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Showing 6 results for Hydrogen

M. H. Askari, S. M. Hoseinalipour, S. A. Jazayeri, M. Baghsheikhi,
Volume 1, Issue 2 (6-2011)

The HCCI combustion process is initiated due to auto-ignition of fuel/air mixture which is dominated by chemical kinetics and therefore fuel composition has a significant effect on engine operation and a detailed reaction mechanism is essential to analysis HCCI combustion. A single zone-model permits to have a detailed chemical kinetics modeling for practical fuels. In this study a single-zone thermodynamic model with detail chemical mechanism is developed to investigate the effect of hydrogen addition to natural gas in a homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion and to analyze the performance and emissions of the HCCI engine. The effect of five different percentage of hydrogen added to natural gas ranging from 0 to 40 on HCCI combustion is investigated in this study. The results indicate that by increasing hydrogen portion in intake mixture, start of combustion advances and maximum temperature increase, but increasing in maximum pressure is negligible. Carbon’s included emissions such as Co, Co2 and unburned hydrocarbons decreases by increasing of hydrogen, and also, specific fuel consumption decreases. The result shows that hydrogen improves combustion characteristics of natural gas in an HCCI engine and leads to better performance and less emissions.
Mr. Vahid Manshaei, Dr. Mohammad Javad Noroozi, Mr. Ali Shaafi,
Volume 10, Issue 2 (6-2020)

In this research, the separate and simultaneous effects of pilot-main injection dwell time, pilot fuel quantity, and hydrogen gas addition on combustion characteristics, emissions formation, and performance in a heavy-duty diesel engine were investigated. To conduct the numerical study, valid and reliable models such as KH-RT for the break-up, K-Zeta-F for turbulence, and also ECFM-3Z for combustion were used. The effects of thirty-one different strategies based on two variables such as pilot-main injection dwell time (20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 CA) and pilot fuel quantity (5, 10, and 15% of total fuel per cycle) on NDC and DHC were investigated. The obtained results showed that by decreasing pilot-main injection dwell time due to shorter combustion duration and higher MCP, MCT, and HRRPP, amounts of CO and soot emissions decreased at the expense of high NOx formation. Also, increasing pilot fuel quantity due to higher combustion temperature and less oxygen concentration for the main fuel injection event led to an increase of NOx and soot emissions simultaneously. The addition of H2 due to significant heating value has increased IP and improved ISFC at the expense of NOx emissions but considerably decreased CO and soot emissions simultaneously.
Shayan Sadeghi, Samane Ghandehariun,
Volume 10, Issue 3 (9-2020)

A comparative full life cycle assessment of a gasoline vehicle and a fuel cell vehicle (FCV) with five different fuel cycles including steam methane reforming (SMR), coal gasification, photovoltaic (PV), solar thermal, and grid-based electrolysis is presented in this paper. The results show that the total greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) are mainly found in the materials production and the component manufacturing stages of the FCV. Among various hydrogen production methods, the FCV with PV electrolysis has the lowest GHG emissions of 0.13 kg CO2 eq./km. The total GHG emissions of the gasoline vehicle are estimated as 0.30 kg CO2 eq./km mainly from the operation stage. An uncertainty analysis is carried out to assess the effects of variations of different input parameters on the total emissions. With a 95% level of confidence, the total emissions of the FCV with PV electrolysis is 0.18±0.05 kg CO2 eq./km. The component manufacturing and assembly stage drives the total GHG emissions uncertainty the most.
Dr Ali Keshavarz, Fereshteh Khodamrezaee, Dr Sadegh Seddighi, Sepide Sarmast,
Volume 10, Issue 4 (12-2020)

This work investigates the effects of hydrogen addition to compressed natural gas (CNG) on combustion characteristics and emission reduction using a closed cycle simulation with exact geometry of piston and cylinder head. The effect of equivalence ratio on combustion characteristic were investigated using a spark ignition (SI) engine fueled with CNG and addition of 10% vol, 15% vol and 20%vol hydrogen. Two different speed of 1500 and 3000 rpm have considered at full load condition. The modeling includes ECFM combustion model combined with K-ζ-f turbulent modeland has been done by AVL Fire software. Different volume fraction of Hydrogen with different excess air modeled and validated with experimental data. The validation procedure included in-cylinder pressure profile, maximum pressure, angle of maximum pressure, indicated mean effective pressure, and carbon monoxide (CO) emission showing a good agreement with the experimental results. The value of the peak pressure increases by hydrogen addition and it takes place sooner as the hydrogen volume fraction increases. However, the mean effective pressure drops 3.5%, 7% and 15% for HCNG 10, HCNG15 and HCNG20, respectively. CO emission decreases by increasing the hydrogen volume fraction. The results also indicate that hydrogen addition in lean combustion causes more CO reduction compared to the fuel-rich mixtures.
Dr Javad Zareei, Abbas Rohani,
Volume 11, Issue 2 (6-2021)

Diesel engines are the most trusted sources in the transportation industry. They are also widely used in the urban transportation system. Most pollutants are related to these engines. Therefore, it is important to increase the performance and reduce exhaust emissions of these engines. Alternative fuels are key to meeting upcoming targets.
An experimental and numerical study was performed to investigate the effect of diesel fuel and hydrogen addition to diesel fuel from 0 to 30% on performance and exhaust emissions. Also in this research for changing diesel fuel, an indirect injection engine converted to direct injection engine. The simulation study was conducted by Star cd codes and experimental investigation was carried out on a diesel engine (Perkins 1103A-33TG1), three- cylinders, and four-stroke with maximum engine power 72.3hp at 1800 rpm. The results from this study showed that the increase of hydrogen to diesel fuel improves the thermal efficiency, resulting in lower specific fuel consumption. Also, the results showed that adding hydrogen until 30%, the cylinder pressure increase by about 9% and occurred the delay of peak pressure about 8 degrees of a crank angle compared to diesel fuel. The other obtained results in emission with 30%H2+Diesel showed the soot emission reduced 11.3%, HC and CO reduced nearly 36%, but NOx increased by about 8.3% due to high combustion temperature.
Dr Ali Qasemian, Mr Sina Jenabihaghparast, Mr Pouria Azarikhah,
Volume 12, Issue 3 (9-2022)

In the current study, the hydrogen-addition influence on the performance of an SI engine using a gasoline-ethanol blend is investigated numerically. The simulation and validation of the model are carried out in order to evaluate the engine performance using conventional gasoline (G100) and the blend of gasoline and ethanol (G75E25). Furthermore, the hydrogen is added to the gasoline–ethanol blend (G50E25H25) to improve the engine thermal efficiency and reduce the amount of brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) which leads to the reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The brake specific carbon dioxide (BSCO2) is also studied in this paper. Results show that the addition of hydrogen increases the brake power and thermal efficiency, moderates the BSFC, and decreases the maximum temperature of combustion chamber which reduces the production of greenhouse gases as well as BSCO2. In comparison with pure gasoline, by using G50E25H25, the maximum temperature of in-cylinder gas decreased by 12.55%, 10.82%, and 13.43% at 2000, 4000, and 6000 rpm, respectively. It is also evaluated that the lowest amount of BSCO2 is related to G50E25H25 in most of the engine speeds. The bio-fuel of G75E25 and pure gasoline are placed in next positions, respectively.

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