of different parameters on the performance of PEM fuel cell was investigated. The results demonstrated that the performance of the cell increases with increasing the pressure in the low current densities, while in the high current density, performance decreases with increasing the pressure of the cell. Also, the study of the effect of relative humidity shows that increasing the relative humidity of the cathode does not have much effect on the performance of the cell while increasing the relative humidity of the anode improves the performance of the cell.
Pouria Ahmadi, Hossein Gharaei, Mehdi Ashjaee,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (6-2020)
Abstract

This study uses real driving cycles of a city bus and a standard driving cycle “WLTP” to implement a full comparison for energy demand and fuel consumption for different propulsion systems (i.e., Diesel ICE, Fuel cell and Electric engines). To better understand the comparison, a life cycle assessment is conducted using “GREET” and “GHGenius” software, which represents a clear demonstration of side effects and emissions of each engine on the environment. The results show that for “WLTP” cycle the bus needs 2423kJ energy for traveling each kilometer while the averaged amount of energy for traveling one kilometer of real driving cycle reaches to 1708kJ. By computing total energy use of  an electric bus we conclude, electric buses use almost 58% of electric energy for driving and the rest is lost. Then fuel cell and internal combustion engine buses have energy efficiency of 36% and 24% respectively. Concerning LCA analysis, it becomes apparent that unlike efficiency, electric buses are not environmentally benign as fuel cell buses. LCA analysis showed that fuel cell buses that use steam reforming hydrogen production process are a cleaner option than electric buses. Finally, since diesel buses produce the most emission, especially CO2, and consume the most energy in the total life cycle, they have no advantage for public transportation fleet.
Mr. Arian Afrabandpey, Dr. Hashem Ghariblu,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (6-2020)
Abstract

To reduce the harmful effects of fuel based engines new technologies in automotive industries have introduced. Combination of novel ball continuously variable transmission and hybrid technologies with the advantages of optimum controlling of power sources in the vehicle are the main topic of this paper by preparing a model of transmission using GT-Suite software. In order to determine the operation and responses of the proposed transmission, different operational modes, along with different inputs in term of speed, torque and ratio are presented. This research successfully demonstrates a new type of transmission which is developed to enjoy the benefits of combining technologies in vehicle drivetrain that features high torque capacity and desirable drivability. Main achievement of this paper is to show the operational modes of this system as well as ability to mode alteration during vehicle operation. Various steady and transient modes are studied in this paper using multi body modeling and it shows HBCVT can eliminate most limitation of parallel hybrid systems.

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